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Poynings, then Lord Deputy, marched tenants, to the end there might be a repose, against the Castle, which stood a siege and establishment of every subject's estates, for ten days. Lord James was obliged

lord and tenant, freehold and farmer, throughto surrender, and became attainted for

out the kingdoin." possessing himself of the Castle, and favouring the pretensions of the impos- We regret to find this considerate tor, Perkin Warbeck. Next year, Sir measure does not appear to have been Edward called the Parliament toge- attended with good results. On the ther, which passed the celebrated Act breaking out of the civil war, in 1641, for regulating the mode in which laws the people of Carlow, and the neighwere to be introduced, and known as bouring counties of Wicklow and “ Poynings' Act.” The might of the Wexford, united against the Govern. Geraldines again forced entrance, when, ment, possessed themselves of the town, in 1534, the gallant Lord Thomas, po- and blockaded the Castle of Carlow, pularly called Thomaus an Teedha, or then containing a garrison of 500 men. Silken Thomas, from the magnificence The Earl of Ormond, apprised of of his apparel, rebelled against King this, marched a strong force, and Henry VIII., and obtained the posses- compelled the insurgents to raise the sion of six of the chief castles of the siege. It was fortunate for the gartikingdom, of which Carlow was one.

Their numbers had been inHis hold was of brief duration. Shortly creased by the Protestants who fled afterwards, the Act of Absentees pass- for refuge within its walls, and the ed, in consequence of which this coun. scarcity- of provisions was such, that ty passed from the Duke of Norfolk they were about to surrender, when to the Butlers of Ormond. In 1571, Sir Patrick Wemys, with the troops Sir William Fitzwilliam, Lord Deputy, despatched by the Earl of Ormond

, framed many salutary regulations for came to their relief. The fortress did the government of the country, which, not long enjoy the blessing of repose not being relished by the natives, they The Confederate Catholics invested it began, in the quaint phraseology of in 1647, and after sustaining a siege for Hooker, “to play their pageants ;" a month, the Castle was surrendered and, in 1577, the Spanish Government Soon, however, the soldiers of Ireton aided the Irish in rebellion against Eli. planted their cannon, and the army

of zabeth, when Rory Oge O'More made the Commonwealth were no despicable an attack upon Carlow, without suc- foes. A severe cannonade destroyed cess; he was taken and executed.

many of the defences, and compelled Donall Kavanagh, also aided by Spain, the garrison to submit to terms. They whence he got the sobriquet of " Spa- entered into conditions with Sir Harniagh,” or the Spaniard, made himself dress Waller, whom Ireton left to conspicuous by his valour and address. conduct the siege. When King Wil

. Lord Mountjoy took active measures liam III. marched southward, after to counteract the designs of this for- his victory at the Boyne, in 1690, he midable chieftain, and made Carlow his led his army through Carlow, and for head-quarters, was being, as things more than a hundred years peace stood, the place best to give directions spread her halçyon wings over the to all parts, and to secure the most

war-worn town; but in the rebellion dangerous." On the accession of of 1798 the spell of peace was broken. James I., that monarch conceived his On the 25th of May, the insurgents famous project of the Plantation, and brought nearly 2,000 men against it

, the Attorney-General for Ireland, Sir when the garrison, consisting partly of John Davis, says :

regular troops, and partly of yeomanry,

and numbering in the whole 450, re“Since his Majesty came to the Crown,

pulsed the assailants, with the loss of two Special Commissions have been sent out

600. Such events give interest to of England for the settling and quieting of all the possessions in Ireland—the one for

these old walls, which, to lovers of anaccepting surrenders of the Irish and dege.

tiquity and archæology, separate them nerate English, and for regranting estates

from the rest of the world, and recall unto them according to the course of the

many a vision of former greatness. common law; the other, for strengthening Though ruinous and prostrate, it must of defective titles. In the execution of which have been a splendid Castle in the Commissions, there bath ever been had a days of its strength, when it measured special care to settle and secure the under- 105 feet square, with massive round

towers at the angles. A curtain wall, in loveliness. There were the noble with the flanking tower, about sixty- ruins of Carlow Castle, and the Bar. five feet high, now stands a picturesque row, flowing between high and steep object over the Barrow. The dilapida- banks, with the distant town which tion was not the work of war or time. fills so large a space in the nation's Like Ehrenbreitstein, it might boast history. Purple bills rose against

the sky, and, on bold heights, stood " Here Carlow Castle with its shattered wall, the fortalice of some proud Butler, or

Black with the miner's blast upon its height, Yet shows of what it was when shell and ball

Fitzgerald, or the dun of a native Rebounding idly on its strength did light;

chieftain. The Dane, the Anglo-NorA tower of victory! from whence the light

man, the Croinwellian trooper, have Of baffled foes was watched along the plain ;

Yet Peace destroyed what War could never blight, left their impress on the banks of this And left those proud walls bare to summer rain, Irish river ; but the days of war are On which the iron shower for years had poured in vain."

happily over in the land, and the stern

old walls are mouldering in decay. This venerable pile owes its ruinous Rich meadow and pasture lands, of condition to the efforts of a medical the hue that has won for the land the gentleman, who sought, about the year name of the “ Emerald Isle,” yield sus1816, to convert it into a lunatic asylum. tenance to herds and flocks, that can Its walls were so well constructed as to compete with those of Devon, or South defy the powers of the masons to effect Down; and the cattle-show held in the alterations as rapidly as their em- Carlow, last August (1855), was deployer required, and gunpowder was monstrative of what we state. put in requisition to throw down por- The hum of busy mills, the whirl of tions of the work. Unfortunately the water - wheels, and appearance of a explosion was more destructive than vast building, whose castellated walls was anticipated, for the whole Castle are little indicative of its peaceful purtottered, and fell to the ground, save pose, announced that we had reached the tower and wall yet standing on the Milford, the seat of Mr. Alexander's banks of the Barrow.

industry and prosperity. This is about About a mile and a half from the four miles from Carlow, and what the town is Oak Park, the mansion of Americans would term “a delightful Henry Bruen, Esq., certainly the location." A bright-green, undulating finest place in this neighbourhood. valley marks the course through which The house is not large, but tastefully the Barrow rolls; dark woodlands prebuilt, in the Grecian style of architec- sented a strong contrast to the clouds, ture, and the entrance very massive, which dappled the sky like snowand well designed. This opens on a white angels' wings. Before us stood demesne, containing no less than thir- the huge fabric, with its vast machiteen hundred acres, beautifully wood. nery, and, in the distance, the mouned; and, owing to the taste and muni. tains of Leinster, Blackstairs and ficence of the father of the present Brandon, cleaving the sky with their owner, the late Colonel Bruen, the lofty summits. We halted here for windows of the mansion command a some time to rest. The soft, calm, au. varied prospect, for water combines tumnal day was bathing the hills in blue with wood to beautify the landscape. haze. Whitewashed cottages, many of This gentleman spent a considerable them covered with clustering creepers, sum in forming ihe artificial lake, were indicative of inmates more tastewhich is well planned, and in con- ful and cleanly than the great mass of junction with a hill of considerable their countrymen; and the appearance altitude, much increases the beauty of comfort we everywhere witnessed in of the surrounding scenery.

On the Carlow, afforded strong proof of the opposite side of the Dublin-road is a value and influence of a resident prodeer park, containing about five bun prietary. Resuming our journey, we dred acres, and we have often seen the reached Leighlin-Bridge, and again antlered denizens ranging from covert the antique towers stood forth to to covert, heedless of the short span of awaken historic recollections. Inlife allotted to them.

deed we must say its present state We have already remarked on the does not bear comparison with its for. beauty of the scenery in the vicinity of mer. The town lies on a hill, along Carlow. In our progress towards the base of which the river flows; and Leighlin Bridge, the views increased judging from the empty storehouses, which seem bastening to ruin, and nu- village should remain in the King's merous tenements enjoying a sinecure, hands." A few years later, in Ochaving no inhabitants, we cannot say tober, 1394, Richard II. landed at much for its prosperity now. In for- Waterford, with a large force, which mer days it was a strong position, awed the Irish chieftains, who con. granted by Hugh de Lacy, one of the sented to pay their homage. It must Anglo-Norman chiefs (he was entrust- have been a strange and imposing ed with the Lord Justiceship of Ire- spectacle which was presented near land by King Henry II., in 1173), Carlow, when Thomas Mowbray, Earl to John de Clahul, or de Claville. Ít of Nottingham, Earl Marshal of Eng. is not quite certain whether De Lacy, land, attended by the great barons or de Claville, erected the castle, and officers of state, with splendour called the Black Castle, but it is clear little inferior to royalty, received the the castle was one of the first built homage of the Irish lords. Hither by the English, and one of their chief in rude, but not the less powerful, ar. defences. Robert Poure was appoint- ray, from the following of kerns and ed to the charge of it by Henry II., gallowglasses, came the Kavanaghs, but relinquished his post through cow- Malachy M.Murrough and Art Möllurardice. His character may be easily rough, Gerald O'Byrne, Donald O'Noguessed, from the account Cambrensis lan, O'Connor, and others, who, laygives of him and Fitzadelm :

ing aside their girdles, skeins, and "A man may see the course of fortune, their knees, pledged themselves, upon

barras, or high caps, and falling on who, when she is disposed to smile, how she pain of heavy fines, to observe their estate to high degrees; for these two (Poure allegiance towards their lord the King; and Fitzadelm) had more pleasure in cham

also to deliver up their possessions to beting, and playing the wanton with young his majesty, to become his liege men, girls, and to play upon a harp, than to and assist him in reducing the rest of bear a shield or staff, or to wear armour.”

Ireland to subjection. This done,

they were raised up by the Earl MarMost certainly such a governor bad shal, who gave each the kiss of peace

. little business in the neighbourhood But this submission was very tempo. of the formidable Kavanaghs. In rary, lasting only during the monarch's 1320, the bridge of nine arches was stay in Ireland. built by Maurice Jakes, a Canon of Among the Bishops of Leighlin, the the Cathedral of Kildare, to facilitate first of whom was Št. Laserian, who the intercourse between the religious died in 638, were some who deserve houses of Leighlin. St. Gobban found. special mention. Maurice Doran is ed a priory for Canons Regular here, one ; his answer to those who advised about the year 616. In progress of him, on his promotion to the see, to time a town grew around the monaste- lay double subsidies on his clergy: ry, for we find, in 1310, Edward II. in order to reimburse him for the exgranted to Adam le Bretoun certain penses in his election, is worth noticing: customs to build a tower for defence « Si velle suos, dum tondeantur nor of the town, and provide a guard deglubi– “that he would have his against the attacks of the Irish. The sheep shorn, not Aayed."* Another insufficiency of this protection was such eminent prelate was the learned Docthat the town underwent repeated pils tor Narcissus Marsh. On the death lage, until it was reduced to an insig- of Bishop Boyle he was advanced to nificant village. In 1389, a writ is. the see of Leighlin and Ferns, by letsued from Richard II., to John Grif- ters patent, dated 27th February, fin, then Bishop of Leighlin, to the 1682. He was one of the most diseffect, “that the diocess was so devas- tinguished ecclesiastics of the Church, tated by Irish enemies as to render it and successively translated from Leighimpossible for the bishop to live in it, lin and Ferns to the Archbishoprics of and granting him, as residence, Gal Cashel, Dublin, and Armagh. While roestowne, in the County Dublin, near he governed the Archdiocese of Dubthe marches of O'Toole,” with this lin, he built the library, significant provision, "so long as the Episcopal Palace of St. Sepulchre's


near the

* "Ware's Irish Bishops," 461.


which he bequeathed to the public, " That no merchant's wife use any tavern and hence called Marsh's Library. of ale, upon pain of twenty shillings, toties An account of the various acts of mu- quoties (as often as) as any of them do the nificence and charity of this truly contrary; but let them be occupied in Christian prelate, would fill more

making woollen cloth and linen.” space than we can command; but

The ruins of Black Castle, at the a Latin epitaph, which is copied at

foot of the bridge, on the eastern bank length into Sir James Ware's His

of the Barrow, show how strong the tory,* recounts the various acts of his

fortress must have stood.

These conuseful life, which terminated Novem

sist of a roomy tower, fifty feet high, ber 2nd, 1713, aged 75. The Cathe

wrapped in Nature's garment for aged dral, which is the parish church of

walls, the rare old plant, the “ivy Leighlin, is situated in a lonely spot, environed by bills. This sacred edifice

green.” A flight of stone steps leads

to the summit, and one of the floors bears evident traces of antiquity. It consist of nave and chancel, with a

is in tolerable preservation. This tower

is at the angle of a quadrangular ensquare tower, crowned by a steeple. The west end has a traceried doorway

closure, and was defended by a ballium

or rampart, with à fosse on the outside. and window, with two side entrances. In the chancel stood the bishop's

A circular tower, at another angle, had

walls ten feet thick. Some ruins at throne, with stalls for the dean and

the south side of the rampart are supchapter. Many ancient monuments record the names and virtues of a de

posed to be those of the ancient moparted congregation. Some ruinous

nastery. Anong the many scenes of

strife which this Castle witnessed, buildings are adjacent: one contains the remains of a very beautiful win

perhaps the most remarkable was the

gallant charge headed by the Constable dow. Not far from the church is the well of St. Laserian, but now

of the Castle, Sir George Carew, in

1577. In this year Rory Oge O'More choked up by weeds and rubbish as

rose in rebellion, and set fire to this to be almost undiscoverable. This

town. He was not suffered to depart well was formerly a great place of re

unscathed. Although the Constable sort by devout pilgrims, but the pattern,

had a very slender force, but seven which was wont to attract crowds on

mounted men, he waited till nightfall, the day of the patron saint, the 18th

and then made a vigorous sally against of April, having degenerated into scenes

O'More and his forces, numbering two of licentiousness and intoxication,

hundred and forty men.

Such was being anything but a pattern of pro

the energy of the assailants, and the priety, bas been prohibited by the pa

surprise of the foe, that they were cut rish priest. A rudely-shaped cross is

down almost without resistance, or near the well.

sought safety in flight. When they While enjoying a very comfortable

discovered the smallness of the attack. luncheon in Leighlin Bridge, we could

ing party they rallied, and charged in not help thinking how angry the mer

turn, but Carew succeeded in regainchants' wives must have been at the imputation against their sobriety, when

ing the Castle, though with the loss

of two men killed, and the rest woundBaron Finglass propounded his reme

ed. In 1649, the Parliamentary troops, dies for securing the public peace, under Colonel Hewson, got possession tempore Henry VIII. Having recommended the king's grace “ to give

of it, and shortly after the main body,

under Ireton, on the march to Cargood English captains to the Castles

low, laid waste the country. We find, of Leighlins, Catherlough, and others,"

from Oliver Cromwell's letter to the “ that no Irish minstrels, rhymers, Speaker, dated 2nd of April, 1650, shannaghs, or bards be messengers to

that Colonel Hewson did not obtain derive any goods of any man living in the Pale, upon forfeiture or imprison- struggle. The letter runs thus :

entrance to Leighlin Bridge without a ment,” the ungallant and libellous baron makes the following provision "In the end we had advertisement that against the Pale ladies :

Colonel Hewson was come to Leighlin,

* "Ware's Irish Bishops,” pp. 359-362.
* “ Cromwell's Letters," by Carlyle, p. 508.

where was a very strong Castle and pass over “Lord Edward Fitzgerald." the Barrow. I sent him word that he “My dear sir, that alters the case, should attempt it, which he did ; and, after

said the innkeeper; “you shall have all some dispute, reduced it, by which means

I reserved for the judges if you like. we have a good pass over the Barrow, and

At all events, better take four, and they intercourse between Munster and Leinster."

can have pairs each. Lanty, here! About two miles south of Leighlin Mick, clap first and second turn-out to Bridge, on the right bank of the Bar- Mr. Anderson's carriage. Long life row, we reached a village in the pa- to you sir, and the heavens be your rish of Killinane, the Royal Oak. It bed for the good you're doing." is manifest from the most hasty glance And Mr. Anderson was hurried on at the dilapidated walls of the Royal

with almost railroad speed. Oak Hotel, that the days of mail- There are some picturesque reaches coaches and postchaises are past and of the river between the Royal Oak gone. No more passengers to break- and Bagnalstown, about a mile disfast or dinner, no more first and se- tant. The route lies through a bighlycond turn-out, with smart postilions, cultivated country, with thriving planno more garrulous waiters, and dressy tations, like connecting links in an unn. chambermaids. We halted at the old umbrageous chain. Amansion of higher inn, however, and thought of old pretensions, The Lodge, claims notice; times, and how the founder of our and we linger to admire the well-trimnative town of Fermoy humbugged med flower-garden, which marks some the landlord in the year '98.*

graceful lady's care, or a shady bower, The innkeeper in this fearful period wherein the owner might find repose was known to be friendly to the disaf- from labour, or freedom from disfected, and cared little to show his quietude. animus to the loyal and true.

Bagnalstown is beautifully situated The late John Anderson, one of the beside the river, and has that bustling, most enterprising men of his age, and animated, thriving look which invari. a staunch supporter of what a late ably stamps the place of trade. But viceroy might term “law and order,” anxious to reach Borris House, the drove to the Royal Oak, in a great noble mansion of Arthur Kavanagh, hurry to reach Dublin, and desired Esq., we did not enter any of the fresh horses instantly.

buildings. The ruins of an old " You can't have them, Mr. Ander- church, encompassed by a grave-yard, son," said the landlord.

form a picturesque object on the route; “I must have them,” was the re- and Ballylaughan Castle, an ancient ply.

seat of the Kavanaghs, with adjacent “There's no must here," repeated remains of buildings, tell of the antimine host, rather impudently, for be quity, and preserve the fame of that knew Mr. Anderson's influence, and martial race. An old mansion, which how his politics ran.

belonged to the Beauchamp family, is " Why do you refuse to give me near these towers, rather a dangerous horses?” asked the traveller.

proximity for the Saxon, we should “ Because I hav’nt got them. The have thought, unless living under the judges want to get four pair to Kild protection of the fierce Mac Murrough kenny, and the yeomen, bad 'cess to Kavanaghs. An ancient fibula, or them, put my best under their cursed clasp of gold, weighing four ounces, baggage; and that's the why, since and displaying superior workmanship, you must know."

was discovered here in 1806, and “My poor Lord Edward!” ejaculated purchased by the Royal Dublín SoMr. Anderson, in a tone of deep de- ciety. The mansion-house of Mr. Kajection, as, clasping his hands in agony, vanagh, with its wide domain, and he sunk into a chair. “My unhappy groups of noble trees, is well worthy of friend, can't I say a word in your fa. its reputation. From its many known vour for want of a pair of horses ?".. associations, there is no want of me

“ In favour of who, sir ?" asked the terial for thought. The character of landlord, anxiously. He had caught the structure, that of the English bsthe name.

ronial mansion of the sixteenth century,

* " Titmarsh's Tour in Ireland,"

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