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ple in his arguments. · Compare, “Of one thing I am perfectly clear : that it is not by deciding the suit but by compromising the difference that peace can be restored or kept.” Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol, W., II, 231. “Men cannot enjoy the rights of an uncivil and of a civil state together. That he may obtain justice, he gives up his right of determining what it is in points the most essential to him. That he may secure some liberty, he makes a surrender in trust of the whole of it.” Reflections on the Revolution in France, W., III, 310. “The rights of men in goverments are their advantages; and these are often in balances between differences of good, - in compromises sometimes between good and evil, and sometimes between evil and evil.” Ibid., 313. 62 33.

communion and fellowship. From the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England ; the beginning of the collect for All Saints' Day: “O Almighty God, who hast knit together thine elect in one communion and fellowship.”

63 2. immediate jewel of his soul. Compare Othello, iii, 3, 155, 156:

Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
Is the immediate jewel of their souls.

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“Our ruin will be disguised in profit, and the sale of a few wretched baubles will bribe a degenerate people to barter away the most precious jewel of their souls.” Fourth Letter on a Regicide Peace, W., VI, 98. a great house is apt. Compare Juvenal, Satires, v, 66:

Maxima quaeque domus servis est plena superbis,” Every great house is full of haughty slaves. 63 11.

improvement by disturbing. See 51 27, note. 63 16. cords of man. Compare Hosea, xi, 4 : “I drew them with cords of a man, with bands of love." 63 19.

cautions us. Aristotle, Ethics, i, 3: “It will be our endeavor to attain that accuracy which the nature of the subject admits; for perfection is not required in all the labors of the mind any more than in all the works of the hand. Political justice or virtue seems liable to this uncertainty. . In matters so little stable we must be contented, therefore, with catching the general features of truth ; and our conclusions will deserve to be approved, if in most cases they are found to be useful and applicable ; for it is the part of wisdom to be satisfied in each subject with that kind of evidence which the nature of the subject allows; it not being less absurd to require demonstrations from an orator than to be contented with probabilities from a mathematician.” Gillies's Translation, London, 1813, I, 242.

63 25. superintending legislature. See 34 2, note.

65 2.

64 2. unity of the empire. On January 20, during the debate on Lord Chatham's motion to withdraw the troops from Boston, the Earl of Rochford held that the “unity of the empire should supersede every inferior consideration, because on that its prosperity, stability, and external grandeur immediately depended”; and he felt that any yielding would destroy this unity. P. H., 166. In another debate of February 7, Lord Lyttelton “contended for the universality and unity of the British Empire.” Ibid., 276.

64 10. separate. The separate Parliament for Ireland was abolished in 1800. See Green, IV, 338.

64 24. promised. See 9 2–3.
64 25. proposition. See 7 13, note.
64 32. having already debated. See 8 8, note.

64 33. before the committee. When the whole house sat as a committee on the bill, February 20. P. H., 319-338.

mere project. See 6 15, note. 65 6. Experimentum in corpore vili. Commonly, Fiat experimentum in corpore vili, Let us make the experiment on something worthless. 65 12.

antechamber of the noble lord. In the cabinet or a committee of it.

65 15. state auctioneer. See 8 8, note. 65 27. quarrelling.

See 8 5. 65 33. complain. See 36 22, note. 66 29. composition. Adjustment or agreement.

67 8. English revenue. England derived revenue from an import duty on tobacco, and also dealt largely in this commodity with foreign countries. 67 21.

confound the innocent. When the Restraining Bill was proposed (see 3 8, note) the objection was at once raised by Mr. Dunning that New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut ought not to be included in the punishment of Massachusetts. P. H., 300. On February 28 a petition was presented from the Quakers, saying that on Nantucket about 4 500 members of that sect, “entirely innocent in respect to the present disturbances in America,” “would be exposed to all the hardships of famine.” Ibid., 383. On the same day a number of witnesses were examined, and Mr. David Barclay, agent for the committee of North American merchants, summed up the evidence as showing that “a great number of innocent subjects (would) undergo a punishment which they do not deserve, as by their occupation the majority of them are the most part of the year at sea, and consequently must have been absent from disturbances at home.” Ibid., 384. On March 6 “Mr. T. Townshend urged the cruelty and injustice of an act which made no discrimination between innocence

68 20.

68 32.

69 10.

and guilt.” Ibid., 387. On March 15 the same evidence and on March 16 and 21 much the same arguments were offered in the Lords. Ibid., 421-461.

68 2. treasury extent. A writ for valuing lands to satisfy a debt to the crown.

68 10. quotas and contingents. Apportioned to the several states. 68 17. breaking the union. See 7 13, note.

their taste. On the very day that Lord North introduced his so-called proposition for conciliating America, February 20, he said : “I agree, Sir, that it is very probable the propositions contained in this resolution may not be acceptable to the Americans in general.” P. H., 334.

certain colonies only. See 7 13, note. 69 4. long discourse. Three hours.

mean to spare it. Before the year 1775 closed, Burke must have spoken at least a dozen times more on America; and on November 16 he offered another bill for conciliating the colonies. P. H., 963.

69 12. steadily opposed. In nearly every debate on American affairs Burke had spoken more or less at length in behalf of the colonies.

69 27. Posita luditur arca. The chest (that is, the whole fortune) is put up as a stake. Juvenal, Satires, i, 90. See 5 26, note. 69 31.

debt. An evidence of the strength of the credit of the government.

70 29. Ease would retract. Paradise Lost, iv, 96, 97. Burke has substituted retract for the original recant.

70 33. immense, ever-growing, eternal debt. Compare Paradise Lost, iv, 52, “The debt immense of endless gratitude.” 71 12.

return in loan. “ The Bengal famine of 1770 was followed by Lord North’s Regulating Act, by which, in exchange for the loan of a million which the company required and the remission of the annual payment to the government of £400,000 a year, a new council was appointed by Parliament; a supreme court, of which the judges were appointed by the crown, was established ; and the governor of Bengal was made governor-general of India.” Low and Pulling's Dictionary of English History, London, 1884, 398, 399. The reference was well calculated to appeal to Burke's listeners, because for the last five years Parliament had spent a great deal of time over the affairs of India and the East India Company. This powerful corporation was organized in 1600 and did not finally go out of existence till 1873.

71 17. taxable objects. See 67 8, note.
71 26. enemies. See 18 22, note.
71 34. light as air. Compare Othello, iii, 3, 322–324 :

Trifles light as air
Are to the jealous confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ.

links of iron. Compare Julius Caesar, i, 3, 94, 95 :

Nor airless dungeon nor strong links of iron
Can be retentive to the strength of spirit.

72 12.

72 2. grapple to you. Compare Hamlet, i, 3, 63 : “Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel.” 72 10. sacred temple. See 50 10.

turn their faces. An allusion to a practice which the Jews, the “chosen race," observed of turning their faces toward Jerusalem to worship. See I Kings, viii, 44, 45: “ If thy people go out to battle against their enemy, whithersoever thou shalt send them, and shall pray unto the Lord toward the city which thou hast chosen and toward the house that I have built for thy name, then hear thou in heaven their prayer and their supplication, and maintain their cause.'

72 20. of price. Compare Matthew, xiii, 46: “Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had and bought it.”

72 28. sufferances. Permits. cockets. Sealed certificates that the duties have been paid on goods.

73 1. spirit. Compare Aeneid, vi, 726, 727 :

Spiritus intus alit ; totamque insusus per artus,
Mens agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscit.

One common soul
Inspires and feeds and animates the whole.
This active mind infus'd through all the space
Unites and mingles with the mighty mass.

Dryden's Translation, 982–985.

73 6. Land Tax Act. An act annually passed for raising revenue.

73 9. Mutiny Bill. In order to keep the army under control of Parliament, two bills were passed annually : one for military supply, and the Mutiny Bill, providing for the trial of soldiers by military law.

73 17. profane herd. Compare Horace, Odes, iii, 1, 1.: “Odi profanum vulgus et arceo," I hate the profane herd and drive it from me.

73 25. all in all. Compare I Corinthians, xv, 28: “That God may be all in all.”

73 29. auspicate. To give a favorable turn to in commencing, - a sense derived from the Roman practice of taking the auspicium, or inspection of birds, before entering upon any important business.

73 31. Sursum corda. In the mass of the Church of Rome this phrase, or in the communion service of the Church of England the equivalent, “ Lift up your hearts,” is used just before the priest turns to the altar to consecrate the elements.

73 34. high calling. Compare Philippians, iii, 14: “I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.”

74 9. quod felix. May it be happy and prosperous.
74 17. previous question. The motion for closing debate.

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