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vengeance — had arisen in their might believe that officers of great experience and majesty to dash for ever away the
directed the Milanese and their movecharge of cowardice on their part. ments. Desperate attacks were made Ah! brave hearts ! dear brothers ! by the people on the Duomo, guarded true patriots! I greet that shout of by the Tyrolese infantry, on the Criyours, startling the foe_"Italy or minal Court, on the Viceregal Palace, Death !”. -as the token of your glorious
on the station of the engineers, on success! Battle on, battle on! in your several police barracks, and on the perseverance is the crown of your no- Piazza de Mercanti, defended by a ble victory. Oh joy! I greet the peo- powerful body of the Austrian army ple again as a nation; for in a courage and a park of artillery, and everyso heroic can never be found the cra- where with success. The police bar. dle of slavery—the infamy, the brand rack of the third division, defended by of dishonour.
above 750 men, was next attacked, Throughout that live-long day the and after a combat that lasted an encombat still continued ; and if the tire night and day without ceasing, Milanese had not gained victory, still the enemy was forced to succumb, and they had not suffered defeat, for not submit to a courage and desperation an inch of ground had the enemy nothing could quell, nothing could gained which had not to be retaken dismay. The attack, headed by the over and over again. Breaking down Marchese Trivulzio, on the barracks wall after wall, the Milanese had li. of the cadets of St. Celso, was equally terally made a communication from successful, although its brave leader house to house, and in many parts of was severely wounded. On the mornthe city the enemy were surrounded ing of the 21st, the whole city preon every side ; desperate combatants sented a series of battles, scarcely piling on their heads every missile possible to describe within the comtheir hands could seize upon. It was
of a tale. The fire of the mus. absolutely necessary, however, in order ketry, of the cannons, the discharge to insure success, that a Government of shells, the fall of large pieces of should be immediately proclaimed walls, the ringing of the bells, kept up to whom full power should be dele- without a moment's intermission both gated to carry on the desperate strug- night and day, spread the news of the gle; to provide for the wants of the struggle throughout the entire councombatants, the care of the prisoners, try, and presented a spectacle, espeof the wounded, of the public finances. cially at night, terrific to hear and to And on the afternoon of the 20th of behold. This frightful struggle, howMarch, a Provisional Government was ever momentarily successful, could not proclaimed, amid a tumult of ap. possibly last without assistance from plause. * Instantly a proclamation was without, and every hour showed the issued for the enrolment of a civic necessity of at once opening a commuguard; and thousands of citizens, nication with the country. How to amidst the tumult, crowded to the effect this was a matter of the utmost parochial list to have themselves en- difficulty, for the walls and gates of rolled. Old men of seventy, and even Milan were guarded by a powerful boys of twelve years of age, vied in enemy, armed with a splendid field of their eagerness to serve their coun- artillery. Necessity lent the Milanese try. Arms taken from the enemy the power of invention, and large balwere furnished them, and proper di- loons were immediately set afloat, conrections issued for the continuance of taining messages entreating the peothe combat. The Provisional Govern. ple to rise immediately, and march to ment, sitting both night and day, gave the succour of their brothers, combata direction to the struggle which as- ting for their freedom as well as their tonished the enemy, and made him own. Well and nobly was the call
* The names of the members of the Provisional Government were as follows:- Count Casati, President; Secretary, Cesare Correnti; Members of Government, Pompeo Litta, Vitaliano Borroméo, Giuseppe Durini, Cesare Giúlini, Gaetano Strigelli, Marco Greppi, Antonio Beretta, and Alessandro Porro.
† See the reports of Marshal Radetzky, where he distinctly states, “the insurgents were commanded by officers of great experience and valour.”
$ “Some of these balloons fell beyond the Swiss confines, others on the Sardinian terresponded to; and from far and wide how these shrink before the fierce and large bodies of the peasantry, headed wild exultation of a people battling by leaders of every description – for their freedoni! See how little those priests, friars, ecclesiastics of differ- care for the terrible prowess of that ent kinds, with large crucifixes and foe, so much boasted of, so much symbols of the Church-hastened to- vaunted! Is it not the struggle for wards Milan. From Varese, from life, ay, more than life--the struggle the Lago Maggiore, the princely sum- for their children's emancipation ? mer residence of the Borromèo family, Would not the coward fight, ay, famed in story for its beauty and mag, gladly, for such a glorious cause, mak. nificence, from the banks of the Po, ing the heart beat, the blood flow to from the Italian Switzerland, from the heart, in joyful gladness? Yield Comasia, from the mountains of Como, not an inch of ground, true hearts ! from Monza, and elsewhere, large brave patriots ! Rush on again, again! bodies put themselves on the route, Breakasunder the ranks of the enearmed with every kind of weapon, my. Laugh at the terrible storm of fighting the enemy continually on the missiles flying around you in every road, and soon, in masses, gathered like direction. Ay, see you are approach, clouds around Milan. The brave Bor. ing nearer to your heart's desire-one gazzi, amidst a thousand difficulties, effort more, the gate will be yours, the leader of a body of some 2000 the battle will be won. Hearken, too, men, penetrated into the city, and to your countrymen from without; the concerted with the War Committee battle is raging there also. In confused a double attack on the Porta Tosa. lines, but yet with what is of equal, Unfortunately for his country and for if not of more value, the spirit of his family, to whom he was a good patriotism, do the bold peasantry, the husband and a good father, on return. mountaineers, combat for your assisting he was mortally wounded by a ance. Ay, what does that wild cry bullet, and fell, lamented by all who proclaim ? You have succeeded in ever knew his noble and kind heart, setting the gate on fire. See how it a martyr to his country's liberties! A burns how the flames spread-bow tear to his memory was all time would that massive wood consumes before an allow, and onwards, like a mighty enemy none can resist .- its fiery avalanche, pour the Milanese to the beams aiding your struggle. Yes, attack. Who is that brave and glo- Milanese ; brave hearts ! true patriots! rious youth who, with hand extended, again, again, I say, the communication and voice exhorting his countrymen to between you and your countrymen is remember their duty, dashes on the open. The battle is well nigh over, enemy, regardless of shot, of danger and Milan soon, before your valour of every kind; his shout," Italy for and faithfulness, will proclaim her own me”? It is Luciano Manara, a fit freedom from the dreaded foe. Brave patriot to lead on a brave people. See hearts! true patriots ! how the enemy and the Milanese meet With renewed courage and untiring hand to hand in deadly combat! See energy, the Milanese did not pause a
ritory, and in those of Piacenza. .... One of these balloons contained the following: • Brothers ! Fortune smiles on us. Austria vanquished, still maintains her footing only in the castle and from the bastions. Hasten hither! Let a gate of the city be taken between two fires ; united we shall conquer.'"-See General Pepe.
* Never were a people more in error than the Roman Catholics of Ireland in imagining the revolutions of Italy were the emanation of a spirit of Protestantism. Such an idea is foolish in the extreme; some of the principal conspirators of the revolution were dignitaries of the Catholic Church, and the revolution was openly advocated from many an altar. Let their clergy inform them, if their press refuses to do so, that the Austrians, during the whole period of the revolutions, openly insulted the Catholic religion, burnt the effigy of the Pope wherever they could, violated the churches and even the nunneries, and committed every species of sacrilege. Yet, if a Catholic exile stands on a public platform to advocate the liberties of his country, he is immediately denounced as an enemy of the Pope.
+ Luciano Manara afterwards commanded a Lombard Legion that greatly distinguished itself throughout the whole period of the Italian revolutions of 1848 and 1849. He fell at Rome, nobiy fighting for å cause ever dear to a heart like bis, full of the loftiest inspiratione.
moment to give the enemy rest. The light, the vigilance of the Milanese palace of Marshal Radetzky,* the bar. only increased, and soon the move. racks of St. Vittor Grande, St. Fran- ment of the old Marshal was surmised. cesco, the principal military post, the Instant arrangements were made to Austrian Hospital, the gates of Tici. give the enemy no respite, and, asnese, of Comasina, all were success- sisted by the bodies of peasantry, the fully attacked with the same desperate citizens issued from the walls, and perseverance, and on the morning of followed the enemy with an incessant the 22nd the whole city was in the discharge of musketry. Incommoded bands of the people, the castle alone as the Austrians were by the numa remaining, in the possession of the ber of families who accompanied them enemy. It was then that Marshal in their flight, the wives and chilRadetzky-confused at the defeat of dren of the officers of the army, by his soldiers on every side, dismayed at numerous Italian prisoners, on whom the fearful loss of life his army bad the rage of the old Marshal heaped sustained, fearful of being surrounded unbeard of cruelties, their retreat was by the numerous bodies of peasantry a frightful one indeed. Through every that almost hourly were increasing the small town, every village they had to force of the Milanese, alarmed lest the pass, they had to fight their
way on. King of Sardinia might march to the ward; through every kind of obstrucsuccour of the insurgents, and his tion-barricades suddenly raised, large army become entirely annihilated.de. piles of wood fastened across the termined on retreating while yet in his streets, missiles of every kind greeting power, and thus save the remnant of their appearance, bridges broken down, his army: To prevent this movement the very elements of heaven deluging from being noticed, he ordered his the earth with water, and rendering still powerful park of artillery, con- the roads like swamps. The sufferings sisting of some seventy pieces of large of the Austrians were terrific-food calibre, to move about from spot to spot: all was wanting – not a moment's rest the consequence was, that the castle and was allowed them. It took the Mar, several houses at the extremities of the shal several hours alone before he city were set on fire by this terrible could even disengage his army from cannonade. A large fire also was lit the environs of the city of Milan. to burn the dead bodies, and thus pre- The batred of the Milanese was excited vent the loss of the Austrians being to a frightful extent, owing to the nuknown. Amidst this fearful glare of merous atrocitiest committed by the
* A laughable farce took place at the taking of the Marshal's palace. An old uniform was found belonging to the Marshal, and was instantly fixed on a pole, with a fools cap hoisted on the top, and was carried to the Piazza Borroméo amidst the jeers and laughter of the people. The Austrians made frantic efforts to obtain possession of it, and in a few hours it was pierced by no less than seventy-two bullets.
† The frightful atrocities of the enemy cannot be denied, when a whole city was a spectator of the facts. General Count Walmoden, an Austrian, admitted the atrocities recorded by the English consul at Milan, where whole families of women and children were mutilated. A record of a few of these will suffice: -“A group of eight children were found who had been crushed against the walls, thrown on the ground, and trodden under foot! Two were found shut up in a chest, two burned with aquafortis ; another, spiked on a bayouet, was fastened to a tree, where the poor child struggled in agonies before the eyes of its mother! A suckling babe (by a jest worthy of a cannibal) was thrown on the breasts of its mother's corpse ! another was cut in two, and the halves tied together with its own bowels! Five heads, cut from their tender trunks, were placed under the eyes of the innocent parents! An unborn child was torn from the maternal womb by these vile wretches! In the pocket of a Croat prisoner was found two female hands, loaded with rings, and many women were deprived of their eyes, tongues, hands, and feet! The monsters first violated them, and then killed them with their bayonets! Some were burnt alive! others buried alive in ditches and wells ! others covered with pitch and tortured by fire! Eight bodies were found burned in an inn at the Porta Tosa l-as
many in another inn at the Porta Vercellina! Ten were seen in a small room at the Porta Ticinese, horribly mutilated and mangled--the great efforts made by one poor woman to save herself through the chimney still appeared! I pass over the assassinations in houses, in beds, in hiding-places. One man was compelled to kneel on the bloody corpse of his brother, and there stabbed ! Two unfortunate men, father and son, were spiked together to a tree on the ramparts! A child of Mario Belloni was burnt! a son and brother of Giovanni Piotti killed!"-See General Pepe, Canta, &c. &c.
enemy, and which, the instant they triumphant
triumphant - their freedom won by were discovered, called forth the their own glorious efforts. How was most fearful anger. Ankle-deep in it those efforts, so pure, so bright, so mud, with not a dry rag to their heavenly, won at such a sacrifice of backs, they still continued pursuing blood, died away in disunion, in the the enemy, harassing him on every clandestine haunts of vain conspiracies, side, cutting off every straggler, and in the factious efforts of a few leaders, making their very vengeance the path mad with ambition, wild with theories to their freedom. In a few days more of loose and impracticable principles ! the Austrians were driven from Lom- Oh, Italy! beautiful land of sorrow ! bardy in shame and in disgrace, leav- why didst thou hearken to their voices ing behind them, to attest the mur- of deceit? Would that thy ear had derous struggle, no less than five been deaf to aught else than thy counthousand killed. The Lombards were try's honour and dignity!
SCARCELY had the first shot been fired in the streets of Milan, when the Pied. montese forces commenced to muster in large and imposing numbers on the frontiers. The arming of Sardinia had commenced, however, at a far earlier period, when the Austrians quartered fifteen thousand men on the river Ticino. From one end of Pied. mont to the other, the agitation of the public mind had become excessive, and it was easy to foretell that the storm of war was gathering on the horizon. Amidst intense anxiety was the news from Lombardy listened to by thousands of the Turinese, and hundreds of young men loudly demanded from Government arms and ammunition, to enable them to march immediately to the succour of their brothers, combating for their freedom. Their demands were refused by Government in almost dignified silence; but this seeming apathy to the struggle carried on in Lombardy was soon explained, when, on the 23rd of March, the following declaration of war, signed by Carlo Alberto, was made publicly known, amid the continual cheers of the people, and shouts of “ Viva Carlo Alberto !" “ Viva il Rè !”
and of Venice ! the destinies of Italy are maturing. Happier fortunes smile on the intrepid defenders of the trampled rights of their country. By love of race --- by appreciation of the spirit of our times - by community of desires - we have been the first to as. sociate ourselves in that unanimous tribute of admiration which all Italy unites to pay you! People of Lombardy and of Venice ! our arms, which were already concentrating on your frontier when you anticipated the liberation of glorious Milan, now come to give you the last proofs of that aid which a brother may expect from a brother_a friend from a friend. We will second your just desires, trusting in the aid of that God who is visibly with us — of that God who has given to Italy a Pio IX.-of that God, who, with such wonderful impulses, bas now placed our beloved country in a position to do for itself. And the better to demonstrate with outward signs the sentiment of Italian union, we desire that our troops, entering on the territory of Lombardy and Venice, should carry the shield of Savoy placed upon the Italian tri-colour flag.
« CARLO ALBERTO. “ Torino, 230 March, 1848."
That brave people so eager for warso desirous of hastening to assist the cause of the oppressed__listening only
• Charles Albert, by the grace of God King of Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jerusalem, &c. People of Lombardy
to the impulse of their generous senti- the enemy, who beld here a force of ments, little imagined the dismal end over 20,000 troops. After severe conof their nobleness and generosity! Pa- tests they were driven away by the triotism, bumanity, the alpha l-trea- gallantry of the Italians, with a terrichery, despotism, its omega ! Yet ble loss of life, and then ensued the how beautiful were those feelings that battle of Pastrengo, which will for countenanced that war how in all ever shed immortal glory on the Sara spoke the feelings of country, of dear
After a combat that Italy! Dismal the end, but glorious lasted a period of over five hours, the the beginning!
Austrians fled in precipitate flight On the 26th of March, the advanced. over the bridges of the Adige, leaving guard of the Sardinian army, under behind thein a loss of 1,700 men, in the command of General Pasalacqua, killed, wounded, and prisoners. This entered Milan, and three days later, was one of the most glorious days of with an army of 25,000 men, Carlo that unfortunate campaign, as Charles Alberto, with his gallant sons, held Albert obtained in a few hours what their head-quarters at Pavia, where had cost the greatest general of mothey were greeted by the deputies of 'dern bistory, the Emperor Napoleon, the Provisional Government of Milan, an entire campaign to obtain possesthe Count Borromèo and Signor Be- sion of. Marshal Radetzky in vain retta. On the 30th, Carlo Alberto endeavoured to effect a diversion, by arrived at Lodi, and congratulated his the garrison of Peschiera sallying out army on the expedition they had made on the rere of the Piedmontese, but in marching over the space of 110 they were driven back in gallant style, miles in seventy-two hours, and from and the Sardinians remained masters thence pursued his march through of that gory field, strewed with the Crema, Cremona, Bozzolo, Aosta, to dead and the wounded. It was during Castiglione delle Stiviere, where he this struggle the gallant young Marestablished his head-quarters, deficient quis Bevilacqua rushed on alone upon in all that was requisite to carry on a à column of the retreating enemy, to campaign with success and energy. seize a standard from a Croatian, and On the 8th of April, the Piedmontese fell pierced by fifty bayonets_bis darand the Austrians first met in serious ing valour forming the theme of unicombat, by the former making an at- versal comment his loss regretted tack upon Gioto, a small town situated with tears by his countrymen. on the right bank of the river Mincio. It was at this period, when victory Despite a terrific fire from the Aus- seemed to be crowning the arms of the trian sharp-shooters, and the efforts brave king and his sons with success, of the Wohlgemuth brigade, who bad when by their means the sunshine barricaded the streets and fortified seemed again to be filling the horizon the houses, the gallant Bersaglieri and with the bright rays of hope, upon the Griffini company drove the ene- other sides it commenced to darken my from street to street, and after a with clouds of ominous import. The combat of more than four hours, forced ambassadors of Prussia and Russia bad the Austrians towards Mantua. On quitted Turin, and the agents of these the next day, and the day after, they two courts were busily at work everyattacked with equal success Borghetto where, to arrest the work of freedom, and Monzanbano, and thus secured and to assist the cause of dissension their passage over the Mincio. After amongst those who declared themselves occupying Valleggio, Carlo Alberto the friends of Italy. Unfortunately advanced his head-quarters towards they met with easy success, and mad Volta, and a few days after attacked theorists, and wild demagogues, full the enemy at their advanced posts, of ambition and selfish motives, hasnear Mantua, with signal success. tened to retard the necessary supplies The king resolved then on the block- for the army, to denounce the King ade of Peschiera, a strong and power
of Sardinia and his gallant army as ful fortress, lying on both sides of the traitors ; while they, the infamous, Mincio. Crossing the Mincio with with loud words, with swaggering gait, 25,000 men, the king occupied the stalked along the streets of Milan, conbeights of Custoza, and made a des- cocting conspiracies ayainst the Proviperate attack on the hills of Sandrà, sional Government, and selling their St. Giustina, and Cola, fortified by native land to the hirelings of a foreign VOL. XLVI.NO. CCLXXIV.,