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opinion that these difficulties will be party, in opposition to that of the other overcome, arguing from its being the Lords Justices ; while they, on their interest of all parties to have “a good side, continued as inflexibly opposed settlement," " and interest can never as ever to all those who sought, under lie;" but, at the same time, hints the cover of Protestant zeal, to agthat there are some members of the grandise themselves at the expense of Privy Council, and judges," whose the public faith. The Chancellor and private interest lies the other way, and Sir Richard Cox, their most powerful who, therefore, threaten to oppose supporters, themselves possessed contheir Majesties in Parliament, in order siderable personal influence. They that it may not be assembled. This were known and esteemed by the king, points at Porter and Cox, as events and had energetic friends amongst his subsequently showed ; and the De- closest favourites. Lord Romney, who puty artfully places them before the had knighted the latter in the Castle royal pair in the light of men who of Dublin, had not forgotten his serwilfully stand in the way of “a good vices in the crisis of 1691,* and kept agreement” between them and their alive in William's breast the recollecpeople.
tion of one who had borne the sword Having thus depreciated the mo- of a soldier, as well as of justice, in tives of both parties, he approaches his service; and Sir Robert Southwell, the Articles; and instead of acknow- " than whom," says Harris, " the ledging that he was himself pledged world could not show a man of more to those who sought to relax them, he religion, virtue, and wisdom,” and merely glances at the likelihood of the whose influence in Irish affairs was alfirst and sixth meeting “ with some ways considerable, constantly patronopposition," putting, in fact, into the ised a man whose efforts for the enmouths of imaginary objectors those couragement of Irish trade and manu. very arguments he had, no doubt, at factures brought him into familiar the time sanctioned as his own-ar- contact, as well with him as with that guments, too, which by no means em- indefatigable industrial economist, Sir braced all that he was ready to con- Thomas Southwell. Against such a cede to the party. He leaves it to be weight of integrity it needed the exerunderstood, by the concluding sentence cise of all Capel's ingenuity to mainof the passage, that even these points tain an effective resistance. But he would not be pressed, which is the ob- had two potent engines at his disposal. vious meaning of his statement, that An intense feeling of fear and insecumembers would have “a due regard to rity pervaded the mass of Protestants the King's honour,” since it consisted, in Ireland, kept alive by the recollecaccording to the King's own interpre- tion of recent dangers and recent tation, in maintaining the Articles in- escapes; so that men who possessed violate.
less firmness and elevation of character Finally, he suggests, as likely to be than Porter and his associates, scarceagreeable to their Majesties, that Par- ly dared even to be just. And in liament might meet as soon as conve- the breasts of William and Mary an nient, for the passing of the most equally active desire existed to relieve pressing measures, such as money, England from the prospect of being bills; and be adjourned, if it exhibited obliged to bear the burden of the Irish a refractory disposition, until after the establishment, which the want of parmeeting of the English Parliament, liamentary supplies would at last renwhich might then exercise due control, der unavoidable. By making both of if necessary, over any extravagancies. these work in the same direction, Ca
What effect these conflicting letters pel hoped to bear down the national produced upon the royal mind at the assumption, on the one hand, and the time we are not informed. But it royal scruples on the other. This was is certain that in the interval between only to be done by pursuing to extrethis period and the following spring, mity the policy he had struck out at Capel was assiduously occupied in first. By no other means could be strengthening and organising his own expect to obtain a majority in the
* Harris, " William III.," 211.
Commons for the purposes of Govern- ters were signed by him at Kensington, ment, than by yielding the Articles of containing dismissals and appointments Limerick to parliamentary revision, in the Irish department,t to be placed for the purposes of those individuals of in the hands of Lord Capel, now, by which the House was composed. letters patent, passed only the day
It was impossible, Capel saw pro- previous, Lord Deputy of Ireland. bably with some satisfaction, to effect Invested with this dignity, so long these objects without greater powers the object of his ambition, and armed than he possessed. These powers he with the authority of the king's letter, saw equally clearly could not be ob. besides carte blanche to make what tained without personal exertions, only further changes their Majestie's inteto be made on the spot; but it was, rests might require, Lord Capel renevertheless, the spring of the next turned in triumph to Ireland, and was year (1695) before we find him passing sworn Lord Deputy at the Castle of over, by license, into England, and re- Dublin, on the 27th of May. The pairing to Kensington to the presence changes sanctioned by the king's
siga of their Majesties. Harris, by some manual were made at once. Ther strange mistake, states, in mentioning included the dismissal of Sir Richari this journey of the Lord Justice, that Cox from the Privy Council. Capel during his absence the Government, bad besought his Majesty to have bim by the King's command, was placed in and the Chancellor removed from the the hands of Sir Charles Porter and bench. This William steadily resisted. Sir Cyril Wyche; and even speaks of They might be excluded from the the great moderation and justice with councils of those whose policy and which they acted, and of the “ morti. acts were at variance with their known fication” their popularity caused to principles; but to strip such men of the prevailing party. There is no re- their judicial authority would imply a cord of any such appointment amongst censure on their administration of the the official documents of the time; and law, unfair, if groundless, and would, as Wyche and Duncombe were already if called for, involve a violation of associated as Lords Justices with Ca. the legitimate course of proceeding, pel, there would be no necessity for a namely, by parliamentary inquiry. delegation of power, in the absence of Cox's disgrace was looked upon by one out of the three to whom it had
independent men as a triumph. Har. already been committed.*
ris, his biographer, in a memoir which The lever by which Capel was to partakes too much of the panegyrical work his purpose with the royal cou- style to be relied upon on all points ple, was the assembling of a Parliament. without corroboration, has given us But, if he had expressed his real senti. the very words in which Sir Robert ments in the letter of the preceding July, Southwell condoled with him - words circumstances must have occurred in of noble encouragement, addressed to the meantime materially to diminish his the object of unmerited persecutionconfidence in his own ability to accom- Bona agere, et mala pati, regium est. plish his designs; for he now urged it The Lord Deputy was determined upon his Majesty to remove Porter to push his advantages to the utterand Cox from their judicial seats, in most. Writs were issued at once, and order to pave the way, with other Parliament assembled the 27th of Auchanges, for success. And although gust. Whether from a recollection of the king refused to listen to the pro- the sudden prorogation of the last parposal, it is plain that he saw the ne- liament, or froin a terror of the recent cessity of acting with vigour, and to exercise of the royal power in the offi. that end, of seeming to repose more cial changes, the House of Commons confidence in his servant than he would exhibited from the outset a very satisungrudgingly do; for on the tenth day factory spirit of tractability. It is thus of May in that year (1695) twelve let they express themselves in the address
Harris, " William III.," 417. Lodge, " Patentee Officers." † See, in the Southwell Mss., a memorandum, apparently in the handwriting of Sir Robort Southwell, of these changer, and of their entry at the Signet Office, as having been signed by his Majesty at Kensington, on the 10th of May, 1695.
of thanks for his excellency's speech :- leave to be heard before the Commit“ We take leave to assure your Excel. tee; and having suffered Sir Richard lency that we will avoid all beats and Bulkeley to produce his charges in animosities in our debates, and apply full, he replied at the moment with ourselves to what shall be agreeable to such spirit and effect, that not a shred his Majesty's expectation, and for the of argument was left in the hands of service of the publick, by supplying bis accusers. The consequence was, the deficiency of the revenue," &c. that the vote grounded on the charges Such being the temper of the House, was lost, and the party whose interests it was not difficult for the Deputy, it served to deprive Cox of power, once he had obtained his supplies, were fuin to accomplish their real obwhich were secured early, to have an jects under the cloke of frugality, and inquiry into the conduct of the most dissolve the Commission as a profitless dangerous of his adversaries set on and unnecessary expense.|| foot. Porter was the first object sin- Contests of this nature assumed not gled out for attack. Eleven articles unfrequently as much of a personal as of impeachment were exhibited against of a strictly political aspect. Ran. him. “ Eleven members of the House cour and violence displayed their coundertook to justify them. A com- lours without reserve, and scenes which plete victory was anticipated, in a would now be considered disgraceful, House constituted as this was. But were enacted during the most solemn the Chancellor, if he was not to be se. conjunctures, without exciting surduced at first, was not to be intimi. prise. Whether this tendency towards dated now. He sought and obtained embodying points of controversy in permission to defend himself in person ; the individual who raises them, is indi. and so ably and eloquently did be plead genous in the soil, or is to be ascribed his own cause, that not even the ter- to the peculiar circumstances of the rors of courtly displeasure could force country, it has remained prominently from the House a vote to his prejudice. characteristic of the national character He was honourably acquitted of the from the dawn of history up to recent charges, being raised rather than times. Again and again has the scene lowered in the public estimation by been witnessed of contests of right and this abortive attempt to ruin him. principle degenerating into personal Burnet has lightly charged him with altercation, and descending at last beginning at this time " to set a Tory into rude encounters, out of which humour on foot in Ireland;"I but Har. the victor has extricated himself ris has shown good reasons for exone- with less credit than the vanquished. rating him from this vague censure, The usages of society, and a more reand moreover asserts, what is not so fined sensibility and self-respect, have directly stated elsewhere, that “the had their effect in discountenancing Lord Deputy assisted all in his power these indecencies — they are out of to bear him down."S
fashion, and therefore nearly out of The next attack was upon Cox, use; but as at the time we treat of whose daily increasing popularity and neither custom nor taste were so ri. influence rendered him peculiarly ob- gorously opposed to them, they were noxious to a Government that feared of daily and hourly occurrence. him. Taking warning from experi- On the night in which the charges ence, however, and perhaps recollect- against Lord Chancellor Porter were ing his former achievements in the rejected by the Commons, he was field, his enemies forbore to make their making his way homewards in his approaches directly. They carried their coach through the narrow thoroughzig-zag, by attempting to get a vote fare called Essex-street. This avenue, that the Irish forfeitures had been mis. which had been opened about twenty managed. But here, too, they broke years before by the Lord Deputy's brodown as signally as in Porter's in- ther, Arthur Capel, entered the city stance. Cox succeeded in obtaining by Essex-gate, and formed the leading
Comm. Journ., vol. ii.
† Harris, "Life of Cox," 218. "Hist. of His Own Times," vol. ii., p. 95. $ “ William III.," 420.
# " Farris's Life of Cox," 218. Comm. Journ. vol. 2.
line of communication between Chi. quence of the impeachment, the Lord chester House, where the Parliament Deputy and the Chancellor could not sat, and Chancery-lane, inhabited by the be induced to unite for any public pur. judges and principal law officers, whose
a stop was put to all business, mansions were congregated about the and Parliament adjourned for fire newly - erected courts of justice in weeks. Christ Church-lane. As the vehicle The Houses, nevertheless, proceedlumbered along, the coachman made ed, with such interruptions, to pass an attempt to pass by a carriage be- measures at the dictation and to the fore him, in which the Speaker of the satisfaction of Government. The supHouse of Commons, a violent oppo- plies, as has been said, were voted soon nent of the Chancellor's, happened to after the Parliament met. The Arbe. The street was profoundly dark, ticles of Limerick, too, came early no public lights being introduced in under discussion, An idea of the socDublin until the year after, when an cess Lord Capel met with in prevailing Act was passed for the purpose;* but on Parliament to tamper with them., it is possible that the flambeaux of may be formed from the words of the the Speaker's footman revealed the preamble to the Act which ratified hostile liveries ; for he instantly put them-"That the said Articles, or se his head out of the window and called much of them as may consist with the upon the Chancellor's coachman to welfare of your Majesties' subjects of this stop. The command not producing an kingdom, may be confirmed," &c. As immediate effect, he darted out of his this Act purported to settle doubtful carriage in bis full costume, regardless points, it gave rise to much statement of darkness and mire, and seizing hold and counter-statement, which migat of the Chancellor's horses, brought have been interminably prolonged, had them their haunches in a moment. private individuals been permitted, as Then, lest there should be any mistake was sought in one case,ll to be heard by about the matter, he ordered his mace counsel at the bar of the House. It to be produced from the carriage, and is very questionable how far particular held it up himself before the eyes of claims should, under any cireumstances, the astounded coachman, exclaiming- be taken into consideration, so as to “ That he would be run down by noe modify questions involving general in. man, and would justifie what he did !" interests; but be this as it may, it is The Chancellor, it is plain, had the not just
to make it matter of reflection worst of it in an encounter of this kind. on this Parliament, that it rejected the He made no attempt to parade his petition in question, since its reception mace in the kennel, and was obliged would have established a precedent, on meekly to follow the Speaker “as far the authority of which any party conas their way was the same.' Vulgar sidering himself aggrieved (and suek as this fray might well be called, it was there would have been under any inthought of sufficient importance at the terpretation) might claim the right to time to be made the subject of a con- appear and offer his own construction ference between the two Houses, Nay, of the Articles. Harris gravely asserts, that the pru- It would have been well, indeed, if dence and good temper of the Lords no more questionable measures bad alone prevented a stop being put there. characterised this Parliament, . But by to the settlement of the kingdom't the spirit of the day was anti-Catholic ;
Such were the episodes which en- and it was hoped that, without any di. livened the session of a Parliament rect violation of the treaty, the mass that had undertaken to banish “heats of the population of Ireland might be and animosities” from its debates. The so cooped and caged within legislative bad consequences that ensued were disabilities, as to be forced either to a such as might be expected. The pub. renunciation of their religion, or to an lic were the sufferers. We learn from abandonment of their country, Acts the same historian who has recorded were passed for restraining foreign edathe foregoing incident, that in conse- cation, for disarming Papists, for ba
* 9 William III., c. 17. † “ William III.," 422.
Harris, ubi sup. § 9 William III., ch. 2.
| That of Mr. Cusac and others.
nishing Popish regular clergy, &c., for patibility of this reasoning with perpreventing Protestants from intermar- fect fairness and even generosity as rying with Papists, and for preventing regarded individuals, are of constant Papists from being solicitors. About recurrence both during the war and these measures there was no hesitation after its termination. We have seen
-no difference of opinion within the that Wych, Porter, Dụncombe, and House. The Papist was the “enemy," Cox, had successively incurred the disand so termed whether he desired to be pleasure of the dominant party by their the friend or not. He was supposed advocacy of claims put forward by Roto be so naturally, and was so, of course, man Catholies; yet not one word of rebecause he was thought so. Those of monstrance, so far as the records of his creed were the numerical majority the time show, was uttered in assertion of the population, and so an ascendancy of the right of the subject in a free of some kind must, of necessity, it country to educate his children as he was argued, be maintained by the mi- liked : to follow a particular branch of nority over it. As the time bad not legal practice; or to contract marriage arrived when that could be a moral with whomsoever he pleased, ascendancy, it must, of course, be social The passions of the Protestant loyand political ; and the idea of political alists of Ireland were still further inascendancy then entertained was to flamed at this time, by the almost degrade the condition and brutalise the simultaneous discovery of a plot against nature of the subordinate class—to ren. the King's life, in which Sir George der it odious and despicable, so that one Barclay, a Scotchman, acted the part might be able to point to its degrada- of principal conspirator ; and of a 'metion as a justification of its sufferings- ditated descent upon England by the thereby creating the crime for the sake abdicated monarch, James, who had of punishing it. It was only endeavour- marched an army to Calais, and was ing to carry out, by legislative means, only prevented from transporting it the same theory of extermination which across the channel by the presence of had been more literally and success- Admiral Russel, with a fleet of fifty fully practised in the case of the na- sail.* An association instantly sprung tive tribes of the New Continent. up in England, pledged to the deNevertheless, however false was this fence of his Majesty, and in Ireland system, and however abhorrent to our a similar association was now formed, juster and larger views of humanity in which in particular every member and natural equity, we must be cau- of the House of Commons was required tious how we pronounce too absolutely to enrol his name.
Every member upon the criminality of those who put but one did so without hesitation-the it in practice. The eye which looks recusant being Mr. Robert Saunderback into history must, indeed, make son, who was forthwith expelled. It use of the full illumination of the pre- is therefore to the credit of a Parliasent for the examination of past poli- ment, thus under the influence of a semitical systems and acts, as they are to religious panic and excitement, that it influence the systems and acts of to- did not altogether overlook the princi. day, but should ever survey them in ples of justice in the framing of an Act their moral aspect under such light-or so likely to be made the vehicle for the twilight-as the period afforded. It display of vindictive feeling, as that was the fixed and conscientious belief of "for the suppression of Tories, RobProtestants, both in England and Ire- bers, and Rapparees." In directing land, that there was something radi- that every barony or county should cally untameable in the aboriginal make full satisfaction and amends for Irish nature, and fundamentally trea- injury to person or property committed sonable in the Popish religion. This within it-an excellent measure in itdouble taint, it was held, infected the self, it provided that where the Rappamass, and rendered it dangerous. Safety rees were Protestants, the Protestant demanded the coercion of this body of inbabitants of the district should alone disaffection; and necessity was made to bear the fine imposed by the Act. justify the means Proofs of the com- If we add the abolition of the old
* Smollett, i., p. 266.