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ridge which rises by the side of the Savoyards, singing the Marseillaise river Adoyna ; and the moment they Hymn, to the combat, and, despite a had ascended it, a large force appeared terrible flank fire, vomited forth from in the distance, their muskets glitter- the Austrian artillery, they inade good ing in the faint rays of the sun. It every inch of ground, and boldly drove was the corps of the Baron d'Aspre, the enemy before them. Their career advancing on the road towards Nova- was, however, presently stopped by ra. After carefully surveying the dis- the advance of the division of the tant foe, Pinaldi and Porro turned Count Zielmansegges, and again in their horses, and at full speed galloped their turn they were forced to retreat. back to their post at Olengo, where Fresh troops poured in on each side, they instantly sent word to General and the combat became a general one. Chrzanowski of the approach of the Count Kollourat, with a large force of enemy. A body of Piedniontese sharp. the enemy, aided by a powerful artilsbooters they found was stationed in a lery, had stormed, near San Mazzaro, group of houses along the road, which several Casine; while the Kaiser Jä. must form the first place of attack. gers had extended themselves to the The two friends rode along the ranks right of Olengo. The sixteenth regiof the small body of cavalry, endea- ment of Savona, that had nobly disvouring to while away the time which tinguished itself there, against fear. must elapse before the enemy ap. ful odds, was at length forced to proached near enough to commence retreat, and the Duke of Genoa, learn. the deadly strife, by uttering words of ing its situation, instantly led forward encouragement to the brave hearts be. his whole division to its support. The fore them. They were, however, but gallant Marquis of Passalacqua also little needed amongst them, for their hastened to the same post, and wading every pulse beat with anxiety to meet with his troops through the Arboyna, their common foe. Glorious band ! turned the flank of the Austrians, and, in thee Italy beheld sons worthy of her with fearful loss of life, drove them pride!

back on Olengo, which the division In a short time the enemy made his under the Austrian Archduke had sucappearance, and instantly formed in ceeded in occupying. But not long line of battle. With ardour the Aus. did they retain that position ; for the trians advanced to the attack of the Duke of Genoa, disengaging the fourth houses, where were stationed the Pied. regiment, pushed forward to the as. montese sharp-shooters, and drove sault, and, amidst a storm of missiles, them, after a short contest, from the drove the enemy from Olengo. This buildings. The Savona regiment, that momentary victory was dearly bought, had arrived to the aid of their Italian as here fell the gallant Perrone and brothers, rushed onwards to prevent the Marquis Passalacqua, covered with their flight; but numbers prevailed, wounds, and they also were forced to retreat. The day was now far advanced, and The second Savoy regiment, remark- almost the entire of the Piedmontese able for its courage and discipline, army was engaged with the divisions now appeared marching hastily to the of Baron d’Aspre and the corps under scene. The instant the Baron per- the command of the Archduke Albert ceived its approach, he gave orders to and bis brother, the Sardinians victo. the trumpeters to sound the order to rious on every side, when the third prepare to charge :

Austrian division, under General Apsi Italians ! now is the moment to pel, appeared on the field of battle to show yourselves worthy your coun- give fresh courage to their dismayed try! Be ready! Justice fights on your friends. Again, with fresh vigour and side !"

renewed force, advanced the Austrians Again shrilly blew the trumpets, to the combat ; again pealed forth the and with loud 'shouts of “ Viva l'In- thunder of artillery ; again echoed the dependenza Italiana! Morte ai Tedes- shouts of command-the groans of the chil” onwards, in serried columns, dying. In vain did the enemy pour like a mighty avalanche, dashed that fresh battalion after battalion on the noble band, driving the foe before Sardinian forces vain the charges them, and giving time to the Savona made with desperate courage; they regiment to form again their disorder- were met with á gallantry and devo ed ranks. Bravely, too, advanced the tion worthy the noblest and brightest

cause. Once more did victory gild the banners of the Savoy Cross, and had night fallen but then, a new impulse would have been given to the Italian hope of nationality. The fire of Novara would bave extended throughout Lombardy, and raised on the rear of the Austrian a hundred thousand foes - unarmed, it is true, but yet formi. dable in their imposing numbers. Providence willed the sufferings of Italy should still continue-its want of faith its own curse.

At this hour, when Heaven seemed smiling hope on the destinies of Italy, General Chrzanowski ordered the final blow to be struck, and the division of General Bes, which hitherto had been kept in reserve, to advance to the attack. In close columns they were preparing for the decisive charge, when Marshal Radetzky, with a formidable body of artillery, accompanied by six battalions of grenadiers, made his ap. pearance on the field of battle, and instantly the movement was checked by the fire of thirty guns. At the same period also the fourth division, under Count Thurn, had crossed the Agogna, and, unknown to Chrzanowski, attacked his rear. Secured in their strength now-in their powerful field of artillery - in the reinforce. ments which thus unexpectedly arrived to their assistance the Austrians on every side rushed to the attack of their disheartened but yet unbeaten foe. For six long hours had the Sardinian army been now engaged, their numbers thinned, their strength almost exhausted. Now were seen in their ranks, as the order was given to retreat, deeds worthy of being chronicled in the page of history danger despised-honour, patriotism, animating still their courage. The Duke of Genoa exposed himself in the very thickest of the fight-now charging on horseback, now battling on foothis example giving courage to the weary troops wherever be appeared. And where during all this time was the ill. fated monarch, who had so nobly risked his throne for Italy's sake? He, too, throughout the entire day, had en. dured the same hardships and danger as the commonest soldier in his ranks, rushing wherever it was most to be found, and often carrying victory wherever he came. Amongst a storm of bullets that had twice killed horses under him, he seemed to bear a

charmed life. His sabre reeking with the blood of the foe, bis noble form towering above all, the plumes of his helmet hacked to pieces, he still fought on, undaunted, amidst the carnage. Once more, brave King-worthy of a nobler fate !_dash thyself on the advancing enemy; see how he shrinks before thy blood-stained sabre! The day is lost ; but thy deeds of devoted heroism will remain embalmed within the hearts of thy army. Thou seekest death, yet cannot find him. See! thou art surrounded, and thy hour may be nigh; still, fight on-fight to the last, What a glorious moment to fall, stricken on that gory field where the blood of many a high spirit devoted to thee flows in streams !--thy last deed, combatting for the cause of humanity, But see, who is that who stands by thy side, warding off from thy head many a blow, his body covered with wounds, yet, dauntless, unmindful of his self, regarding alone thy own safety ? It is the Baron Pinaldi. Through the field, dashing over the bodies of the living and the dead, onwards advance -to the rescue! to the rescue!- the last remnant of the gallant band of Pinaldi, led by Alberico Porro. Their noble monarch is in danger-wbat care they for the fearful odds against them! With desperation they charge the astonished foe, who thought the kingly prize his own, and in an instant the space is clear. A moment more, and it would have been too late-the Baron Pinaldi bas sunk to the ground, a sabre-cut severing bis head from his body. But quick !--the danger is not yet past. In a close column, the King in their centre, they retreat, fighting every inch of ground against the fear, ful foe that pressed upon their steps. In a moment more, they are compara, tively safe; they have joined the troops of General Durando, who, in good or, der, are effecting their retreat. Amidst the prayers of those around him, the King refuses to leave the field. “Ge. neral!" exclaimed he to Durando, " let me die on the field-this should be my last day !" Alas! his destiny was vot there he was to offer still the mourn. ful spectacle of fallen majesty. Not till near eight o'clock that evening did Carlo Alberto leave the fatal field, on which was wrecked the last hopes of poor Italy. Weep! weep! Italy, the stranger still exults in thy slavery, misery, degradation !

CHAPTER XXI.

CONCLUSION.
“And when he saddest sits in homely cell,

He'll teach his swains this carol for a song-
• Blessed be the hearts that wish my Sovereign well,
Curscd be the souls that think her any wrong.'
Goddess, allow this aged man his right,
To be your beadsman now, that was your knight."

-THE AGED MAX-AT-ARXS. “ Your glorious father, in consummating his last and lamentable sacrifice, has crowned the virtues which will ever render great in Italy the name of the restorer of our liberties."- Address of the Sardinian Senate ta King Victor Emmanuel, 29th March, 1849.

It was night. The dark band of Time Civilisation, of Justice, and of Right. slowly and mournfully had passed on Novara ! thy name will never be forward since our last chapter. Another gotten, for time can never erase thy few hours and the town of Novara was mournful and disastrous remembrance. enshrouded in a darkness, lit only here In a saloon of the Belliori's Palace, and there by a few solitary stars, whose at Novara, with irregular paces, strode mild beams lent a still sadder look to the Carlo Alberto, the true, the brave, and field of carnage, desolation, and death. virtuous. The tottering form, the Night!-ah, who can forget that night? countenance overcast with care and In its short space fell the hopes of thou- sorrow, the nervous twitching of the sands of brave and noble hearts_hearts frame, told how terribly he felt the that but the night previous beat high reverses of his army and of his country. and quick with earnest fervour for Who could believe that in the space of country and home. Those same scenes a few hours such a change could have then echoed with the heart-stirring come over him, as if years had passed martial song of war, carrying in its over bis head? The bold and erect frame notes the brightest inspirations of the was there no longer; the bright, intelhuman mind, and teeming with a thou. ligent glance of the eye was gone; the sand wishes, wildly and joyously utter- cheerful tone had fled-all departed, ed, for the independence of their native never to return. And in their stead land. Where now were the sounds of was beheld the old and infirm step of those happy songs ? Gone ; and in age, bowed down by grief and despair. their place were heard on every side the Frightful it is to see the effect of mind wail of lamentation and despair, the over body--the giant spirit triumphing groans of the wounded, the prayers of over matter, and asserting his imperial the dying, the efforts of officers to con- sway. The most acute pain, the most duct and array their soldiers in order, intense agony, can never accomplish in the struggling, the shouts of command years what despair effects in hours. -all presenting a mass of horror and Nor did I ever see it realised to such confusion impossible to describe. Those a terrible extent, as I did in the person alone who were present could form a of the late ill-fated King of Sardinia. picture of the scene of heart-sickening Kind reader, pardon me, if at this despair ; and how bitter and terrible period, when my tale draws to a conwas the disappointment felt, far more clusion, I pause for a few moments to even in that scene of agony, of those offer my tribute of respect to him who bright hopes of national emancipation, is beyond human censure, and to defend 80 long wished for, and which were the memory of the dead from the cacarried out with a boldness, and energy,

lumnies that have been, with no spar. and virtue, perbaps the world will never ing hand, heaped on the head of one, witness again. Night !-yes, it was whose memory has, and ever will night indeed. The exile, torn from be, retained by his countrymen in his home, banished from his country, grateful remembrance. That Carlo plundered of all most dear to him in lberto had his failings, as I have belife, never hears that fatal night men- fore observed in this tale, is not to be tioned but his heart becomes that of a denied; but where is the man who is child, and in vain he weeps over the perfect? That over him stole at times memory of those brave-hearted com. a gloom of character, from which it was panions wbo fell on the field of battle, difficult to draw him; that in these momanfully combating for the cause of ments a bigotry of disposition marked

his course, cannot be denied; but then true exponents of the genius of modern stand forth, in bold relief, many and Italian liberty. Mazzini and his small many noble virtues, making us forget party, for small it is, may stand forth the imperfections, whilst admiring those and assert such to be the case ; but qualities so worthy a king. The asy- facts are not to be controverted and lum he always afforded in his king. gainsayed by boastful assertions. The dom to exiles from every other part of votes of the people of Milan, of Parma, Italy—the noble manliness with which of Piacenza, and of other towns the he always resisted the efforts of Aus- votes of the Venetian Assembly at the tria and the other adjoining despotic period of the Revolution—all tend to states to deliver them up to their tender prove the truth of what I advance, that mercies-should alone be sufficient to Italy is not Republican in heart, but endear his memory in the mind of every earnestly panting for a liberal monartrue Italian whose heart beats respon- chical government, headed by the House sive to the call of liberty. But apart of Sardinia.* Even the legions who from this consideration-the attention fought so valiantly in Rome were not he paid to commerce, to the encourage. Republicans. The one of Manara, the ment of art and science, to the wants best and bravest, openly wore the cross of agriculturists, his gift of a liberal of Savoy on their sword-belts, and constitution to his people, and the continually declared they were not Reflourishing position Sardinia was in publicans. Mazzini, aware of this throughout his reign, so different to fact, in asserting all the volunteers in antecedents-tend to prove he was a Rome were special partisans of his monarch not merely in name, but also in dogmas, must knowingly have asserted mind. Nor would there be need for me, a falsehood. Mariotti, in his able were the history of my country, with its work, justly observes, Mazzini's "fuith religious, social, and political position, is in God and the peoplehe alone read and understood in the United God's interpreter--the people his blind Kingdom, to place bere on record my instruments." And it was because the humble assertion of well-known facts; Revolution of Lombardy broke out, for then they would in themselves at independent of any agency of hisonce repel, and with indignation, the every act of the drama of it concocted efforts made by disappointed ambition unknown to him--Mazzini's pride took to sully the character of the de- umbrage at what he considered an inparted. And who are these parties sult to his dignity, and forgetting prin. who are continually tearing away ciple and country, he determined, from the veil of decency which should the instant he put foot on Lombard cover the unfortunate and the gravem soil—the soil freed from the hands of where should rest for ever the private its oppressors by its own gallant sonsanimosities of our nature - the good the soil where he himself was prevented only to be remembered, the wrong for- from showing his person for many a gotten — who are these men, I ask? long year— to mark his gratitude by The answer is, a small section of Red doing all which lay within his power Republicans or modern Socialists, who to stab Italy to the heart. His every I deny, and deny emphatically, are the act pursued during the existence of the

On the 9th of June, 1848, the result of the voting at Milan was as follows:-561,000 for immediate annexation to Piedmont; 681 for putting off the question until the war liad terminated. The votes of the Venetian Assembly for immediate annexation to Lombardy and Piedmont, 127; against, 6. At Piacenza, for a union with Piedmont, 37,000; with Lombardy, 69; with the States of the Church, 300; with Parma, 10. At Parma, only one voted for a Republic.

† Mazzini says, “ The heroes of the barricades, the volunteers in Tyrol and Friuli, the Roman and Swiss auxiliaries, were all Republican. The Manara Legion, the bravest and best organised of these free corps, served at Rome for the Republic, always declaring they were no Republicans, insisting on bearing the Cross of Savoy on their sword-belts,' and went consequently by the name of aristocrates.”_See Dandolo.

# " Verily we say it, from the depth of our soul, by that ill-timed protest in which he declared the Provisional Government had betrayed their mission)-by that still more uniseasonable vindication of bis principles, by which the ardour of the Lombard population was thus miserably wasted in worse than unprofitable discussion-Mazzini, so far as lay in his power, stabbed Italy to the beart."- Mariotti.

VOL. XLVI. --N0. CCLXXV.

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provisional government, proved such picable, was, but a short time prior, to be the fact. Allowing his opinions held up by him as a model and pattern differed from those of the Milanese of virtue. people* and their government, yet if To the kind reader who has perused he was a true patriot in heart, and de- my story, and who has thus become sired but the good of his country, as acquainted with all the secret ramificahe has often asserted, he should, with. tions of the Revolution of 1848, I com. out hesitation, have sacrificed those mit the task of doing justice to the opinions for a time, and endeavoured, memory of him who to-day is before a instead of sowing discord and dissen. mightier and more glorious tribunal sion, to advance by his utmost efforts than the one of frail and weak man. the independence of his native land, The grave bas received the wreck of by overthrowing the foreigner and op- ruined and blighted hopes—the hearts pressor, and binding in closer bonds of Italy preserve their memory. Re. the minds of Italy, until danger had quiescat in pace ! entirely disappeared. Instead of doing To return to our narrative. this, he aided in the formation of a Many and many a long minute passconspiracy against the provisional go- ed away as Carlo Alberto paced the vernment of Milan; his speeches and saloon backwards and forwards, bis his writings were full of discontent; mind a chaos, his thoughts impossible preaching for ever divide ! divide !" to be collected. Vividly, like a meteor as if division, instead of insuring ruin, illumining for an instant the borizon, created success: he and his particular flashed to his mind the memory of past partisans deserted, in the very first years. The dream conceived in youth, hour of danger, when the Austrians nourished by the soft touching strains were marching against Milan, and in of Petrarchi, wrought into reality by short never fired a single shot to ensure the fiery genius of a friend of the poet, the glories of victory, or to lessen the Rienzi, who twice almost realised, in disasters of defeat. The opinions of the middle ages, the inspirations of his General Pepe, an ardent Republican, imaginative mind_thai dream which those of Mariotti, Dandolo, Farini,t he too had, in a similar manner, twice General Bara, and others, bear out dared to realise-was crushed, broken fully my assertions; but even if fur- by a climax of disasters he could never ther evidence was wanted, the words have foreseen-a dream which he now of Mazzini himself prove it is not by was forced to abandon for ever. For him or his theories the liberties of

ever !_sad and fatal word. The dear Italy will ever be secured, but by the wish, the fond dream was fied, and not same honest hearts who gained the even Hope, the magic star of human first victories in Lombardy, at the sa- existence—the sweet consoler of man's crifice of their fortunes and blood, and disappointments - remained to cheer who first proved to Europe and the hiin up, and bid bim again summon world at large that the elements of a every energy for the struggle, where nat 'on are still existing on the plains lay prostrate all the bright prospects of the Garden of Europe. Mazzini's of his country's happiness. Oh I could endeavours to blacken the memory of le but call again to life the hundreds Carlo Alberto but tend to expose the who were now beyond his reach, lying extraordinary inconsistency of his own calmly in the cold earth-those who, character, for the ill-fated King, who by their bravery, and at the sacrifice to-day is everything miserable and des. of their lives, had won the glorious

Mazzini admitted to Capponi that Italy did not seem inclined for a republic; yet the effort should be made.

† Farini thus describes Mazzini ::-"In theology he is a deist, a pantheist, and a rationalist, by turns, or a compound of all. He might seem a Christian, but none can tell whether Catholic or Protestant, or of what denomination. At one time he appeared in everything to copy La Mennais-another man without a system. He was not always a republican, or did not show it, at any rate, when, in 1832, he invited King Charles Albert to act the liberator. If republican he were, it was a strange kind of republic he fancied, when, in '47, he exhorted Pius IX. 'to have faith,' and thought him capable of every rational, humanitariun effort. At another time he wrote against the theories of what is called socialism ; then, when the wheel went round, he concocted a fresh essay, and allied with the socialists of all nations."

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