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MISCELLANEOUS

AND

POSTHUMOUS

WORKS

OF

HENRY THOMAS BUCKLE

VOL. III.

LOX DOX: PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE

AXD PARLIAMENT STREET

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COMMON PLACE BOOK.

1438. THE USE OF THE PLOUGH KNOWN TO THE ANCIENT

EGYPTIANS. Heeren (African Nations, vol. i. p. 60) observes that in consequence of the inundation of the Nile, the soil, thus manured by slime,“ requires only to be sowed, digging or ploughing being alike unnecessary.” But he adds (p. 61), “ The use of the plough, however, in the cultivation of the soil, has not remained unknown in Egypt; it is met with on the monuments." See also vol. ii. p. 158, where Heeren observes that the sower is represented as walking before the plough, from which he infers that it was used as we employ the barrow, to cover the strewed seed (and see pp. 344, 345).

On this head the modern Arabs have not much to boast of (see Wellsteď'Travels in Arabia, 8vo, 1838, vol. i. p. 281). Mr. Rae has some ingenious remarks on the origin of the plough (New Principles of Economy, Boston, 8vo, 1834, pp. 227–229). He says that the cause of its improveinent has been the transfer of it from one country to another, where the soil being different, necessity has produced invention by acting on experience. Chevenix is hasty and superficial (Essay on National Character, 8vo, 1832, vol. ii. p. 5). The Javanese plough is described in Crawford's History of the Indian Archipelago, Edinb. 8vo, 1820, vol. i. p. 348.

1439. ORIGIN OF THE NOMES OR DISTRICTS OF EGYPT. See Heeren's African Nations, Oxford, 8vo, 1838, vol. ii. pp. 108-112. He says they were originally temples round which cities were formed.

1440. THE HYKSOS OR SHEPHERD KINGS OF EGYPT. See Heeren's African Nations, Oxford, 1838, vol. ii. He says (p. 114) that the name is explained by Manetho, Hyk, king, and - VOL. II.

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