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victory of Gioto, besieged and success- “ Sire, it is with painful regret I fully gained the strong fortress of Peš. have to inform your Majesty chiera, hope would still remain to illu- “Stop, General; it is enough. My mine the atmosphere of darkness; or, offer is, then, rejected by Marshal Ra. could he but yet summon to his ban- detzky?" ners the men of Brescia, of Padua, the " I have not seen him, sire; but thousands of hearts beating loudly in Field-Marshal Hess,' who commands every part of Italy for the claims of in Marshal Radetzky's place, he hav. nationality, and place arms in their ing, before I arrived, retired to big hands, undisciplined as they may be, quarters. The former bade me informi the hour of victory might still be his, your Majesty all terms were inadmis. the world' proclaim—-" V'e un nomé sible if they came from your Majesty, più grande di Washington e di Kos- and no time would be lost in compel. ciusko, vi fu un trono eretto da venti ling the Sardinian army and yourself, milioni di uomini liberi che scrissero sire, to surrender at discretion.' nella base: "A Carlo Alberto nato il “Enough, enough — the cup of re, l' Italia renata per lui!'”

misery is full. General, retire, and Vain wishes ! -'fruitless surmises ! summon immediately to the council. Before bim stood the grim hand of room the members of our family, and Reality, withering and motionless-the the different generals of division. For giant figure of Despair, gaunt and stern. your services, I have" but thanks to Hope there was none. In agony he

offer you.” clenched his hands; his lips moved as “They are sufficient, sire, and far if they fain' would bäve uttered a more than I desire. May God bless prayer; and, exhausted in mind and

your Majesty !" uttered the General, body, he sank on a chair. Oh! Italy. fervently, as, bending a knee, he press: dear land !-how many a heart has felt ed the hand which was extended to: for thee the same.

wards him to his lips; and a tear, Time, bitter and swift in its flight, springing from a source he could not passed on, and it was necessary to act. controul, trickled down his cheek, and To act! kind Heaven. How? Must fell upon the trembling hand which he he, for no crime but for the glorious slowly resigned, and rising, retired ambition of freeing his native land from the room. from the cursed tread of the stranger, Again, for a second time since he and whose career was marked in cha- retired from the battle-field, stood the racters of blood-must he resign his aged King alone.

aged King alone. Had he anticipated sceptre, give up his country, fly from his fate? Had he forseen the result the scenes he had acted so conspicuous of his offer ? The proud Austrian foe, a part in, desert the remnant of his triumphant, implacable in his hatred, brave army? Yes, for their sake, for and in his hour of victory, was already the happiness of his people, it must preparing, in the early morn, to annibe done. Yet there is one thread on hilate the remnant of his brave and which yet hangs his destiny. A few devoted army. To resist successfully minutes longer, and fute will have de- was i:npossible. His army, the princided his future cilreer. Kind Provi. cipal part of it scattered and disunited, dence, look down in mercy, and nerve would require some two days, if even his heart for every reverse !

in that time it could be achieved, to A knock gently given on the door, be collected, to meet the foe again. and repeated several times louder, at That time was refused him; and to length roused Carlo Alberto from his save the kingdom for his son, the lives reverie of horror. Uttering a faint of his soldiers, the sceptre, which he command to enter, the door opened, had held for nearly nineteen long years, and an aide-de-camp appeared. must be resigned, himself become a

" Sire, General Cossato waits with- fugitive, an exile from his land. Fareout."

well, Hope! The night of the heurt “ Admit him instantly. General,"

had begun. exclaimed the King, as Cossato en- By a strong effort of a powerful tered, and he nervously clasped a ta- mind, he collected his scattered ble which stood near him, with one thoughts, and, passing his hand over hand, “speak!- let me know the result his feverish brow, be strode from the of your mission."

room in which he was in to another, where were assembled the Dukes of trodden through the sad vicissitudes of Savoy and Genoa, General Chrza- life, stern and inflexible in mien—could nouski, the different commanders of not repress their feelings, while gazing his various divisions, the Minister Ca- on the fine and noble form of their sodorna, and two or three other mem. vereign, whose every wish, in private bers of his household. What a scene and in public, beat responsive to their presented itself there! It required own. His invariable kindness of manevery effort Carlo Alberto was capa- ner, his generous sacrifice of self, his ble of summoning to his aid to meet indifference to personal danger, all enthose sad, mournful, and tearful faces. deared him to his people; and forget. A thought, a suspicion had already ting ceremony, and listening only to gone forth, that he intended to resign the impulse of their hearts, they crowd. his crown, and every heart present, ed around his person, and, with tears bound to him by many a kind act, and prayers, conjured him to alter bis looking upon him for years as a father decision. His son, the Duke of Savoy, to his people, bled inwardly and bit. also implored him, by every filial term terly at the spectacle of fallen majesty. of affection, to revoke his resolution. For an instant, as Carlo Alberto en- A slight working of the muscles of the tered, he paused and hesitated. His countenance was the only emotion eyes quickly wandered over each coun- Carlo Alberto exhibited, and again tenance, and sad was the sight they he reiterated his determination to presented. A slight shiver passed resign. through his frame, and then, with firm “ Signori, if it were possible, con. step, with head erect, his face lighted sistent with my rows, with the duty I once more with kingly pride, he took owe my people and my country, to a few paces further, and waved his retain the throne, the affection, deep hand

and solemn, you have shown for my “Signori !” he exclaimed, “ the fate person, would be sufficient to induce of war has disappointed the bright me to alter my decision. But when I hopes we all in concert felt, and your reflect, if I retain a day longer the bravery has failed before a destiny you sceptre, thousands of brave men will cannot avoid. I have summoned you, fall a sacrifice to support my dignity, I

faithful attachment to our cannot, and deeply do I regret it, acperson, to inform you that the struggle code to your prayer. To you, each can no longer last, for an army to sus- and all, I return the affection of my tain our united efforts exists no more heart ; and the generous feeling you but in name. The sceptre I have held have shown this day will at my last hour so long for the sake of my country, and be remembered as a bright consolation as a last proof of devotion to the in- for the disasters which have over. terests of my people, I resign in favour whelmed me and my people. Signori, of my sou, Victor Emmanuel, Duke of from this hour I am no longer your Savoy. To him, now your Sovereign, king; be honest, faithful, and devoted Austria will accord those terms of to my son, as you have ever, in the peace she has and will ever refuse to time of safety or danger, been to me." me."

Turning from one to another, the For a few instants after Carlo Al.

king embraced each ; and amidst the berto bad finished speaking, a deep bitter sobs of many, the king quitted silence reigned in the council-room. the council-room and returned to The emotions of many present, how- his private room. Then, in the silence ever, could not be contained ; nature of his room, apart and alone, with no could withhold no longer, and sobs prying eye to watch his demeanour bitter and terrible burst forth. The but the all-seeing One, the pride of the veteran soldiers, who had beheld, al. fallen monarch gave way, and bursts most unmoved, the fields of carnage of

agony issued from his lips. * No one and death- who had gazed upon many who has not felt the fall from high and and many a scene of horror—who had lofty station to poverty and ignomi.

from your

* Carlo Alberto, in conversation at Tolosa with a friend of the author, owned he could scarcely contain his feelings at the grief of his generals, and was glad when he was able, when alone, to give rent to his emotions.

ny, the sudden crush of some long and cherished hope, can possibly imagine the pain_terrible and intense—which breaks down and bows to the earth the spirit, however bold and soaring. The exiles of Italy, wanderers and fugitives, know well the agonising feelings of riches lost, of hopes crushed, of country and friends, perhaps for ever gone! Let the reader not then in mockery smile, nor laugh at what he or she may call a folly: there are feelings which even displayed, and given loose to in tears, draw their inspiration from the very fountain of life itself, pure, noble, and true, as the light of heaven!

Midnight had long passed away. In the room still sat the fallen hope of Italy. He had evidently been writing, for before him was a letter addressed to the queen. The husband who had cherished her in the hour of prosperity, when rank, riches, power were his own, now fallen and heartbroken, deserted her for her sake, for his chil. dren, for his country! Direful fate ! To abandon, and for humanity's sake itself, the best, dearest, and holiest ties of life, how fearful and rending to the mind! The throne, with its cold ceremonies of life, with its appendages of riches and power, becomes, when brought to the inward heart, a mockery of mockeries. Beauty, home, lovewhere are they? Forced to yield be. fore the cold and heartless usages of a people! The heart a slave ! custom the idol !

Into the room enters Alberico Porro. With limbs trembling beneath him he advances to the king, and with a voice choking with emotion be throws himself on his knees before him.

“ Sire !” he exclaims, “may I dare venture to supplicate at your hands a last favour?”

“Signor Porro, little remains in my power to grant you; the days of my prosperity have already flown, and are now numbered with the past."

“Sire, I implore you, refuse me not!"

“ Well, signor, your wish is granted, if the favour is still within my power to bestow."

“ Thanks! sire, thanks ! my sole wish, my dearest object, is to accompany your Majesty wherever you go, should you, sire, deem it necessary to withdraw from the army."

“ Porro," replied the king, “my word is plighted, and you have rightly divined my thoughts. The preparations for my departure are already made, and the foolish feeling of indecision which at times will steal over the strongest mind, alone has delayed my departure. It has gone now, and I will at once quit this scene of my misery. God knows how soon the grave I opened for others, with no wrong motive, will too receive my body. Assist me on with this cloak; and mind, signor, I am no longer Carlo Alberto, but a simple gentleman."

With a mind, notwithstanding its sadness, full of joy at the trust reposed in him, Porro assisted to place over the shoulders of the king a common soldier's cloak. A low sized hat, which partly covered his eyes, was placed on his head, and taking the arm of Porro, he, after passing through several rooms, descended a private staircase. At the bottom of it stood a man, as if waiting for somebody, and on a sign from the king be at once moved on towards the street. A carriage here awaited him, and with a firm pace he mounted the step and seated himself within. Porro in silence mounted the box, in company with the person who had preceded the king and himself, and the carriage, drawn by two horses, and guided by a postilion, immediately was driven onwards towards the gates of Novara. Passing through the streets, crowded here and there with troops, even at that hour of night, the carriage was driven forward to the walls with some difficulty. Confusion seemed to reign around on every side, and not until an hour bad passed over were they able to reach the open country. The utmost caution was now necessary, for they were approaching the Austrian lines, and soon the king and his companions in danger were assured of the fact, by a shower of bullets which came whistling by them. Luckily they did no harm, and Porro, at the first notice of danger, springing from his seat, rushed forward, and in German requested to speak with the officer in cominand. At the sound of his voice the firing at once ceased, and after interchanging a few words with two or three of the soldiers, an officer, commanding the post, came near to


sees me no more.

Porro, and requested to know his plea- have induced your Majesty to honour

Before he could reply Carlo Al- me with your presence." berto stood by his side, and demanded No, Count, I wish to depart as from the officer the name of the com- soon as po-sible, if it be not your in mander of his division.

tention to detain me here a prisoner.". “ Count Thurn," replied the Aus. “God forbid I should do so! Let trian.

your Majesty but express your wish, “ Inform the count, then, a mes- and if it interferes not with the duty I senger bearing an important message owe the Emperor, there is no one who desires an immediate interview.” would more willingly fulfil any com. “If such is your request, sir, you

mand of your Majesty;" had better follow me; but I cannot per- “My only request, Count Thurn, is mit any other person to cross our lines to be allowed to pass through the Emwith the exception of the gentleman peror's forces on my way to Bayonne. who is with you."

From the moment I quit Italy, if my Be it so; I am ready to follow path be not impeded, my poor country you, sir.”

Victor Emmanuel Guided by the officer, the King and is now king of Piedmont.” Porro pursued their path through the “ Willingly, your Majesty, willing. Austrian lines, and in a short time ar. ly shall your request be immediately rived at the headquarters of Count complied with. I will take the entire Thurn. On the king's demand for a responsibility on myself, and will order private interview it was at once ac- at once an officer to conduct your Macorded, and in a few minutes more jesty on your journey beyond the Carlo Alberto stood in the presence of reach of danger. the Count. The last hope of Italy was “ Thank you, count, for thanks in the power of its greatest enslaver, alone I can offer you." seeking at his hands a retreat from “They are suflicient, your Majes. kingly power. How strange Provi- ty,” replied the count, in a tremulous dence are thy ways! the mighty of to- tone as, bowing respectfully, he quitted day becoming the beggar tomorrow. the room to order a fit and proper es.

* Count Thurn," exclaimed the cort for him whose last hour in this king, his voice yet full of kingly power, world was quickly approaching. before you you behold him who but a few hours ago was in possession of A few months after, on the 28th of the throne of Sardinia.

He comes

July, at a convent in Oporto, died to you a suppliant, requesting as a Carlo Alberto, of a broken heart. last favour the privilege of passing Crushed in spirit, from which all the through your lines to seek a retreat efforts of Porro could not arouse him, from scenes in which he can no longer he gradually sank from day to day, figure but as a mourner for the mis- and died breathing his last hope for fortunes of his kingdom.”.

Italy's emancipation. That hope, utFor an instant astonishment pre- tered in the silent room, fervently vented the Count Thurn from answer- speaking the thought of his life, is felt ing, so astounded was he at the reve. deeply in the hearts of bis countrymen. lation made. Bearing a character far And may his spirit yet see that his from the brightest, yet the truth I misfortunes have not been thrown am bound to utter, for in a moment away in vain, but, forming another of after the Count started from the seat those many mournful remembrances on which he was reclining, and bis which render the garden of Europe all look of surprise succeeded to one of the dearer to her sons in her sorrow, deep regret.

these sons will yet arise again, power"I entreat your Majesty's pardon, ful in justice, in truth, and in might, if for an instant I have forgotten the to plant on high the standard of liberty respect I owe you. I trust your Ma- in heaven's light, dyed with the blood jesiy will honour me by seating your. of those martyrs who implanted on self, while I listen to the reasons which Italian soil the love of freedom 1

HELPS' SPANÍSU CONQUESTS IN AMERICA. Few of our readers can be ignorant of must be a series of historical events which, à series of works, commencing with a if brought to light, would solve all these volume entitled “Essays Written in questions; and I will endeavour to trace the Intervals of Business," and closing

this out for nàyself." with " Companions of my Solitude, which, if we have not in each instance

No man has ever investigated å formally noticed, as the successive subject without finding that former ab. volumes appeared, our silence pro

stracts do little more for him than refer ceeded from our knowledge that, with

him to authorities. Mr. Helps com. out any aid from reviews, their cir

menced the study of this subject with culation was far more extensive than

the notion, that the few facts wbich he that which periodical publications can sought to ascertain might be easily command ; that their influence on

found stated with sufficient accuracy opinion is greater at the moment, and

for his purpose. What he looked for, likely to be more permanent; in short,

however, was not what former students that to most of the readers to whom of the same period of history had we could hope to introduce a new pub. sought, and in modern books he found lication, the writings of this author

little or nothing of use to him. It was were already favourably known. not that his proper subject had not

The name of the author of these been written upon, but it had not been, books has not been hitherto placed in in any true sense of the word, investhe titlepage of any of them, and may tigated. A subject which he thought not even be known to many of his might be mastered, as far as its asceradmirers. It is now for the first time

tained facts were concerned, by a few given with any of his publications. days or a few hours' study in his The titlepage of the volumes before us library, was, he found, one, of which bears the name of Arthur Helps. To

the mere preliminary knowledge could this ought to have been added, author not be acquired without the study of of “ Friends in Council,” and “ The years, and rendering himself fami. Claims of Labour.”

liar-not with the language and literaThe “ History of the Spanish Con- ture of Spain, for this would be a comquest in America "* has in some degree paratively light labour, accompanied grown out of the two books the names by its own immediate reward of present of which we have last written ; but this enjoyment, but with numerous manu. is best told by the author himself :

scripts of a remote period, painfully

deciphered ; and even to consult which “Some years ago, being much interested

involved long journeys, occasional rein the general subject of slavery, and en

sidence in Spain, and the trouble gaged in writing upon it, I began to inves- which, in spite of any courtesy from tigate the origin of modern slavery. I soon librarians, must be felt in study not found that the works commonly referred to conducted in one's own house. Mr. gave me no sufficient insight into the mat- Helps, we learn from occasional notes ter. Questions, moreover, arose in my mind, through these volumes, has had senot immediately connected with slavery, but veral of the manuscripts relating to bearing closely upon it, with respect to the

his subject transcribed for him. These distribution of races in the New World.

difficulties, like most difficulties which Why,' said I to myself, are there none but black men in this island; why are there

we overcome, have not been without none but copper-coloured men on that line of

some advantage. Had our author coast; how is it that in one town the white easily found what he sought for in any population predominates, while in another modern compilation, we should most the aborigines still hold their ground? There probably have him calling his friends

• “The Spanish Conquest in America, and its Relation to the History of Slavery and to the Government of Colonies." Vol. I. By Arthur Helps. London: John W. Parker and Son, West Strand. 1855.

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