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tantism. At Marburg, Jena, Königs- sity was added to the old list - and berg, and Helmstädt, universities of a those which existed divided themselves professedly Protestant character were into two opposite camps. Whilst the erected. These schools became the Saxon, the Prussian, and all the cradle and nurseries of the Reforma- Northern Universities proclaimed Protion; and, humanly speaking, it may testant principles, the Roman Cabe said that the regeneration of Chris- tholic States of Germany, such as tian faith, in those times, was, on Austria and Bavaria, made their Uni. the Continent at least, the work of the versities strictly orthodox schools ; German Universities. Nor can this, they were not able to do so without by any means, be considered as an ac- cutting down the liberty of teaching cidental merit of theirs. On the con- and learning in a great many instances, trary, there can be no doubt that the and without reducing them to a kind organic principle of the German Uni. of seminaries, with close inspection versities, given as it was at the erection and superintendence from their governof Prague, and faithfully preserved in ments. Though the Protestant princes all the subsequent universities — we kept themselves not always free froin mean their unrestricted independence the reproach of having interfered with of teaching and learning — was, as it the learned schools of their countries, were, a preliminary, if not the direct yet they allowed them throughout to cause of the Reformation. Though retain their original organic principles, England, at that time, had her Ox. and dictated to their professors no ford and her Cambridge, though she creed, to their students, no mode of had had her Wicliffe, her Thomas learning. Some decided improvements More, yet the impulse of the Re- were gradually introduced, the most formation came to her less from her important of which was certainly the own universities than from Germany. abolition of the Latin language in UniWhile King Henry VIII, engaged in versity lectures, and the institution of a dispute with Luther, Cranmer and the German tongue in its stead - a his fellows turned their eyes to Ger- merit which is due to the University many; the reformers mostly looked to of Halle and its professors. it for information on the questions that The political struggles of Germany had begun to sway their minds. But called her Universities repeatedly again whilst in Germany, the universities, into the foreground. Thus, when the backed by the people at large, carried French invaded the country, and conthe Reformation against the Emperor quered a great part of the Prussian and the temporal powers; England, provinces, in consequence of the battle where the universities, as bodies, were of Jena, the German Universities, and more subject to traditional rule and particularly Halle, became the haunts authority, took in the beginning only of the national party. The armies of a secondary part in the cause of the Blücher, and the Black Band of LûtReformation, and made it its own only zow and Körner chiefly consisted of in proportion as the changeable views German students, who, in their enthuof the sovereigns of the country im- siastic patriotism, had taken an oath posed upon them the necessity of to accept no quarter from a Frencheither acquiescing or opposing its man, and to give none; but not to movements.

rest till the foe was expelled from the Unfortunately the German Univer- land. It is chiefly with such soldiers sities lost in the next centuries a great that the battles of Katzbach, Leipzig, part of their lustre and renown; not Montmartre, and at last of Waterloo, ihat they had become unfaithful to were fought, and the yoke of the their mission, and renounced at any French usurper was ultimately broken. time their task ; but the country was During the late internal struggles of in general unbappy—and we must not Germany, the Universities took again wonder if, during a long period of con- the lead, as champions of civil freedom. tinual slaugbter and ravages, we find It was not likely that institutions, so the thirst of knowledge subsiding, and intimately connected with the progress people less eager to frequent or pro- and intellectual improvement of Their mote those seats of learning which country, should have espoused another had brought on them, together with cause than that of liberty and of soall the light they had given, so much cial advancement. But their party dissension and strife. No new univer. has as yet been too weak; and the princes found means to counteract and tant seminary for Protestant divinity defeat the bold projects of the Berlin joined to its University. Its divines and Vienna students by their cannons form a distinct and imposing school of and their regular armies. It behoves

their own.

Giessen boasts of that us best to leave future events and im- greatest chemist of the age, Liebig. partial historiography either to justify Jena was till lately ill reputed in Geror to condemn the policy which the many, on account of the democratical German academies of 1848 and 1849 and dissolute tone of its students. adopted, and not to pronounce, from Leipzig, adorned by many great names, our own feelings or reminiscences, a has lately lost one of the first scholars sentence which might appear one-sided in G. Hermann, the veteran of classical to part of our readers.

erudition. Kiel, Rostock, Marburg, It is universally admitted that the have establishments by no means to be seven Prussian Universities take a pro- despised, though they may not rank minent rank amongst those of Ĝer- with those first mentioned. many. The largest, and yet the most The Universities of the Southern recent of them, is that of Berlin. It and Roman Catholic districts of Gerwas erected in 1810 by the late King many are very different from the ProFrederick William III., and has had testant Universities. Their system is the most illustrious names amongst its far more authoritative, their discipline professors—such as F. A. Wolff, Lach- more severe, their instruction more in. mann, Böckh, Zumpt, J. Bekker, fluenced by the secular and ecclesias. among scholars; Rose, Mitzscherlich, tical powers. Bavaria has three uniEhrenberg, Encke, Lichtenstein, on na- versities – Munich, Würzburg, and tural sciences; Schleiermacher, De Erlangen. Austria has nine, amongst Wette, Neander, Hengstenberg, in which Vienna and Prague take decidivinity; Müller and Dieffenbach, dedly the lead. Olmutz, Gratz, and amongst physicians; and Fichte, Schel- Inspruck are situated in the different ling, and Hegel, among its philoso. German parts; Pesth and Lemberg phers. It has also the largest num- in the Hungarian and Slavonic domiber of students, amounting at present nions; two, namely, Pavia and Padua, to about 2,400, of whom only 1,800 in the Italian provinces of the Austrian may be said to frequent it with the empire. All these establishments canview of perfecting themselves in one not be said to possess the organic of the learned professions. Next to principles with which the German Berlin in point of numbers rank Bres- Universities first arose, and which lau, Bonn, Halle, of between 700 and still characterise the Protestant dis1,000 students; finally, Königsberg, tricts. The governments, being afraid Greifswalde, and Münster, of between of the consequences that might attend 200 and 400 students. Names like the existence of independent educathose of Bessel, Argelander, Niebuhr, tional institutions, rescinded the liberty Gesenius, Nitzsch, and Tholuck, will, of teaching and learning, and kept to mention only a few of their stars, both students and professors under sufficiently establish their claims to in. strict superintendence. Though they tellectual merit. But others of the did not altogether abandon the lecture German States boast of universities

system, yet they submitted the acadehighly noted for their success. Thus micians to an infinite number of obliHeidelberg adds the charms of a de. gations and restrictions, concerning lightful neighbourliood to the excellent their studies as well as their mode of resources it offers for educational pur- living. All students' associations poses, and this baş sometimes the are forbidden and suppressed—a regueffect of inducing the academicians who lar attendance and periodical examifrequent it to turn the former of these nation required - every tendency that advantages to a far greater account does not coincide with absolutism in than the latter. Göttingen, where matters temporal, and with the infalLeibnitz and Luden once taught, was lible authority of Rome in things erected by George II: King of Engi spiritual, is excluded; and wherever

. . It it faces the light of day, silenced by was always famous in the classical and immediate removal from the Univerhistorical departments. Tubingen, in sity, or by confinement within the the kingdom of Würtemberg, has, prison-walls of an Austrian citadel amongst other excellencies, an impor. those walls that closed themselves

for seven years on the poor Silvio all direct intercourse between the stuPellico. The professorships are for a dent and his teacher, who in most great part in the hands of Jesuits; and cases remain perfect strangers to each invisible spies surround the youth in other, as they both live out somewhere his amusements and conversations. in the town, and repair to the UniverSuch a system could, of course, but sity but for the few daily hours that have the effect of crippling these insti. their lectures last. tutions. And, in fact, it seems almost We will cast a closer glance at the as if an intellectual curse lay on mode of instruction. Travellers on the Austrian Univerities; for though the Continent, who have stopped but Vienna and Prague, as well as Munich half a day or more at Bonn, Heidel. in Bavaria, are better frequented and berg, or Berlin, and have visited the less obscure establishments than the Universities of these places, will, perrest of the Roman Catholic Universi. haps, remember the crowds of students ties in Germany, yet none of them walking up and down the passages, can exhibit such a succession of literary along the walks, bocages, or alleys in and scientific celebrities, or

men of

or near those buildings. When the such general European renown as the clock has struck, they retire into the Protestant Universities of the North. balls. Fifteen or twenty minutes are When could ever genius and originality usually allowed for assembling. In of thought prosper under the iron rod the meantime every man takes his of despotism, or amidst the espionage seat on one of the forms, puts his hat of police scouts? And how can the or bonnet by his side, unfolds his small young be inspired with a genuine love portfolio, and produces an inkhorn, of knowledge and research, if they see armed below with a sharp iron spike, their teachers submit, either willingly by which he fixes it firmly in the or unwillingly, to the dictates of an wooden desk before him. At length imperious and tyrannical govern- the professor comes out of the profesment?

sors' room, and walks up to the ros Having thus enumerated the Uni- trum to take his chair. He addresses versities of Germany, it will now be his audience with “ Meine Herren,” our first and principal business to ex and delivers his lecture, either reading plain the nature of these institu- or speaking extempore. A few introtions, and to elucidate the chief ductory remarks usually precede, in characteristics which distinguish them order to connect the lecture of the day from the British Universities. These with the last, whereupon the professor latter have, from their earliest proceeds with his subject. This is the time, retained a system of their moment when the students take up own, which we may shortly call their pens and begin to put down the Tutorial system. With this the notes in their books. Some write German University system, the pro- down in short-hand every word and fessorial or lecture system,

syllable that drops from the lips may denominate it, forms the widest of their Mentor with a scrupulouscontrast possible. In Germany, an ness that amounts to superstition. University affords the student no oc- Others select merely the more valuable casion for tuition. It is but a place crumbs that strike their ears. A few for public lectures, which those who affect a sovereign contempt for learnchoose may attend. As there is no ing by goose - quills and oak-appletuition, there are no classes, no tutors juice, and appear only listening with or fellows; in short there are only pro- profound attention. All seem scribfessors who deliver the lectures, and bling, hearing, and learning for threestudents who attend them as their au- quarters of an hour; when the Uni. dience. Thus, instead of a variety of versity clock strikes again the magical colleges, we find in a German University three sounds, the professor shuts his town only one large building, with a book, the students wipe their pens, great number of halls (Hörsäle), where, take hat, inkhorn and portfolio, and at an hour previously announced by every one strives to gain the door, to each professor, he meets those students return to his lodgings or to attend who have declared, or mean to declare, another lecture. their intention to attend his lecture. This process, daily repeated, includes The reader must discard from bis ima. all the teaching of a German Univer. gination all compulsion to learn, and sity. There are, it is true, attached



to some lectures, a few meetings of a toits own unprejudiced bent, and to give somewhat different nature, in which his individuality a full and open field, the students, under the presidency of It would be impossible that the loose a professor, explain or discuss chosen and independent relation between the passages from sacred or classical au. German student and his professor thors, from medical writers, or ancient could prove salutary to the former, lawyers : here essays are written and and satisfactory to the latter, if the criticised by each member in turn ; student had not attained a high degree and government or the University have of mental maturity previously

to his enappointed prizes to those of particu- tering on his University course. This lar merit. “But these meetings (called is a consideration of the highest imSeminare) are attended only by few, portance, if we will appreciate corand chietly by poor students; whilst rectly the German college system. the great majority of academicians Therefore we have to remind our never think of visiting them, and de- readers that a German student has prerive all their college instruction from viously been educated at a German the lectures solely.

gymnasium, and has there been duly The lecture-system of the German prepared for the University, during a Universities, as we have described it, space of nine years. For no student has been imitated in a great many in- is admitted who has not delivered up stitutions out of Germany, with diffe- at his matriculation an authentic testi. rent success. In most instances it has monial from his gymnasium that he been thought advisable to combine it has passed the established final exawith other methods which might bet- mination in presence of the examinter ensure or ascertain what progress ers duly appointed, and before the the student has made, and whether he Royal Commissioner sent for that purhas really profited by the oral deliveries pose. All the elementary part of eduat which he has been present. With cation, and a great part of what is such modifications it has been adopted taught at college in England, has been at the Scotch Universities, at London thoroughly acquired by the German University, in several Russian, Dutch, student at one of the gymnasia, which and some German high schools. How- are all equally well fitted for preparing ever wise and well-calculated these al- for University life, and form, in fact, terations may have been in particular the natural basis of the Universities. cases, and for the especial views of They combine an extensive and mesuch establishments, they must be con- thodical instruction with a strict dissidered as deviations from the peculiar cipline. From his tenth to his twen. purpose and tendency with which the tieth year, the student has there been lecture system is practised and upheld well trained, and as it were drilled, by by the principal German Universities, question and answer, by daily tasks where it exists in its purest and un- and weekly lessons, by written exer. altered nature. The principal aim cises and memorial repetitions in one and merit of this method is to offer the word, by all the hacknied machinery most independent and least authorita- of school tuition. In removing to coltive mode of teaching, and to induce lege, he becomes emancipated from the student, by means of an animated such intellectual guardianship; and, and highly suggestive discourse, to ex- with the jacket, he has also left his ert his own individual judgment and years of mental minority behind him. industry, without the interference of Henceforth he is bidden to avail himhis professor. It omits all direct tui- self of the means of intellectual imtion, in order to produce self-tuition ; provement, without any direct guidit avoids all compulsion to learn, all ance or interference of a master. He ushering, all superintendence, in order chooses his particular vocation out of to leave an entirely voluntary applica- the four learned professions - a most tion as the only spring of intellectual important step which precedes his maimprovement; it refrains from examin- triculation. He chooses the lectures ing the student, from testing his in- wbich he will attend, and the profesdustry, from influencing or guiding sors whom he will hear. He lives in more directly his studies, in order not complete independence outwardly and to prepossess bis mind with a dog- mentally, and is entirely master of bis matical bias, or one particular school actions and of the use he will make of doctrine, but rather to leave his genius his time.

Thus, it appears that the profes- without being in time made aware of sorial University system is based on it, we cannot say that the Universities the supposition that the student has fulál their task. To this we can only attained already a high degree of moral answer, that the German Universities and intellectual maturity ; it can only are not, properly speaking, educating sncceed under this condition,

We institutions in the same sense as the must bear this in mind, whilst we re- English colleges of Oxford and Cam. flect on its efficiency. Lectures can- bridge. As they do not pledge themnot, by any means, be considered as selves to educate young men, they the most efficient mode of teaching; cannot be justly reproached with misswe have not the slightest hesitation in ing that aim. Their design is but to admitting this. Indeed, how can a afford young men the best possible optransaction, which assigns to the hearer portunity for acquiring knowledge by a merely passive part, claim any high their own efforts, and they should only effect in imparting knowledge But be judged according to this their prowe must remember that the purpose of fessed purpose. And let their history, University lectures is rather to suggest let a glance at their actual state, show thoughts, and to produce or direct self- whether they have misunderstood their exertion, than to inculcate certain task, and whether they have overrated principles. They afford to the pro- the self-educating abilities of the youth fessor an opportunity for laying down they have had to deal with. his views in an eloquent manner, and Some English writers, as Coleridge, for expounding, in a connected deli- have described the German lecture very, and before an intelligent and system, in a sarcastic way, as a great unbiassed audience, the fruits of his waste of ink and paper. They have life-long researches, which he could been at a loss to conceive why a numnot do by instruction in the shape of ber of persons should meet to put lessons, or by doctrinal and practical down notes from the mouth of a protuition. At the same time he can give fessor, whilst they might ask him to the student all the necessary hints send his lectures to the press, and that are needed to introduce him to might thus, for a couple of shillings, his science; he will, of course, never purchase all bis wisdom in plain legiforget to mention the sources and au- ble print, and peruse it at home at thorities whence further information leisure, as if we lived yet in the middle may be drawn; he can advise the ages, or as if Jansen's art had never student what he must read, give him been discovered ? Even in Germany his criticism on publications or former the mechanical use of the pen bas often doctrines on the subject, and thus a been censured, and we have often heard lecture cannot fail to become, in truth, a few lines quoted, which are exquia sign-post which shows him the way sitely illustrative of the difference beinto the realms of knowledge. More tween writing and knowing the sumthan this is not intended by the lec- mary of a lecture :-tures, for all the toil and responsibility

** Der Studio muss in 's Collegium, of learning, which in the English col.

Dass er die Wissenschaft allda erschnappe, leges and in other schools is for a Und, ist der Weg zur Weisheit noch so krumm,

Er trägt sie fort, in seiner Mappe." great part borne by the tutors, masters, or fellows, devolves in Germany " For lectures sound the student's bound, on the student alone. The student Deep wisdom not to catch ill,

And when it's caught, his head knows nought, is not submitted to any test of his im

It only fills his satchel." provements until he either desires to pass bis examination for a degree, or However, they who think thus are for his capacity for holding office, apt to overlook the great advantages which latter examination is not the which oral demonstrations offer over business of a German University. written or printed expositions. Our

It may be said, that institutions memory and our imagination receive which thus decline to offer a guarantee infinitely deeper and more lasting imfor the success of education cannot be pressions froin a discourse which is possessed of a praiseworthy method; held in our presence by a person in for if nothing prevents the student whom a science is, as it were, embofrom remaining in utter ignorance all died, than from books on the same the time of his University course, if he subject. We might quote an ancient may miss the object of his staying, authority for this truth, out of Plato's

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