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despotism. Ah! may the day soon lauer, an offer to surrender the entire Come when these pretended advocates of Lombardy, which offer was not of their country's freeslom may be communicateil to the Provisional Go. fully exposed, and their motives shown vernment of Milan until several weeks as the exposition of all that is base after, when it was no longer in their and wretched in the heart of man--- power to accept it. Unfortunate Italy ! gold, ambition, their guide!-patriot- with pretended allies their fate was ism, honesty, their opponents !

doomed-to mourn, to weep for ever! But it was not alone to the selfish On the 29th of May, Marshal Ra. views of these men, sold to the basest detzky, at the head of an imposing demoralisation, the downfall of Italy force of 40,000 men, attempted to and the faults of that campaign were raise the siege of Peschiera. Ile at. owing ; they were due also to the tacked the positions of Montanara and treachery of the other reigning sove- Curtatone, defended only by five thou. reinos in Italy, the vacillating policy sind Tuscans, the greatest part of of the pontiff, the sinister influence of them totally undisciplined, and after another State, which at this period used a desperate struggle of six long hours, ber entire influence to render useless succeeded in carrying the positions by the fleet of Sardinia; and thus, by the storm. Marching then straight upon inactivity of the Sardinian navy, Aus- Gioto, he fell upon the Piedmontese tria was enabled to rear her head unexpectedly, but notwithstanding the again, and collect on the banks of the advantage thus gained, he was driven Isonzo an overpowering force,* which, back and forced to retire. Reinforced ere long, marched to the succour of with 16,000 men, under the command Marshal Radetzky, and gave him an of General Wellen, the old Marshal overwhelming preponderance.

invested the city of Vicenza, and The space allowed for my tale will after a desperate struggle on the 30th, not permit me to give a long account the gurrison was forced to capitulate. of the numerous skirmishes fought, of Carlo Alberto, after making a fruitthe blockades of Peschiera, and other less march towards Mantua, and after. fortresses, nor to expose fully the nu- wards on Rivoli, remained with Ra. merous faults committed, the sinister detzky, totally inactive, during an eninfluences brought to bear, to crush tire month, each party waiting or again beneath an iron yoke the poor

reinforcements. He then attempted children of Italy. I must, therefore, the blockade of Mantua, while the run rapidly through the numerous and old Marshal, having concentrated all striking incidents of the campaign. his forces at Verona, advanced to at.

On the 6th of May, Carlo Alberto tack Somma Campagna, where 10,000 maile a disastrous attack upon St. Piedmontese were quartered, comLucia, with terrible loss of life, and manded by General Broglia. His was forced to retreat upon his position attack was completely successful; not at Somma Campagna; and being there so with Count Thurn, who, leaving joined by his heavy artillery, he was Roveredo, had attacked General Sonaz, at length enabled to pursue the siege and had been compelled to retire as of Peschiera. It was while Carlo far as Caprino. After numerous ac. Alberto was following up this siege, that tions, the Sardinians, overwhelmed by the British Government, on the 24th numbers, and suffering the most severe of May, received from the Austrian privations, were forced, little by little, Government, through M. Hammc- to surrender every advantage, and re

Mariotti, in his able work on Italy, thus speaks forth his sentiments :-—" Austria was, above all things, vulnerable by sea. Inferior to Sardinia in paval forces, even in her normal state, she was now completely disabled ly the loss of Venice, by the frequent defection of ships and mutinous disposition of her Italian crews, no less than a riotous spirit rife in her Illyrian provinces. She stood in dread of the Sardinian navy, and the greatest apprehensions were entertained, not only in the Imperial cabinet, but also in the city of Trieste, for the safety of the latter city. The immediate presence of the Sardinian squadron in the Adriatic would not only have reassured Venic, and all the sea coast, but would have retarded the operations of General Nugent upon the Isonzo, and turned his attention to the danger at home. The blockade of the Adriatic would have thrown the whole Austrian empire into utter distress; it would bave cut off Austria and Hungary from the rest of the world."

treat upon Milan. On the 4th of the Government, sowing dissension August a combat, which lasted the wherever they possibly could. What whole day, took place between the con- was the result of this conduct, let tending foes, under the walls of Milan, those who were witnesses proclaim. and on the evening of the same day But I hesitate not to say, Lombardy the Piedmontese were driven back, and owes its downfall to Mazzini and bis forced to take up a position on the partisans-its grave to their mad spirit ramparts. The last day of Milan's of inquietude. Every act of Carlo freedom was soon approaching--the

— Alberto, in eir eyes, whether it con. triumph of yesterday, the defeat of ducted to victory or defeat, was a to-day.'

crime; every movement of his was And what had been the condition misrepresented, knowingly and wilfully of Milan during the entire period of falsified. Nothing could conciliate the campaign ? Scarcely had the gal. this violent faction; all the offers and lant army of Piedmont, with its King prayers of the moderate party were and his sons at its head, hastened to rejected. War, war alone was their the aid of Lombardy, when from cry, not against the enemy, for then it London and Paris sped to Milan would have been a virtue, but against Mazzini and his partisans. Unmind. their own countrymen, ay, even those ful of the many martyrs who bad fal. who far away were mantully fighting len struggling to insure the freedom of for — what they, the cowards, the Lombardy-unmindful of the debt of boasters, clared not do the freedom of gratitude that was due to their me. their country. Searcely was it known at mory—unmindful of the claims their Milan that the Piedmontese army were country had on their support—these retreating, and the Austrian following wild spirits, to-day Royalists, to-mor- triumphant, when this brave Republican row Republicans, the day after Social- or Socialist faction, whose vaunts of ists, 'in' opinion, as besť suited their defiance to the Tedeschi had been so purposes, or the object of their leailer, often heard, fled from Milan in coward. determined to do all to restore Italy ly haste, leaving behind them the only to the yoke of the foreigner. Instead fruits of their courage the dissension of endeavouring to inspire their coun- and mischief their falsehoods had sown; trymen with confidence in the war ; their last assertion being, that Carlo instead of aiding in the raising of re- Alberto had sold Milan to the Austrians, cruits, in the proper supply of the and was bringing to its walls the terms Piedmontese army, and the noble vo- of capitulation in his pocket! Not lunteers battling for their hearths, even when the grave had received the their country, these pretended patriots body of the unfortunate king did their were from day to day haranguing hatred cease; for Mazzini and Catthe people, declaiming against the tanco have openly proclaimed since in King, foinenting conspiracies against their works* this hateful falsehood.

* The true history of the capitulation is as follows :-" Mazzini, rather too ready to rely on the authority of that envenomed Cattaneo, asserts that Charles Albert brought with him in his pocket the capitulation, by the terms of which Milan was to be given a prey to the invader (when Mazzini was making this assertion he wrote with the documents of the English consul, Campbell, before him, and therefore knew he was writing a falsehood). He adds, that his promise on his honour to defend the city a l'outrance, the burning of the houses before Porta Romana, and all the preparations for a desperate conflict, were only made with a view to extinguish the last spark of warlike ardour that might still linger amongst that aroused population, with a view to let the enemy in when the very suspicion of impending evil had been allayed. Now, Charles Albert most certainly did not bring the capitulation with him. The King entered the city, min:Iful of his row, on the evening of the 4th, after the last conflict before the walls. The order to clear the ground had been given to the troops, as they fell back from before the enemy in the afternooni ; and it was only after midnight, from the 4th to the 5th, that the English vice-consul, Campbell, and the French charge duffaires, Reiset. on repairing to the Austrian camp to demand an armis. tice of forty-eight hours in behalf of their countrymen, fell in on their way with the Piedmontese generals, Rossi and Lazari, who, as it appears, were going to Ridetzky's headquarters to tr-at for a capitulation. They met d’Aspre at three miles, and the Marshal himself at St. Donato, at six miles distance from the city. The two generals had an inter: view of two hours with Radetzky, after which the foreign agents were admitted ; and on their expressing their desire for an armistice, they were informed by the Austrian that they-i. e., To posterity I leave the task of dis. cerning who were the true and real patriots of 1848.

On the morning of the 5th, Carlo Alberto, at the earnest desire of the late members of the Provisional Government of Milan and the Archbishop, consented to treat with the Austrians, but was prevented doing so by the shouts of the populace. It was then the Archbishop, the mayor, and aldermen went to Marshal Radetzky, and, unknown to Carlo Alberto, signed a treaty of capitulation, which the King was in. duced afterwards to accept. At halfpast two o'clock in the morning, on

the 6th of August, Carlo Alberto left Milan, and commenced his retreat, which, owing to an armistice that had been signed by General Salasco on his behalf, was unmolested ; and on the afternoon of the same day the King began his retreat, the Austrians entered Milan in triumph, to find over one hun. dred thousand of its population had left it, rather than behold and bend again under their hated yoke, stained, as it was, in the blood of the pure and the innocent. When again, oh Milan! wilt thou rise up in thy wrath, to expel from thy streets the infamy that covers them?


In a solitary dungeon, in which the light frightful extremity-she, so beautiful, of heaven shone not, all dreary, lonely, so true to country, so kind to her inand sad, lay, on a small quantity of feriors. Dare I whisper to you the straw, a human being. The remains of truth? Dare I proclaim it to the civiwhat was once a dress, proclaims that lised world?-to the century boasting of miserable form a woman.

Start not,

its humanity, of its religion? Hearken, dear reader, but approach nearer.

In then, but doubt not, for it is no picture that emaciated being, in that sunken of fancy, but a stern, a terrible reality, eye, in those hollow cheeks—in her, thus recorded in characters of blood. In so wretched, do you not recognise the that solitary dungeon--that hideous, picture of an old friend? Yes; can it be loathing place, full of pestilent airpossible, or is it but the image of a fright. had that poor child been dishonoured ful dream? You have before you all that - robbed of all that woman prizes remains of the once proud and queenly most dearly. Twice had the lash cut beauty, Nina Ezzelinni! Good God i her delicate limbs, tearing off flesh and what could have reduced her to that cutting to the very bone, in vain efforts

the generals-had capitulated. The generals, however, it results from the same evidence, had only drawn up the basis of a capitulation, which, at six o'clock in the morning of the 5th, was laid before the King and his council, awaiting their sanction. But the King was allowed no time for deliberation. Sinister rumours of his treason commenced to be whispered abroad. The suspicion which had ever been lurking in every Italian heart respecting his uprightness and sincerity, and which fanatics and evil-minded persons bad carefully fostered among the people, received now a most irrefragable confirmation. The King was selling them! There was riot and confusion in Milan. The King's carriages, which wero about to be forwarded to the frontier, were assailed by the mob, who took the horses from them, overturned them, and with them and other materials barricaded all the streets leading to the palace, so as to preclude all possibility of the King's escape. The King, who had as yet, according to all probability, been unable to send his final answer to the Marshal, renounced all thoughts of a capitulation, and expressed his determination to brave all extremities, and remain at his post with his sons and his army. The city—that means, the people about the streets-was filled with fresh enthusiasm at the announcement; but the upper classes, the few remaining of them, after innumerable interviews with the King and his officers, seemed to be of a different mind: for at sunset, the archbishop, the podesta (Bassi), and some of his assessors (mayor and aldermen), went out, in the name of the municipal authorities, and signed with Radetzky that same capitulation which had only been proposed in the morning. The convention bears the signature of Hess in the name of Radetzky, and of Bassi in the name of Milan. The name of General Salasco, commander of the Sardinian staff, is appended to the document. The seventh article distinctly stipulates, that all these conditions need the acceptance of his majesty the King of Sardinia. Late at night, still on the 5th, the King was informed by Bassi and his colleagues that the convention with Radetzki was a fait accompli; and no choice was left him for accepting or objecting to it." See Mariotti,



to wring from her by torture the secrets the keys; and turning round he left of her countrymen! Do you hear the the dungeon, closing the door behind tale; and yet you weep not ? No; for

him. you doubt such frightful atrocities can “ For an instant the stranger stood possibly exist. Then wander to Italy; looking on the miserable being, and search 'well its dungeons—a whole po- then sobs, bitter and terrible, burst pulace stands witness of these bar. from him. Poor Nina, awaking for an barities—and there will you hear re- instant from a kind of lethargy in corded not one, but a hundred facts, which she had lain for days and weeks still more villanous, more fearful than past, gazed on the stranger in fear the one I have penned. Yes ; let me and wonder. write again-not merely the strong and “ Nina, Nina !" exclaimed the powerful man, the young and delicate stranger at length, his voice choking woman, the puny and infant child, are with emotion, “know you me not forced to submit to the lasb, but tor

again?" tures even more fearful are inflicted on With a loud scream of joy she enthem. Turn not away, then, from deavoured to rise from her recumbent that poor exile whom you see walking position, but, after a faint attempt, your streets, with downcast eye, with fell back again, exhausted by weak. inournful aspect. His appearance

In a moment Porro was by her there is but an earnest, an energetic side, supporting her feeble frame on protest against such atrocities; but his breast. an effort to remind you of your for- “Oh, Nina! dear bride of my heart, mer treaties—that while such scenes is it thus I find you, in this wretched exist, and you utter no protest, remain dungeon, another victim to Austrian inert and silent spectators of such in- despotism? Curses be on that power ; famies, you are forgetting, by the for. and may the light of heaven never feiture of every solemn promise, your smile on me again, if I devote not my own dignity, your own honour, your life and fortune to aid in its overthrow. own credit. You pity, when you read in But wake, Nina, dear Nina; it is your history of the victims of past centuries Porro, your husband in the sight of --you glory in the present, when com- God, who conjures you to answer him. paring it with the ages of barbarism ; Speak to him—speak to him only one but I tell you, the age of feudal atro. word !" city still exists_exists in Europe, in its Slowly did the eyes of Nina open, fairest spot, in the haunts of the ancient and shuddering, she made feeble efforts Huns; and I tell you, Europe never to escape from the embrace of Porro. can be at peace until the Croat, the Before her mind's eye stood an image, Sclave, the bated barbarian, is driven full of horror and infamy; and in vain away, and for ever, from those plains, could she ever erase from memory that red with the blood of the innocent, the hour of shame. Unfortunate Nina ! pure, the oppressed ! — whose voices of vain thy beauty, thy truth, thy accomprayer for justice on the destroyer, plishments; it is better for thee to die, rise up in cadences that never shall than to live on a curse to thyself. If cease, until those sacred calls are heard thy body has suffered, still thy spirit, at the throne of the Almighty! Woe! true and lofty in its holiest inspirations, woc! when that hour of justice comes ! will wing its flight to heaven, and there,

Along a narrow passage leading to before the throne of the Mighty Mathe dungeon of poor Nina Ezzelinni, jesty of Nature, can it pour out its approach two individuals. One was wrongs, foul and terrible as they are, a coarse-looking fellow, bearing a can- and call down on that barbarous tyranny dle in one hand, in the other a huge a vengeance no human force can evade. bunch of keys; the other was covered The efforts made by Nina, weak though with a large cloak, evidently worn for they were, to put Porro from her side, the purpose of disguise. Stopping be- at length drew his attention towards fore the door, a key was applied, and them; and, with voice trembling like in a moment more they stood within an aspen-leaf, Porro gave loose to his that wretched place.

thoughts. “ Signor, I will now leave you. “Nina, and is it thus you receive There is the signorina you seek ; but me, that you wish me from your sideremember I can spare but half-an- or, can it be possible, good God! this hour," exclaimed the person carrying horrible place has affected your mind.

Speak; I conjure you, dear Nina, by appeared the villain, the infainous,

, the memory of the past, not to keep gloating over the crimes he bad comme thus in this terrible state of anxiety; mitted. Yes, no one could resist the or say, have you forgotten to love furce, the power of impulse, tbat deme?"

manded a vengeance, strong and ter“To love you, Porro-oh, no! but rible, to wash away, if possible, the Nina is unworthy of your embrace. stains of infamy and dishonour. And Leitve me, leave me. Yet stay, Porro, on him sprang Porro with the strength my last hours in this world are fast ap- of a giant, and in a second hurled bim proaching."

to the other side of the dungeon. His Siy not so, my own sweet Nina, cries for aid resounded through the for your prison doors will soon be open; passage, and in a few moments a rush and then in bright Sardinia we will soon of feet proclaimed his voice was heard. learn to forget the horrors of this dun. But noi thus was he to escape Porro, geon, while thinking on our own hap- for seizing bim, he dashed his head piness, on the love we bear each other.” again and again on that stone floor,

“Oh, no!-never! That dream, until those cries resounded no longer. Porro, once my own, the fondly-che. Morini lay a corpse in that dungeon, rished of my heart, las past, never to in the presence of her whose miserable return."

prayers for pity and mercy he had “ How, dear Nina, what means these laughed to scorn but a few weeks hints I cannot understand?"

before, Thus falls the strong and They tell you, Porro-and why powerful man in his path of crimeshould Nina live to utter it-she is overtaken in his career the very mounworthy of your thoughts, of your ment he thought he had secured the embrace. Ahi must I speak plainer;" gratitude of his employers by treachery and a hectic flush suffused her whole the most infamous and base. Thus countenance,

“ The bride of your die all who exult in a path strewed heart - once cherished name has with blood-the blood of the innocent, been dishonoured; the gown torn from the oppressed, the betrayed ! her back, the lash has fallen twice on With his hands still upon the corpse, her shoulders. Oh, Porro! I have re- with strength unimpaired, his eyes ceived insults you dream not of_Nina flashing forih the fearful vengeance of Ezzelinni can but die in her shame." his heart, was he seized upon by some

“ Great God! kind heaven ! can eix or seven menials of the Austrian it be possible ?"

prison. In vain did they endeavour “ Possible, yes; and behold, Porro, to secure him for some time - his there stands the villain that bas robbed strength was that of a maniac. He me of peace, of happiness, of life!" hurled one after another of his assail.

Starting from his position, Porro ants to the ground, as if his opponents turned, and encountered the savage were but children; and if his foot had gaze of Di Morini, who had crept not accidentally slipped, that unequal silently into the dungeon to gloat struggle would longer have continued. over, with a species of the brute's love But the moment he had fallen, the of cruelty, the miserable condition of whole of his opponents threw themselves his victim. He dreamt not of en. upon him, and after a few vain efforts countering there, in the dreaded cbam. to oppose them, Porro lay bopelessly bers of Austrian hell, kneeling by the bound up-his courage not abated, his side of a once happy girl, her promised vengeance unsatisfied, but powerless bridegroom, filled with passions impos- in the hands of his bitterest foes, sible to keep down, over which reason Was death to be his portion ?- was could have no control. And can it be he to die in that prison, his fate un. wondered at? To behold before you known ?- the torture, the means of the being you have longed for many a extorting the secrets of the Vengatori, long week to meet, on whom your Sweet heaven forbid itl spare that every thought had fed for months gallant life for his country's redemppast—the beautiful, the delicate-and

tion ! to meet her thus, for the first time, “ Ah! signor, we have you now," her peace ruined, her mind broken, exclaimed one of his opponents, “and the chords of her heart ready to break we will soon learn how you entered for ever, and not resent these mani. this prison unknown to us, But look, fold injuries when suddenly before you the signorina here has fainted,” he

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