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and Terror Bay, accompanied by the and when the Lord protects us, not a Lei quartermaster of the North Star and our bead shall be touched!' I then askart three sailors, and bearing Admiralty

M. Bellot what time it was. He said, Abut despatches for Sir Edward Belcher :- a quarter past eight, A.M.' (Thursday, tà

18th), and then lashed up his boods, al " It was supposed that Sir Edward was

said he would go and see how the dea cu in Wellington Channel, in the neighbour

driving. He had only gone about fou u hood of Cape Belcher. In that direction,

nutes, when I went round the same hampu therefore, the little troop set out, marching

under which we were sheltered to be close along the eastern shore of the chan

him, but could not see him; and OD TE nel. After encamping the first day three

ing to our shelter saw his stick on the i miles from Cape Innis, the five men halted

posite side of a creek, about five farby next day, on detached blocks of ice, about

wide, and the ice all breaking up.lu three miles from Cape Bowden. On the

called out, Mr. Bellot !' but no answer night of the 14th, on quitting that cape,

this time blowing very heavy). Ale they had to cross a cleft in the ice, four feet

I again searched round, but could see me wide, which they effected prosperously

of bim. I believe that when he get a enough. They were three miles off land

the shelter, the wind blew him into when Bellot proposed to encamp, and he

creek, and his sou’-wester being tiek dor tried to reach it in the India - rubber

could not rise.' canoe; but being twice driven back by a

" David Hook, Bellot's other compart violent gale from the south-east, he deter

deposed, that before the breach in ti mined to have an attempt made by two of

and the attempt to land, some one har his companions, Harvey, the quartermaster

said that it would be more prudent te of the North Star, and Madden. The at

the middle of the channel, Bellit

, been tempt succeeded, and once on shore, the

these words, replied, that Captain Prix two men fixed a pass-rope between the

orders were, to keep along the coast el sledge and the coast, by means of which right, within about two miles of it. three objects could be transported. A fourth

" This last trait, and the whole et trip was about to be undertaken, when Mad- scene, complete the moral portraiture él den, who was up to his middle in the water,

lot, a slave to duty, sacrificing his own se perceived that the ice was setting itself in

to it, and incessantly disposed to devet motion off shore and towards mid-channel.

life, confronting death like a man full di Bellot shouted to let go the rope—an effort

sublime confidence, that holy faith, st was yet to be made, a hope remains; but

keeps the soul always in readiness to the motion of the ice is so rapid, that, before

before its Creator and its Judge; that

which inspired the navigator of the any measure can be taken, it is already at an enormous distance from the shore. I

teenth century to utter the fise su then went to the top of a hill to watch them,"

Heaven is as near by water as by land says Madden, in his deposition, and saw them swept away from land towards mid- So ended the short career of L channel. I watched from that spot for six tenant Bellot; and seldom, perti hours, but lost sight of them in two. When has a human life been more te they passed out of sight, the men were stand- with the elements of genuine Lappi ing near the sledge, M. Bellot on the top of

than his. « Whom the gods! the hummock. They seemed to be on a very solid piece of ice. At that moment the wind

die young.". Bellot lived long emel was blowing strongly from the south-east,

to win, by honest means, the res and it was snowing.' That moving maşs of

of two great nations, and,

better ice, thus driven northward by a furious gale,

to earn and to secure the esteem carried away the unfortunate Bellot, and love of many friends. He died be two sailors with him, William Johnson and the experience of manhood bad David Hook After vainly endeavouring

its shadow over the brilliant colou to shelter themselves under the tent with in which the generous enthusiasa which their sledge was loaded, the three youth depicted the future. Be men began to cut a house for themselves in

dead he yet speaketh, teaching, the ice with their knivey. But let Johnson speak; his deposition is precise, and,

his own story, the uses, personal nevertheless, very touching :

social, of legitimate and bonour * • M. Bellot,' he says,' sat for half-an

ambition; and, by the manner of hour in conversation with us, talking on the

death, uniting France and England danger of our position. I told him I was a common desire to do honour to

. not afraid, and that the American expedi- memory of one of the truest and I tion were drawn up and down this channel alest of Frenchmen. by the ice. He replied, 'I know they were ;

A MISSING CHAPTER OF IRISH HISTORY, The capitulation of Limerick in 1691 few years at the commencement of the is generally looked upon as the conclu- era of obscurity. sion of Irish history, properly so called. There is one difficulty which ynforHere it is that Leland stops, Moore tunately besets the best-intentioned in. has not gone even so far; and although quirer into this period. He is conPlowden has inflicted upon the world stantly at a loss how to keep his course an historical memoir which winds mud. in the mid-stream of impartiality. Dur. dily through the commencement of the ing the first half-century after the Reeighteenth century, there are few per- formation, the rival parties within the sons resolute enough to undertake the kingdom continued to be distinguished, task of wading into it, for the sake of in the main, by the boundaries of the the little they may pick up. Lascelles, two races. But once the unchristian the most laborious of compilers, is of policy of those who professed the Reno account as an historian. Even in formed religion hąd struck the ploughfacts he is incorrect. Besides, his book share of persecution into the land, the is suppressed, only a few copies are to be political demarcations thenceforth fell met with. And the few writers of less into the religious ones, and Ireland benote who have undertaken to carry came Protestant and Roman Catholic. on the national annals from ancient to As long as the ethnical distinctions modern times, have passed over this keep their prominence, we who live in gulf, either in complete silence, or with a later and more enlightened era have words so listless and unintelligible as to a comparatively easy task ; for we resemble the yawn they provoke. have established and admitted princi

Hence, from the Revolution to the ples to guide us, affording a clue to middle of the reign of George III., is our worst entanglements if we only a blank which no one seems to have possess the power and will to take it in cared to fill up. What Ireland was

hand; but when religious strife superdoing for those eighty or ninety years, sedes political antagonism, and the except for the instant that Molyneux spirit of bigotry gets abroad, a new in, started up as her solitary champion, and gredient has entered into the investigafor that period into which the genius tion, of which the essential properties of Swift has thrown a partial gleam, is are not so easily ascertained; or rather, as little known to the world as is the concerning the properties of which the origin of her towers; and yet she must minds of the ablest and most conscien, have been about something.

tious men are known to disagree. Any hiutus in history is an evil. No The embarrassment arising out of period can be understood in a state of this state of things pervades the whole isolation. Events explain each other. aspect of political affairs from thenceThey are evolved, by a natural and in- forward.

It enters into every page, telligible process, out of other events; and is felt at every step. And whereas they grow, like leaves, by the opera- the inquirer, as he descends nearer and tion of an inherent principle of develop- nearer our own times, might reason, ment, and are always natural as they ably expect that history should at arise.

length cast itself clear of fable, and This it is, as well as something in the atone by its faithworthiness for the period in question not destitute of in- fading of romance and chivalry from terest for its own sake, that has decided the page ; even in this hope, strange to us upon attempting a short excursion say, he must, when he turns to Ireland, into this unreclaimed domain, and ga- make

up

his mind to be disappointed. thering thence some specimens, if not Not only does he find the most oppoof dimensions equal to those brought site inferences drawn from the facts; from the valley of Eshcol, at least of but, astonishing as it may appear, he a class and character not altogether discovers, as he pursues his research, a unworthy of a place in a national pe- continuous discrepancy in the narrariodical.' We must confine ourselves tive of successive events pervading the for the present to the history of a very records of the British and the Irish chroniclers, constituting, in fact, two sway of those who had hitherto been concurrent and discordant histories; unable, from the first invasion of Herry so that, up to a very recent period, he II., to substantiate a title to their is obliged to grope his way through territorial acquisitions, either on the evidences as contradictory, and at the ground of conquest or surrender. De same time as circumstantial, as that Ginckle's army, ill paid and loosely dissupporting a provincial identification ciplined, wanted little provocation to and alibi.

urge it to acts of unjustifiable severity To reconcile these discrepancies is and wanton cruelty, perpetrated in no easy task; to attempt it is no light spite of the incessant exertions of the undertaking The conviction that civil and military authorities;* and there is something translucent in truth, that provocation had been abundantly which causes it to shine through the supplied † by the vast bands of housethickest veil that can be thrown over less and wandering natives, partly comit, is our only encouragement. This, and the belief that in the events of this posed of the scattered fragments of

James's forces, partly of those who, period we of to-day are practically having obtained protection from Wilconcerned, have sufficed to overcome liam's generals, had been subsequently many scruples.

maltreated by the soldiery, and conseFrom the surrender of Limerick, the quently bore with them into the wilds struggles of Ireland, so long carried on the superadded rancour of personal with fire and sword, have been almost wrong; and partly of those gangs which exclusively civil struggles,—for the dis- had long infested the northern districts turbances of public tranquillity in 1798 of the kingdom

the last remnant of can scarcely be called a war ;-but they the mountain militia that had followed have been not the less real for all that. the banner of Owen Roe. During the greater part of the eigh- These predatory hordes resembled, teenth century that tyrannical code in some respect, the fierce troops of was built up, which was intended by a assassins which, during the period of rampart of law to supply the place of the Crusades, poured down from their that pale of an earlier era, within which homes within the fastnesses of Lethe interest of England and the Anglo- banon, upon the armies of the Chris Irish had uniformly entrenched itself. tiansand the Saracens indiscriminately. Before that century had run its course Amidst the exaggerated statements its demolition had begun. The legisla- of the English writers of the day, and lative act with which it closed, ren- the sweeping refutations of their opdered its obliteration a matter of safety; ponents, enough is elicited of indis

, and paved the way for that final incor- putable truth to show how dismal and poration of the creeds into one equally dark the social horizon must have been enfranchised whole, which might per

over which such tempests could have haps with a better grace have earlier

swept. High among the trackless hills followed the union of the two coun- the Rapparees—for so were they call

. tries.

used to gather in masses, after The condition of Ireland, once the having, at a preconcerted signal, cola contest between James and William lected their arms from their places of was brought to a close, and the autho- concealment

the hollow of an old rity of the latter definitively established, wall, or a pool in the morass. was miserable enough. The passions dead of night from this wild congreof nations, as of individuals, seldom gration was heard the simultaneous cool down in a moment when the yell of readiness, and in a moment the strife is over. On the one side was a whole body had burst down upon haughty and triumphant party, actu

prey, whether it was an intercepted ated by the usual motives of min- detachment of the English army, or gled animosity and rapacity, in carry

an unguarded bawn, and the work, ing out its own mode of quieting the whatever it was, was done in an in. country, and enriching its adherents. stant. Should assistance arrive, and On the other, was the mass of the popu. reprisals be attempted, there was made lemn act of their own leaders, to the disappeared. Not a trace was to be

ed

At

* Harris's “ William III." p. 294.

# Ib. p. 312.

discovered of the formidable array of

That lawless bands should infest a a few minutes before,—and the trooper country circumstanced as was Ireland might weary himself in search of the at the time, is but natural ; that the Rapparee, who was, perhaps, crouched general outlawry of the race should like a hare in the nearest tuft of rushy drive a half-civilised peasantry to desgrass, or lying all along in the water- peration, is likewise too probable an course close by, with his mouth and inference; we are not called upon, nostrils alone above the surface. * therefore, to reject the statements

With a characteristic versatility, made by contemporary writers regardtoo, these very same individuals, as ing this singular fraternity, on the soon as the winter compelled them to score of improbability.t close their barbarous campaign, would Some final facts remain undisputed appear at the quarters of the troops, at all events, forming a more signifior in the thoroughfares of towns, in cant commentary upon the horrors of the squalid garb and with the abject these wars than all Curry's vindicamien of beggary, under which no sa- tions. Dean Story's list gives us, of gacity could recognise the sinewy and Rapparees killed by the army or miliferocious banditti that had spread ter- tia, 1,928; of the same put to death by ror through the land.

the soldiers, without form of trial, 122. Their habits and manners were as By an injudicious, as well as cruel, peculiar as their system of warfare. proclamation of Government, a certain They had no settled abodes, and sub- sum a-piece was offered for Rapparees' sisted, partly on plunder, partly upon heads; and they were constantly told the cattle which they conducted with over before the officers as so much them in droves, and which, belonging merchandise, for the stipulated reward, to the small and active breed of the There is a tradition of a tragical occurcountry, formed little impediment to rence occasioned in a family of rank, by them in their rapid marches and re- a sackful of these ghastly trophies being treats.

rolled out suddenly, and without pre

* Dr. Curry's “Civil Wars of Ireland," vol. ii. chap. 8.

† Dr. Curry, the author who has shown the greatest zeal as well as ability in the attempt to impugn the testimony of eyewitnesses, has succeeded no farther than to designate the outrages of the Rapparees as acts of retaliation, without denying that they were perpetrated ; while the passage he cites from Lesley's answer to King only asserts, that the greater number of those who were executed as Rapparees did not in reality belong to that com. munity, but were inoffensive country-people, who were every day seized and shot without ceremony, by an army who hardly thought them "human kind.”

That there may be some exaggeration in the accounts of Williamite writers in speaking of the atrocities alleged to have been committed by the Rapparees, is not difficult to believe. But the admission of excess and cruelty on the part of the army goes far to confirm them, in the natural course of wild vindictiveness ; and the Act passed in the 7th year of William III., a few years later, for the suppression of these very gangs directs its per nalties expressly against outrages to person and property, appearing to be common, amongst which are enumerated murder, maiming, robbery, arson, destroying cattle, &c. It is however indisputable, evincing the working of the same spirit which unfortunately still exists, that the Rapparees were encouraged and abetted by the “protected ” Irish, as they were called—that is, by those individuals of James's party who bad been granted protections by the generals of William's army, on the condition of their behaving peaceably and quietly. These treacherous friends were in the habit, by certain signals, of giving notice of the approach of any detached bodies of troops which were to pass across lonely districts, or through difficult defiles. While Lord George Hamilton's regiment lay at Mount Mellick, a small party of his soldiers, with a few of the English townspeople, were thus entrapped, within a mile of the town, and all murdered. Some persons were proved to have harboured the offenders; but though they were seized and held prisoners, the Government in Dublin dealt so leniently with them, that not one of them suffered ; and Harris, who tells the story, assures us that he himself conversed, many years after the settlement of Ireland, with two of these individuals, who used to boast of their various methods of screening delinquents, and their other policies at the time” (See Harris's “ William III.” p. 295). But however this may be, in the curious details of which an outline is given above, it is not easy to conceive a motive for misstatement. Nor is the indignation of their champion, Dr. Curry, easily intelligible, where it is excited to such a degree by the insinuation that his unfortunate countrymen, when hunted to their lairs, hid their musket-barrels in cavities, and their bodies in bog-boles (See “ Dalrymple's Memoir of Britain and Ireland," part i. p. 176).

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