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“So my nephew is a naval hero, and scape ; and the old lady often spoke has been wounded-this is quite to my of purchasing the fee-simple of the taste. Lord Pompadour, who has be place, and leaving it to Grace's second come wondrous civil of late, was here boy, Martenbroke, who was her fayesterday, and says he served under vourite grandnephew. his brother, the adiniral, and is a young The cloisters were silent now, for man of the very highest character for James, the idiot lad, bad died of an talent and good conduct--this is even over-gorge of green pears plundered more pleasant. Martenbroke Ashley from th- Earl's orchard one moonlight is a pretty name; but if he is to be his night, and Miss Beaufoy had replaced aunt's heir, he must assume the old hiin with two little skye-terrriers, who crusader's nomme d'honneur, with the kept the rats at bay'; and with the arms, &c., of Beaufoy (you see, Grace, absence of these nocturnal trampers, how the old pride is in my heart still), the legend of Friar Basset died out in and he must leare the navy; he has no a few years, like a lamp for lack of one to fight now, and when they all fuel. come to Darkbrothers to stay with me Cheering it by her presence, blessing till I die, as I trust they will at once it by her charities, and brightening it do, I will bang the silver collar round by her hospitality, and her happy bis neck, and he shall be my devoted temper, Miss Beaufoy lived many knight, as you are my darling nurse, years at “ the Old House of Darkbriand I will share my love between you, thers.” She died in Grace's arms, full with a reserve for my dear sister and of faith, and hope, and joy, and the niece."
poor wept around her grave. Miss Beaufoy also wrote to her sis- About four or five years before she ter by the same post a long letter full died, the family had ali assembled one of contrition, humility, and love. Mrs. happy Christmas at the Vicarage, and Ashley wept happy tears over it, and were talking over old events, when then lid it in her bosom.
Captain Beaufoy, addressing his wife, Three months afterwards, the whole
said party were gathered round the Vicar- “ Grace, I want you to clear up a age drawing-room fire, and before mystery to me and to all these good another year had gone round, Miss people. I have now been your happy Beaufoy had the great joy of seeing husband for ten years, and if I were tu her nephew and her fair young nurse be asked what is the distinguishing united'in marriage, the happy couple trait of your character, I should anleaving after the ceremony for Hazle- swer, feminine gentleness. Tell us, then, glens, a beautiful place presented to what was the secret cause of your Captain Ashley Beaufoy by bis aunt, heroism, and what enabled you to go and within a few miles of Earlsdale through scenes that many a stout. and the Vicarage. The record also
hearted man would have shrunk says, that on the top of the carriage from?" which conveyed the bride and bride- Grace answered in a low sweet tonegoom to their new residence, carefully “ My secret power was all in prayer. packed in an imperial, was the silver I went to my divine Saviour for every. collar of Sir Guy Martenbroke! thing; he gave me the faith to ask, to
Miss Beaufoy never forsook Dark- receive; he NEVER FAILED MS - this brothers, but on the contrary, spent so was all the secret of my strength. much of her time, and taste, and mo- May it be yours, my beloved husband, ney, in improving the house, and beau- and
yours, my own dear friends." tifying the ruin, that Darkbrothers There was silence among the circle became a lion in the neighbourhood, as they sat, but the ear of God heard so that the Pompadours used to bring each heart as it throbbed its deep their guests to see it as a well-kept Amen. and picturesque piece of antique land
GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS; THEIR OBJECTS AND UTILITY.
No science, with perhaps the exception time, that the British Islands, which, of galvanism and its branches, has in within historic periods, have felt but a an equal period made such rapid ad- few slight vibrations of earthquakes vances towards maturity as geology. far remote, were in former ages the seat Dating its resuscitated life from the of vast subterranean movements, which days of Werner, De Saussure, Pallas, contorted and fractured its rocks, proand Hutton, towards the end of the last ducing vertical dislocations of hun. century, it has, within the memory of dreds and even thousands of feet; some of its surviving fathers, attained that volcanoes, generally submarine, the stature of a full and vigorous man- ejected over some portions of their hood.
area ashes and scoriæ; and that from The common assertion, that geology their craters streams of lava, equalling is in its infancy, is only true with re- those of Skapter Jokul, or Ætna, were ference to the vast field which remains poured forth — all these and similar to be brought within the compass of phenomena are so novel, so startling, geological investigation ; but is false and cause so great a revolution in the when compared with the growth of mind's preconceived ideas, that the atother sciences. Its rapid progress
is tention of the student is at once arto be ascribed to the fact, that it con- rested, and he is impelled to prosecute tains within itself many elements of po- the study of a science which abounds pularity. What conceptions of the in details of such wonder and interest. human mind more marvellous than the The study of fossil remains is at. sober deductions of geology! To learn tended with like attractiveness. We that we walk over the bed of ancient examine, for the first time, a fossil seas; that continents occupy the place shell with a curiosity similar to that of former oceans, and oceans of former with which we handle an ærolite. In continents ; that the rocks which form the one, we have the preserved portion not only the plains, but also the sum- of an animal, the inhabitant of our mits of mountains, contain the well- world, at a period when its geographi. preserved remains of marine animals ;* cal boundaries, its climate, and its that we adorn our halls and our hearths, fauna and flora were generally dissimior construct our edifices, with blocks lar to those of our own time; in the once the habitations, as they are now other, we bave a mineral, the only sothe tombs, of corallines and animal- lid, not originally part of our own culæ, some of which have left monu. globe, with which we can hope to come ments of their existence, which cause in contact. To both, therefore, there the great wall of China, the mounds is attached an amount of interest dis. of Nimroud, or the pyramids of Egypt, tinct in its character from that which to appear insignificant. In the lan- belongs to other objects, as they are guage of a celebrated naturalist, † late- respectively the representatives of ages ly deceased" For miles and miles we long since past, and of objects far bemay walk over the stony fragments of youd our reach. Were it not for these the crinoideæ, fragments which were organisms, often so beautifully preservonce built up in animated forms, en- ed, we should have imagined ourselves cased in living flesh, and obeying the and our fellow-creatures the first exam, will of creatures among the loveliest of ples of terrestrial life. Geology withthe inhabitants of the ocean.
out these could never have attained the Moreover, to know, for the first position of an exact science. The stra
* E. g. The highest peak of Snowdon is formed of an "ashy slate," of the lower silurian series, containing fossil shells.
† Prof. E. Forbes in his “ History of British Starfishes."
| Professor Ramsay mentions several “ faults” in Wales, varying in the amount of their vertical dislocations from 6,000 to 2,000 feet.-See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for August, 1853.
ta, now the records of the earth's pre- sular position of this country, that we are adamic history, written in intelligible (humanly speaking) indebted for our characters, could have been regarded national greatness and commercial pros. only as a volume of blank pages, and perity, though these have been powerful man would have been denied one of the auxiliaries; it is also in a great degree grandest of those illustrations of the to the mineral richness of the rocks* power of the Creator which the study of which the British Islands are com. of nature is capable of affording: posed. Had the whole surface of Bri
Another element of popularity in tain been overspread by the formations our science is the facility of its pursuit. of North Wales, the Highlands of Unlike most other sciences, it seldom Scotland, or those of the South-East requires the aid of expensive or cum. of England, we could never have bebrous instruments ; nor do many ab. come a great commercial or manufacstruse mathematical problems retard turing community. The occupations the progress of the general student. and distribution of the inhabitants is Geology is pre-eminently a science of evidence of the truth of this proposiobservation, in a minor degree of spe- tion. A traveller, passing through the culation. To its cultivators, a know- Scottish Ilighlands and the mountainledge of the principles and a certain ous districts of England and Wales, amount of the details of other sciences finds the mountains and valleys peois indispensible; but to the student of pled by scattered races, engaged in nature, the acquisition of these can be husbandry and pastoral pursuits
. He attended only with gratification, and descends into the plains, and there he may afterwards, in a great measure, be finds nuclei of dense populations, the carried about in the memory. Armed centres of manufacturing industry ; with his hammer, compass, clinometer, surrounding which, and stretching map, and fossil-bag, the “knight of away over extensive areas, he beholds the hammer" is fully equipped, and the country devoted to agriculture, ready to take the field. As a true dotted over with villages, cottages, knight-errant, he often braves dangers substantial farms, and country seats. and surmounts obstacles both of nature Here we have the three principal and art; and exploring the wildest phases of British life, depending chiefly regions of the earth, he seeks for coun- upon the nature of the strata in their tries where he may break rocks that respective districts for their distribu. are tougher than lances, and on which tion. The mountainous tracts are he may be the first to plant the stan- formed of primary and plutonic rocks, dard of science.
which, being destitute of coal, and phy, Although geology abounds in the sically ineligible for commercial and marvellous, and in investigations capa- high agricultural enterprise, are often ble of affording high intellectual enjoy- abandoned to their natural tenants, or ment, it also embraces subjects of great formed into extensive pasture for flocks practical utility, bearing on the wants and herds, or parcelled out into wide. and occupations of every day life. To spreading forests. The manufacturing those economical details, which it is towns are situated upon, or in the the object of geological surveys- espe- neighbourhood of, the secondary rocks, cially those undertaken under govern- the repositories of coal and iron, and mental auspices to develop, we now thus á mighty impetus is imparted to wish to direct special attention.
the prosecution of manufacturing enFew persons who have not specially terprise. Dr. Bucklandt calls attention considered the subject, are aware to to the fact, that nineteen of the largest how large an extent the social and and most important towns in England, commercial prosperity of a people de- from Exeter to Carlisle, are situated pends upon the geological structure of along the line of one geological formathe country it inhabits. It is not alone tion the new red sandstone, which, in to the religious and moral qualities of the addition to its own mineral products, Anglo-Saxon race, nor to the enlight- usually covers the invaluable deposit of ened laws, temperate climate, and in- coal, and at once yields an incentive
* The term “rock,” when used in a geological sense, signifies strata of all kinds, whether clays or sands, as well as bard stone.
† " Bridgewater Treatise."
and supply to the vast populations of tions, usually show rapids or cataracts, this favoured region. While, lastly, where they pass from the crystalline to the agricultural districts are occupied the newer deposits. Hence, such places by those formations both older and usually form the head of navigation for newer than the coal measures, which,* vessels, and it is this circumstance that devoid of useful minerals, are calcu- has located so many large cities on the lated, both from the nature of their line between the hypozoic and more own composition, and the character of recent rocks; these are New York, their superficies, to yield abundant re- Trenton, Philadelphia, Washington, turns for the labours of the agricultu- Richmond, Augusta, Columbus, Wetralist.
umpha, I &c. In order to illustrate the influence The two countries of the world phywhich the nature and structure of the sically most favourable to great comstrata exert in directing the social mercial prosperity, are Britain and the habits, and determining the density United States of America ; and surely of populations, we select the follow- it cannot be regarded as mere accident, ing:
that they are inhabited by nations The Staffordshire Potteries are cele- united by origin, language, and relibrated through the world for the ex- gion. The coal-fields & of the United cellence and beauty of the china-wares States bear about the same proportion which they produce. The materials to their area, that those of Britain do used in their manufacture are gene- to hers; and the strata which produce rally decomposing granite, flints, and the coal-beds of both countries belong carboniferous limestone chert; not one to the same great geological formation, of which commodities is the product of the carboniferous; in other words, they the district. The granite is brought were in process of formation at the from Cornwall; the flints, from the same period of time. In Britain, the south-east coast of England ; and area occupied by coal-measures is about the chert, from parts of Staffordshire 12,000 square miles. In the States and Derbyshire, at a distance of of America, the coal formation overabout fifteen miles from the Potteries. spreads an area of more than 225,000 But the presence of coal below the square miles; and, at a moderate calchert surface has marked out that part
, culation, the cubic contents of coal is of Staffordshire as the best situation nearly 150 miles! As is the case in for the factories; and it has, in con- Britain, the coal-measures of America sequence, become one of the most abound in iron; and from other rocks, busy, smoky, and populous districts minerals and ores are to be obtained in in Britain ; and the wonder is, how inexhaustible quantities. She, thereobjects so beautiful, pure and white, fore, possesses all the raw materiel neas its porcelain, statuettes, and other cessary to great commercial prosperity; products of genius and industry, can and should these resources be developed be produced under so impure an atmos- in a degree proportionate with those of phere.
this country, the future of America, in We shall cross the Atlantic for a a commercial point of view, is likely to second illustration - one disconnected be grand beyond precedent. With such with the question of the supply of a prospect, the supposition of the New coal.
Zealander standing on London-bridge, Most of the low and level lands on to sketch the ruins of St. Paul's, would the Atlantic side of the United States, apparently be realised rather in the are composed of tertiary and creta- person of Brother Jonathan, than of an ceous rocks. Next succeeds a more ele- inhabitant of the Pacific Isles. vated and less level region, which is hy- An empire of vast territorial extent, pozoic or crystalline. † Of course, the to which the eyes of the world are now rivers which cut across all these forma- directed, labours under the disadvan
* The term coal-measures is applied to all the strata, whether clays, shells, or sandstones, which are associated with coal-beds. † I. e., formed of igneous rocks, as granites, basalts, &c.
From “Outlines of the Geology of the Globe." By Professor Hitchcock. § The district occupied by coal-producing rocks, called coal-measures. VOL. XLVI.--NO. CCLXXVI.
tage which an almost total absence of does or does not exist below the surface; coal within its own bounds must neces- and in the former case its probable sarily present, both to commercial pros- depth ; and thus persons are made perity and to progress. In the Ural aware of favourable sites for sinking, Mountains and Siberia, Russia un- or deterred from doing so, in localities doubtedly possesses exhaustless trea- where coal-beds do not exist, or are sures of minerals and metallic ores; too deep to be reached. In the British but of greater value to her would bave Islands, and other countries, there are been the possession of an equal area of several geological formations, the strata coal-bearing strata. There can be no of which occasionally bear strong redoubt that the want of coal, when the semblance to those which produce coal, supply from foreign countries is cut though entirely distinct therefrom as off, acts as a check upon the ambitious regards their respective ages, and conprojects of Russia. The present war sequent relative position. Relying, appears to have well nigh exhausted however, on similarity of appearance, her supply. For want of coal, St. and deficient in that higher kind of Petersburgh is now lighted with oil knowledge, which enables the posses instead of gas, and the locomotive en- sor, from an inspection of fossil congines are heated with wood.*
tents or other data, to generalise for Few countries of any considerable large areas, persons have often ex. extent are entirely destitute of coal. pended large sums in abortive attempts Besides its occurrence in Britain and to obtain the precious mineral. These Ireland, it is found in France, Spain, attempts have been the ruin of many, Belgium, Saxony, Bohemia, and Swe- and the amount may be counted by den ; along the southern shores of hundreds of thousands. It is the obthe Black Sea ; in Persia, Hindostan, ject of geological surveys not only to China, East Indian Islands, Labuan, indicate districts under which coal unAustralia, North and South America; doubtedly exists, but also those where in the latter, in Banda, and along the it cannot possibly be found ; and where west side of the Cordilleras. Its more accurate maps have been completed, remarkable localities are Spitzbergen, no excuse remains to those who, ne Nova Zembla, and the coasts of Green. glecting to consult them, incur a profitland.
less, and often ruinous expenditure.t To determine with accuracy the mi- Geological surveys of districts of lineral resources of the district included mited extent have been frequently made within the range of its investigations, is by individuals or societies in this and the principal object of the geological other countries. Of this fact the reader survey. By tracing the boundaries of of the “ Transactions of the Geological the successive geological formations Society of London" is fully aware. with their minor lithological subdivi- Geological maps of the British Isles, sions on accurate topographical charts, by several authors, are also in existan approximate estimate of the area ence, which are as accurate as the occupied by each may be obtained. smallness of the scale will admit of. By this means, we are able to mee- When, however, the Ordnance Toposure and portray the amount of its graphical Surveyors had produced some limestones, iron - beds, sandstones, of their beautifully-executed maps, on slates, granites, and other rocks, toge- the scales of one inch and six inches ther with their arrangement and rela- to the mile, the value of a geographitionship to each other. With refer- cal survey, which should have these ence principally to coal, the evidence maps as their basis, was acknowledged; to be derived from such surveys is par- and accordingly, Sir H. T. De la Beche ticularly valuable ; for from the data obtained from Government the estabthus collected, the means are afforded lishment of geological surveys over for determining localities where coal Great Britain and Ireland, There
* From a correspondent of a London newspaper.
† Sir R. I. Murchison, in his “Silurian System,” mentions one enterprise which was abandoned after an expenditure of £20,000! In “ Richardson's Geology," edited by Dr. T, Wright, another instance is mentioned in which £10,000 was squandered ; and the writer of this article is personally acquainted with five abortive attempts, resulting from ignorance.