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removed. He was detected in the tant estate ; but the vanity of the latter prying attempt to discover who was overcoming his prudence in his dangernamed as successor, in that acknow- Qus position, he had the temerity to set ledged guide of all future sovereigns out from the capital with such pomp of Russia, the celebrated will of Peter and parade, as to excite the envy the Great, and his curiosity cost the and anger of his enemies. They easily principality of Pleskow,

prevailed on the Emperor to send after He had, however, sufficiently attained him a party of soldiers, with an order his object to commence his prepara- for his reduction to the rank of a pean tions ; and as soon as the Emperor had sant, when he was stripped of his fine ceased to exist, Menschikoff was busily garments, and being arrayed in a suitemployed in bringing several parties able dress, was transferred to a cart, in Russia to agree to the accession of and conveyed without delay to Siberia. Catherine I., and to obey the injunc- Menschikoff lost his wife and one of his tions of the departed monarch. His daughters during this distressing jourexertions were successful, and the first ney, and died himself in that dreary Empress and Autocratrix of all the region, November 2, 1729. The young Russias testified her friendship and Emperor did not long outlive this se appreciation of his services by com- verity, falling a victim to the small manding the son of the murdered pox, in 1730, at the early age of fifteen, Alexey (subsequently Peter II.) to and the direct line of the male succes marry the daughter of Menschikoff, sion was once more extinct in Russia. while she gave the Grand Princess to The Duke of Holstein Gottorp, the son of her early friend. The par- son of Anne, eldest daughter of Peties were formally betrothed, and Mens- ter the Great, was now clearly enchikoff was created Duke of Cogel, titled to the crown, but the Council having his ambition and avarice grati- took upon themselves by a manifesto, fied by the greatest importance and on the 4th of February, to select an. wealth in the Empire.

other, Princess Anne, Duchess of But this grand elevation, unstable Courland, and second daughter of as water, and fleeting as the passing Ivan, the brother of Peter, though hour, was only the prelude to an un. her elder sister, the Duchess of Cour. looked-for fall. Catherine I., who had land, was still alive. By this choice passed through so many vicissitudes, they supposed they would have sefrom a destitute and homeless orphan cured a more pliant sovereign ; and to the throne of the Czars, for the though they declared she was elected short space of two years only survived by the unanimous will of the Rusher husband, by whom she left a daugh- sian nation,* they proposed to her, on ter, Elizabeth, afterwards Empress; ber accession, to subscribe to a set of but she was immediately succeeded by articles materially curtailing the royal Peter II., the grandson of Peter the power. Great, in 1727.

But she was relieved from the The friendship of this Prince had greater part of this difficulty by an been neglected by the otherwise astute address from the principal nobility, Menschỉkoff, who little anticipated the who, apprehensive that a divided ausudden demise of his patroness; while thority between the throne and the his mortal enemies, the Dolgoroukis, council might bring back former conhad obtained a paramount influence fusions, besought her “ to reject any. over the mind of the new Emperor. thing so indecent and derogatory, This was soon exerted for the over. and to use the power that was her throw of Menschikoff, with the willing due to the benefit and glory of the consent of Peter, who had thoroughly Empire.”+ disliked the arbitrary order he had This she afterwards did to the once received to ally himself to the full, repudiating every reservation family of the Imperial favourite. and restriction to which she had at It required but

little management first consented, and using that comon the part of the Dolgoroukis to pro- plete controul which has continued cure the banishment of Menschikoff, unaltered to the present day. and that of his entire family, to a dis- No sooner had she firmly established

* Schlitzer.

† Tattischtshef.

her sway, than the aspiring Dolgo- wrested from them; but she magnarouskis, who had been the foremost nimously used her influence only to in the attempt to impose limitations settle the succession of their monarchy upon her, felt the fatal effects of her

upon the most equitable foundation, resentment. In order to punish them which rule she also applied to her own the more bitterly, she recollected the family, by declaring her nephew, Peexiled Menschikoffs, who had been ter, Duke of Holstein Gottorp, as her ruined at their instigation in the last heir. She called him to her court, reign, and the same conveyance which created him Grand Duke of Russia, transported the Dolgoroukis to their caused him to renounce his pretensions banishment, brought back the son and to the crown of Sweden (to which he daughter of Alexander Menschikoff, otherwise had an undoubted right), who had the satisfaction of handing and arranged his marriage with Soover to their enemies the very cottage phia Augusta, daughter of Christian they bad inhabited in Siberia. Young Augustus, Prince of Anhalt Zerbst, Menschikoff was made a captain on which was solemnised September 1st, his return, and restored a great por- 1745. Sophia took the name of Cation of his father's possessions ; but therine on embracing the faith of the principal favour of the Empress Russia, the throne of which she was was engrossed by Biron, whom she destined so remarkably to fill, and inraised to the duchy of Courland, and stinctively obeyed the will of the Great her continued partiality for him Peter, towards the attainment of uni. caused the greatest vexations of her versal dominion, by placing that reign. She evinced her preference ominous addition on the towering for him even at her death, by naming fabric, deliberately designed to throw him in her last testament as the its baneful shade over the liberties guardian and administrator of the

of Europe. kingdom during the minority of Ivan, We have now sketched the wonderwhom she destined for her successor, ful progress and gradual extension of being the son of her niece, the Prin- this colossal empire, from its original cess of Mecklenburgh, and Anthony and comparatively diminutive limits Ulric of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel. of “ Russia Proper," while state after But Ivan being only two years of age, state was added, as with the growing the government of Biron was proportions of increasing years, until tremely distasteful to the Princess of the giant stretches his sceptre from Mecklenburgh, and disliked among the Frozen Ocean to the sea of Azove; all the Russians, wherefore Count from Lithuania to far Kamschatska, Munich undertook to arrest him, and where the Varangians, the torments of he was at once tried and condemned his youth, are the suppliants of his to death, but had his sentence com- manhood; where the country of the muted into perpetual exile.

persecuting Khazares is but a proThe Mecklenburgh administration vince of his dominions, and the proud becoming unpopular in its turn, more extent of Kaptschak, the habitation especially from its German connexion, of his slavish vassals; and we shall although the Princess and her hus- briefly contemplate the result of this band had effected many improve- immense development. ments, and were even carrying on a From its very nature, Russia is, of successful war against Sweden, Eliza- all nations, capable of aggression, and beth, the daughter of Peter the Great defensive resistance, with inherent and and Catherine, was able to excite such alarming advantages. a revolution in one night, as to over- Its enormous magnitude is consoli. whelm her opponents, whom she threw dated, not scattered over the world into prison with her infant son, and like the possessions of Great Britain; had herself proclaimed Empress of all while, stretching from the Caspian to the Russias.

the Baltic, from Memel to Odessa, it The firmness and ability of her fa- leans with preponderating weight upon ther were remarkable in Elizabeth, the smaller part of Europe. and her reign might be said to emu- Russia can profit by the weakness late his in glory and utility. She was or disunion of the nations that lie along completely victorious over the Swedes, her narrowest boundary, while they, who made a bold struggle to regain separately, are powerless against the the conquest which Peter I. had solidly-connected frontier. Every


an il.

fragment added to the mighty mass is alliance of the Shah of Persia, creating secured by its proximity to the great with him a free communication from engulpher behind, which makes each British India (long an object of Rusaddition widely different from a dis- sian covetousness), instructing him in tant or isolated conquest.

the development of his resources, and The vast extent comprised within the training of his vast army, which, the limits of the empire, iis situation in by making him confident of support in the equatorial and meridianal degrees, the hour of need, will be the truest and consequent variation of climate

safeguard on that side. and temperature, suitable for almost With regard to invasion, the hyperevery production of nature, make it borean winter of Russia was fatal to independent of foreign aid. Huge three hundred thousand men in 1812; armies can be secretly concentrated but at any time that its armies were in. for aggression, either in Europe or capable to act upon the defensive, it Asia; their advance may gain ac- still would find a powerful ally in its quisition, while they have

unparalleled extent. The Roman Emlimitable retreat through their own pire contained 1,600,000 square miles, country, with the certainty

of never when at the zenith of its grandeur ; its being attacked in the rear. The great length, from the Euphrates to the and important element must also be western ocean, included a measure. remembered, that in any expeditionary ment of 3,000 miles, while 2,000 di. or defensive war, the fanaticism of vided the wall of Antoninus from the these armies can be always worked pillars of Hercules. upon with powerful effect, for they are European Russia alone comprises almost exclusively devotees to the exactly

the same area, while Riga is seGreek Church, and cannot cross their parated from Andyskoiostrag, in Asia, own borders without encountering by 9,684 miles, and 1,750 more extend opponents to, or unbelievers in, their to the haven of Peter and Paul, in own notions of faith.

Kamschatska. The nations abutting upon every

The Roman monarchy was compreside of Russia are either pagan, infi. hended under something less than del, or what they call heretical Chris- thirty-two degrees of latitude; the tians; and when to this feeling is ad. Russian exceeds thirty-five. ded the incitement of plunder and This broadest portion of the earth, free indulgence in blood, such influence with its resources, its energies, and its may be imagined on a people in a semi- natural advantages, is subject to the sway barbarous, or transitional state, so fa- and to the will of one man, and therefore vourable to the designs of conquest capable of the greatest, becau se united, and ambition, if directed by reason. exertion for any single or momentous able skill.

object. Perhaps supreme power in Europe can never be too watchful the hands of one individual, if accomor suspicious of the approaches of the panied by ordinary firmness, virtue, rough and superincumbent giant, who and humanity, together with a settled pants for the possession of the Sound law, might not be the worst form of as well as the Dardanelles, and to com- government, even for the most civilised press the West with capacious arms. The country. Justice, for instance, might be progress of such a state may be check- less venal, and more obtainable by the ed by a defeat, or succession of defeats, poor against the rich; the vaccillafrom this or that gallant alliance, but, tions, suspense, and procrastinations from its position, it cannot be annihi- in public affairs, occasioned by the lated, nor can they even maintain their tactics of parties and the selfish conadvantage. It will rise again, hydra- tests of faction, might be replaced by like, to renew the self-same attempts, a prompt adoption and steady perseif hostile and independent nations be verance in a course, the errors of not erected and planted, like sentries, which might be proved and rectified on its frontiers, inspired by patriotism, by experience, or the benefits placed and ever ready to give the watchword beyond controversy or doubt.

But of its movements to the world.

assuredly what is termed “constitu. Nor should the East be neglected; tional government" could not now be for if baffled in Europe for the while, successful with a conglomeration of the weight will inevitably be turned races that

are associated under upon Asia.

The strengthening and the Russian sceptre. They may all

look up to and reverence a common were steadily pursued by means prehead, obey his commands, each re- viously unappreciable to the rude mogarding him as their ruler, without re- narchs of the north. The empire, ference to the rest, but they could not culminated to its zenith by diplomacy legislate by popular assembly for so and intrigue, no less than by the sucgreat an extent of the world. Men cess of its arms and territorial ad. from the extremities of such an em- vancement, was stealthily added to pire would be incapable of compre

that influence which the sagacious hending the mutual advantage, appre- Princess and her astute and able minis. ciating the wants, or redressing the ter acquired in the councils of Eupeculiar grievances of each other. A rope, to be confirmed by the passive Cossack could not understand a Ton. triumph of 1812, and increasingly exgou, a Lithuanian might in vain ad. ercised under the obscured vision of dress a Kondish Ostiak, and the per- her slumbering cotemporaries, until suasions of a Vogule would be lost the chivalrous powers of the West upon a Finn.

were at last aroused, by the cries of The era of Catherine II. forms a oppressed patriotism, to check the memorable and peculiar period, in

overweening progress of Russia. A which aggrandisement and aggression

Donne uued




In the country of Rajpootana, on a stony plain at the foot of a steep mountain, stands the old Hindoo City of Chittore,* now much dilapidated; but at the period of which we write (sixteenth century) it was the capital of the Rajah, or more properly the Ranah, of Mewar. The city had its bazaar; its showy pagodas rising above the mass of heavy-looking houses; its walls and narrow gates ; its handsome bridge with a tower each end, spanning the clear stream of the River Bunnass; and its deep boolee,t or well, with ever bright and unpolluted waters.

The mountain that rises immediately above the city, part bare and rocky, part covered with patches of grass, scattered trees, and thick bushes, was (and still is) crowned by a strong and extensive fortress, with walls winding along the irregularities of the summit, and strengthened at intervals by semi.

circular bastions; and containing, in fact, another town, with streets, and temples, and the palaces of the Ranah and his family. A silvery rill springing from a rock within the fortress, fell in a cascade, sparkling and foaming over a precipitous part of the crags, and then wound its way down the mountain, to reach the region below.

It was daybreak. The mountain and the lower town were alive with a mighty army, the troops of the Mogul, encamped there to blockade the forta ress above. In the lower town was the rear-guard, with all its baggage, and beasts of burden, and accompanying rabble. There might be seen the turbaned and full-robed Mussulman soldiers, mingling with the slender Hindoos, with the streak designating their castes marked on the forehead; war-horses picketted ; camels lying down; shaggy Indian poneys straggling about; and a few majestic looking

* In the old province of Ajmeer, in Upper India, eighty-two miles west of Madras. It is thought to have been the city of the Indian prince, Porus, who so long withstood Alexander the Great.

# Boolees are square wells from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, and from sixty to seventy feet deep, and lined with hewn stone, with a broad flight of steps down to the water.

elephants drinking at the river, at- fish, made of salmon-coloured silk; the tended by their drivers. And glitter- eyes were emeralds ; the hollow body ing in the morning light, in many parts ended in a tail of golden tassels ; the of the city, shone the Mahometan golden jaws were open, and the air crescent, the ensign of that invading entering into them, inflated the body, power which, from the days of Tamer- which wavered about like a fish floatlane, had seated itself on the throne of ing in clear waters. Delhi, and bad subdued so many of When the eye turned away from the native princes of Upper India. this wondrous camp to the dark stern

At about the distance of half a coss* fortress above, it discovered on the from the city, along the mountain, was walls the dusky figures of the Hindoo pitched the Mogul camp, extending soldiers, in their snow-white cotton upwards for a considerable space; and dresses; the points of their weapons, the communication between it and the and the bosses of their shields, gleamcity was preserved by a chain of senti- ing as they moved slowly at their nels and detached guards. The Mogul posts. army bad evidently invested the moun- There was, at length, a movement tain-fortress with a strict blockade, in the Mogul's camp i the soldiers but at this time there was no appear- issued from their tents, and formed ance of active siege. All was quiet, into their respective troops, under and the Mussulman camp itself was de sumptuously-apparelled officers. In a corated with such extraordinary splen- few minutes the Great Mogul himself dour and costliness,t that it seemed appeared, the Sultan Akbar, famed as prepared for some great festival, for his magnificence, his talents, and and not for warlike purposes. The his victories. He was in the prime of humblest of the tents were of gaudy life, a prince of a noble presence, with chintzes ; those of the omrahs, emirs, a clear brown complexion, raven-black officers, &c., were magnificent in pro- beard and whiskers, and a face of portion to their ranks, some of bright much masculine beauty. His dress silks, others richly brocaded with gold was of cloth of gold; a shawl of the or silver.

The tent-ropes were of sacred green was folded round his twisted silk, the tent-pins of silver, waist, and held bis jewelled dagger. and numerous glittering banners and His turban of green silk, ribbed with gilded crescents shone in the rising sun- gold, was surmounted by a crescent beams. On a grassy spot, beside the and plume of diamonds; the handle falling stream, and shaded by a peepul and sheath of his scimitar were entree,f stood one large tent, which was crusted with gems; round his throat at once perceived to be that of the was a triple collar of diamonds; and Grand Mogul, by its superior gor- a long string of matchless pearls hung geousness, and by the devices on the down from his neck below his waist. banners planted round it. It was of He carried a rich bow, and a gilded the richest gold brocade, adorned with arrow without a head. On the unarabesques, traced in countless small barbed end of the arrow was fastened gems of various colours, giving out a natural rose, with a chain of diatheir rainbow gleamings to the light. monds, and a slip of white silk inThe tent-pins were of gold, with jew- scribed with verses.

He mounted a elled heads, the tent-ropes of golden beautiful black horse, with housings of cords twined together, and above this crimson velvet, tasselled with small magnificent pavilion shone a crescent jewels, and placed himself at the head set with emeralds. Among the brilliant of his glittering army; then all the banners floating round, the most con- troops, cavalry and infantry, marched spicuous was the ensign called mahi forward, advancing up toward the muratib, or the dignity of the fish, fortress. being the emblem of good fortune. And now the Hindoo soldiers on the On a gilded pole was displayed a large ramparts appeared alert to watch the

The Indian coss is about two English miles. | Historical. Father Catrou says, in his “ History of the Mogul Empire," that Akbar, when he appeared before Chittore, spared no expense in displaying his glory. His camp „was of a splendour which cannot be conceived in Europe,

The ficus religiosa, a sacred tree among those Hindoos who worship Siva.

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