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cannot be a better example of geolo- with reference to their practical beargical ignorance or waste of money ings than theoretical interest. than that instanced in the late Pro- The bounding lines of formations of fessor Forbes's last introductory lec- different ages, instead of being at all ture, where the parties sunk in quest times cases of super-position, are freof coal into the dip of vertical strata ; quently found to be those of juxta-po. so that, however long they continued sition. In the latter instance, the phetheir fruitless task, they would be nomenon is generally denominated & constantly working in the same bed fault. It is in fact a vertical displacein which they commenced.*

ment of the strata, the result of the The survey of Russia owes its com- action of internal forces in former pletion to the indefatigable persever- ages, and indicates that the interior ance of our countryman, Sir R. I. of the earth is not composed of solid Murchison, and his companions. In or unyielding materials. Faults are their work they were abundantly aided much more numerous than is generally by the late emperor, and the various supposed. Seldom is a continuous Government establishments through- section of the strata a thousand yards out the empire. The result of these in length exposed to view, in which labours is embodied in “Russia and they may not be observed. In mining the Ural Mountains."

districts, it is evidently a matter of Government geological surveys are much importance to have these faults now in progress in Hindostan, with, delineated, as they affect the depth of we believe, the more immediate object the mineral in proportion to the of developing the extent of the Indian amount of their throw." To accoal-fields. They have also been un- complish this, the scale of the topodertaken in Africa, Australia, and Ca- graphical map must be large. On the nada. In these countries, the greater maps of the Government Survey of portion of which are abandoned to the Great Britain these lines of dislocaundisputed sway of nature, where the tion have been carefully traced, and only inhabitants are wild animals, or when obtainable, the amount of disalmost equally wild aborigines, the placement engraved on the proper geological surveyors are often not side. only the pioneers of science, but of ci- There is another class of phenomena vilisation. These gentlemen have fre- elosely connected with that of faults, quently added much that is interest. and the origin of which is still involved ing and novel to the general store of in much uncertainty - we refer to science; the most remarkable, per- lodes, or metalliferous veins. These haps, being the discovery by Mr. Lo- are fissures in the rock, filled with gan of foot-tracks in the Potsdam various foreign substances, amongst sandstone of Canada, a formation which which are ores and minerals. On the is equivalent to the oldest fossiliferous maps of the Geological Survey, the strata of this country.

lodes are marked in gold lines, with A survey of Newfoundland has been signs, denoting the metal, affixed to completed by Mr. Jukes, I who was each. specially invited over for that purpose.

Students of geology are continually An interesting memoir, containing the learning to how great an extent the results of his labours has been pub- configuration of the surface of our lished. The majority of the States of earth is dependent upon its geological of North America have undertaken, structure. The connexion is much and in some instances completed, the same as that which subsists besurveys of a similar character, and tween the outward form of a vertetheir example will, no doubt, be fol- brate animal, and its internal skeleton. lowed by the remaining states.

It is by no means uncommon to find We proceed to offer a few remarks the same geological formation preserve, on the uses of geological maps, more over large areas, a form of surface pe

* “ Edin. N. Phil. Journ." i., p. 156.
† See “ Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London."
| Now Local Director for the Geological Survey of Ireland.
§ Or vertical displacement of the beds.

culiar to itself. This fact has been success. Its importance will be fully long recognised, and artists and paint estimated, when it is stated as almost ers would do well to study geology, certain, that there is as great a quantity with the object of truly copying na

of coal-measures buried beneath these tural scenery. Instead of the shape- two formations—yiz.,

the permian, and less masses of light and shade, which new red sandstone of England—as DOW are intended for rock, we should find occupies the surface. I a more careful representation of the Geological maps are also useful in bedding, or other structural phenome- affording the landowner a knowledge na of rocks. Geological mapping, ex- of the mineral value of his property. ecuted upon truthfully-shaded charts, They should be consulted in questions such as those of the Ordnance Sur- as to the best lines for railroads, roads, vey of Great Britain and Ireland, ex- or canals. In conducting plans having hibit the connexion between the struc- reference to a water supply, a full ture of the rocks and form of sur- knowledge of the nature and structure face to which we have referred; for of the rocks of the district is indispenby their means we have the cause sable, inasmuch as springs, and the di. and effect placed together before our rection of the percolation of water eyes.

underground, is more or less affected In several districts of Britain, which by these phenomena. have hitherto supplied a vast amount Accompanying the maps of the Briof coal, the seams are being rapidly tish Surveys are geological sections

, exhausted. Almost every coal-pro- plotted to a scale of six inches to one ducing district exhibits extensive tracts, mile. They present an accurate outover which the coal-beds have been line of the country traversed ; and as worked out and abandoned. The pre- they have been laid out so as to em. sent consumption of coal is enormous, brace the most prominent features of being more than thirty millions of tons the surface and of the rocks, they annually ; and this substance being in. will be interesting to all who would capable of reproduction will, in course desire to have a correct knowledge of of time, become more and more scarce. the outline and physical structure of Nor does there appear to be, in gene- the country, over its most picturesque ral, forethought in the reservation of and mountainous districts. These set. districts for future supply. Such is tions have been carried over the sumthe exception, the reverse is the rule. mits of all the loftiest mountains of As the coal-seams are exhausted where Wales. In order to their completion, they are shallow, they will be pene- numerous difficulties, arising from the trated to where they are deep ; and nature of the country, had to be overthe day is not distant when the super- come. Precipices were to be climbed and incumbent formations, the permian and descended, rivers, lakes, and marshes trias, hitherto but little explored, will measured, and passages cut through be pierced in search of the precious woods and thickets. In fact, every enmineral. It is, therefore, a matter of gineer who has experienced the diffi. great importance to ascerta

culties attending the carrying of a lineo ticular districts, the existence, or the railway-section over a comparativelyle. non-existence, of coal-beds below these vel country, will be able to appreciate formations, and, in the former case, the difficulty of levelling in a straight their approximate depth; and they line from the summitof one Welsh mounare questions which it is the province tain to that of another. The results, of a geological survey to determine, however, fully compensate for the laas far as the nature of the subject will bour expended.

Great objects are admit of. From statements made at not to be obtained without great efthe late meeting of the British Asso- fort. By means of the sections which ciation in Liverpool, * it would appear, are now before the public, that the Government surveyors have made acquainted with the nature and been directing special attention to the structure of the rocks thousands of subject, and with much promise of feet beneath the ground

in par

we are

on which we

* See Transactions of the British Association for 1854. † According to Professor Ramsay, the Local Director,

tread. We can, with approximate location, and the bounding lines of accuracy, indicate the depth at which eruptive rocks, with an accuracy ap: certain strata, to which we had bid proaching that with which we could farewell miles behind us, repose ; and sketch these phenomena along the face should they again meet our view, we of some gigantic railway-cutting which are enabled to judge of the manner in had laid bare the interior of the earth, which they have conducted themselves from the summits of the loftiest moun. in the intervening space. In fine, we tains of Wales down to a thousand feet can draw the lines of bedding, of dis- below the level of the sea.

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tle sex

A very different aspect is presented by ing the influx of passengers. The acCarlow to-day to its appearance in the tive porters seize on your luggage as year of grace 1361, when Lionel Duke you draw up, and having paid the jarof Clarence established the exchequer vey something more than the “little of the kingdom here, and expended sixpence," enter the ticket-office. Here £500 — a vast sum in these days — in is a scene of crushing and excitement, building town-walls, of which now no and in the struggles the ladies are not trace remains. The frontier town of the much considered. We grieve to say it Pale has played its part, and vanished is a fearfully selfish place, and the gen. from the stage, to make room for per

are sometimes treated less formance more suited to the present ceremoniously than in the ball-room. day. It was then a journey of time Their anxiety respecting bandboxes and great difficulty to proceed hither and trunks, their innumerable quesfrom Dublin, for the road was not tho- tions respecting labels, and whether roughly cleared until 1399. Richard their luggage has not been put into the II. first visited Ireland in 1394. After wrong van - if there is any fear rereceiving a hollow submission from the specting its not arriving safely, &c.Irish chieftains, he departed for Eng.

sometimes meet hasty responses; but, land, whereupon they asserted their in justice to the officers and porters, independence. This caused the re- we must say they bear the trials of such turn of the monarch, and he marched questioning with most exemplary pathrough the territories of the Mac- tience. Murrogh Kavanaghs, O'Tooles, and The tickets provided, the carriages O'Byrnes; but it appears his chief ex- begin to fill; and the stately step with ploit was hewing down, not native which first-class travellers march to men, but native trees, and clearing their seats is often amusing. Ladies highways through his line of march. look at one another with a standoffish. Carlow from Dublin, at our present ness often comical, and are less inclined time of writing, is a pleasant trip. of to be communicative than gentlemen; about two hours. The citizen, wishing though among the latter there is often to visit this ancient but renovated a noli me tangere air, as much as to town, has only to direct the driver of say, “Don't presume to address youran “ Irish jaunting.car” to the King's self to me, sir ; I am not acquainted Bridge, and he is speedily “rowlin' with you.” When travelling with such along towards the terminus of the companions, there is no resource but Great Southern and Western Rail- in a book, or a page in book of way, and if he arrives in time for the Nature, seen from the next window. early train (seven o'clock), a bustling The second class affords more variety. and entertaining spectacle awaits him. Respectable men, often more so than The large and handsome structure those who seek to " come it fine" in looms against the sky, yet obscured taking a first-class ticket, wish to tra. by the haze of morning; but round vel economically, and do so. Ladies, the area cluster a string of cars, show- too, where growing families, or limited

means, oblige them to dispense with There is not one of the Irish rivers, luxuries at home and abroad, are here; the gleaming waters of which sparkle in and as there is no pretension, and every the dark framework of nountain or desire to be agreeable, interchanges of moor, more pregnant with important little kindnesses are constantly taking events than the Barrow. In explor. place, always productive of mutual ing its course hitherto, we have marked good-feeling, and frequently of endur- the progress of civilisation as well as of ing friendship. To the third-class car- fertilisation ; for the march of the for. riages the crowd rush, and here, in- mer is marked by halts-that is to say, deed, is confusion. The artisan, who the rise and spread of cities and towns. has been toiling during the week; the When water combines to present ad. smith, who bas been swinging the vantages conducive to health, personal sledge; the carpenter, who has been comfort, and traffic, the pioneer of driving the plane; the weaver, who civilisation, or the adventurous foot has been working at the loom, is about that presses the virgin soil of the unto take a holiday—and who has a better known region, stays its onward tread, right? His is the true otium cum dig. and the sanguine spirit exclaimsnitatean otium not owing its privilege “Lo! bere I build my dwelling!" I to man, but to the beneficent Father the site be well chosen, and the counin heaven ; a dignity not derived by try look inviting, others do likewise ; descent, but earned by the strong right the tide of population sets that way, hand and sinewy frame. Here they the solitary house has many compathrong, with wives and children, glad nions; these increase as the populato exchange the close, unwholesome tion fulfil the Divine precept, and air of lane or alley for breezy hill or where the waste appeared the town is flower-spangled field. To such influ- built. Then Commerce springs from ences the lowly-born are as keenly its busy bed - Demand produces Sapsensible as the great, in the world's ply, and Speculation and Thrift profit eyes; they are an inheritance “free by Idleness and Prodigality. alike to all," and appreciated as much, Carlow is pleasantly located on the (if not more) by the mechanic, who pur. east bank of the Barrow, and connectsues his lot of labour within the city's ed with the suburb called Graigue, in bound, as the noblest peer who re- the Queen's County, by a bandsome quires his workmanship. It is always ballustraded stone bridge of four a gratification to us to witness the heir arches. It is surrounded by a counof Nature taking possession of bis try chiefly agricultural, for, acting on birthright ; and the expression of his a policy the wisdom of which it is not toil-worn features, as bis frame enjoys our province to discuss, England rethe light of the sky, the freshness of solved that Ireland, in common with all the fields, the harmony of birds, the her other colonies, should form a mar. perfume of flowers, is pleasant to con- ket for the purchase of her manufactemplate.

tures. If, then, our readers are induced We have never refrained from en- to visit Carlow, and have a desire to tering into conversation with the peo- behold fields highly farmed, well-bred ple in our frequent rambles, either and beautiful animals--they are not along roads or rivers, as, in our opi- less so for being also domestic and usenion, there are other qualifications re- ful - we can promise them a great quired by the writers of this series treat. besides those of the archæologist and Carlow, an abbreviation of Catherhistorian. Many a local tradition is lough, the “ city on the lake,” was so known only to the wayfarer by the called from its proximity to a large roadside ; and, if this class are not sheet of water, which, together with treated with sympathy, they are very the city walls, has disappeared. The shy of unfolding their store of know- town is of considerable size, forming ledge. The great object which we two main streets, one running parallel have endeavoured to effect in our com- with the Barrow, and crossing the munications and we believe it is the Burrin, a small river flowing from the chief one which our MAGAZINE has barony of Forth, by a neat metal ever sought to advance-is a know- bridge; the other leads to the suburbs ledge of Irish bistory, rendered inte- of Graigue. Notwithstanding its great resting, when combined with local or antiquity, Carlow has a modern aspect, traditional associations.

and is kept clean and neat. The streets are paved, and the inhabitants enough, is near it, and well adapted as receive a good supply of water from a reformatory institution. public pumps. Coal is brought from But if Carlow prove interesting from the neighbouring coal-fields, and by so many modern features, how much is the Barrow, from Ross and Water- that interest increased, when we recol. ford ; but the fuel chietly used is turf, lect its wealth of history. The town of which an unlimited supply is pro- and country round are celebrated in the cured from the adjoining county of “Annals of Ireland.” Carlow occupied Kildare. There is great traffic in flour an important place in the eyes of the and oatmeal, manufactured by the Anglo-Norman invaders ; and as we large mills in the neighbourhood. proceed to examine the remains of its There is also trade in liquors, as a once stately castle, we shall endeavour brewery, a distillery, and several malt- to remind our readers of the most prohouses evince. Exportation of butter, minent events which took place before also, is very extensively carried on. its walls. On entering the halls of commerce, and Carlow Castle was built on a height seeing the busy workmen pursuing commanding the Barrow, evidently for their peaceful avocations ; streets the purpose of guarding the pass. The thronged on market-days with active name of its projector has been lost in men and bustling women, intent on the gloom of its antiquity. Among buying and selling; while the river is those to whom it is attributed, are alive with boats and barges, and along Eva, daughter of Dermot MacMur. the line of rail the steam.engine and rough; Isabel, daughter of Strongcarriages whirl, smoking, puffing, and bow ; King John; Hugh le Bigod, screaming — the tourist cannot help fourth Earl of Norfolk; and Bellinggrowing conscious that a new era has ham ; but Dr. Ryan, in his “ History succeeded the supine past, and that Ire- of Carlow," assigns it to De Lacy. land is in the transition state. Among The date of erection is supposed to be the modern buildings which deserve 1180, which was soon after the notice are the Protestant and Roman advent of the English. It was cerCatholic Churches-the former a hand- tainly considered a very strong protecsome building, with a noble spire ; tion for the English Pule in Leinster, the latter is also a spacious structure, and its history is, in fact, that of the in the later English style, with a lofty province. Hemmed in and harassed tower at the western extremity of the by the neighbouring Irish, it was with nave, surmounted by a beautifully-de- the utmost difficulty the settlers could signed lantern. At the base of the hold their ground. In the reign of altar are buried the remains of the Rt. Edward III., the prelates and men of Rev. J. Doyle, D.D. He was one of most distinguished rank in Ireland were the most distinguished Roman Catholic summoned to a great council or parprelates; and his letters, under the liament in Westminster, and the resignature of “J. K. L.” (the com- turn of the writ from Carlow set forth, bination of his own initial with those " that they were not able, by reason of of the dioceses of Kildare and Leigh- poverty, from the frequent robberies lin), were indicative of a high order and depredations of the Irish enemies, of talent and great reasoning pow- to meet their sovereign lord the King ers.

in his Parliament.” Subsequently they A magnificent statue, by Hogan, of actually became tributants to the Irish this eminent man, attest the estimation chiefs, and paid them for protection, or of his flock for his virtue, and regret cessation of hostilities, a regular black for his loss.

rent; nay, to such a height had the A Roman Catholic College, for secu- power of MacMurrough Kavanagh and lar and ecclesiastical education, is well other chieftains risen, that, by a record situated in a park, comprising an area in Birmingham Tower, of the 37th of thirty-four acres, affording space for Edward III., pro Barrio amovendo o recreation and meditation. The court- Catherlogh usque ad Dublin, we find house, near the entrance to the town by they contemplated abandoning it. In the Dublin road, is a handsome octan- 1397, the Castle was seized by Kagular building, with a Doric portico, vanagh, chief of the MacMurroughs ; after the Acropolis at Athens. This and for some time it was in possession rests on a platform, ascended by broad, of James, brother to the eighth Earl stone steps. The gaol, appropriately of Kildare. In 1494, Sir Edward

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