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shore of the Euxine. There, in fact, been possible to take or to destroy that Russia never could pretend to any ancient Swedish fortress, the moral other than a hostile possession, while effect of the blow might have been inthe recent date of her acquisition of calculably great. As it was, the enthuGeorgia and the other Trans-Caucasian siasm of the Swedes was raised to a provinces—the contest with Persia and high pitch by the sound of our guns, Turkey for their possession continuing only to be lowered again by a reaction up to the year 1829 is such as to of disappointment at its small signifi. weaken much her moral and material cation, which will throw another obstahold of those guarantees of her ambi- cle in the way of their so far overcomtion. The complete subjection of the ing their fear of the giant of the North, Black Sea to the power of the Allies, as to permit of their adhesion to an leaves a Russian army operating south active league against his aggressive of the Caucasus dependent for its com- tyranny. Finally, in the lamentable munications upon the military roads exposure made by Admiral Napier of the Caucasus and the uncertain na- of his own want of self-respect, and of vigation of the Caspian Sea, neither of Sir James Graham's duplicity and selfwhich, we conceive, would suffice for seeking, there is but too much eviits support against a serious attack dence that the Baltic campaigns were, of the Allies directed to a repres- like those in the East, affairs of hapsion of Russia within her southern hazard. The expedition was instituted mountain boundary. To keep her there by the minister to stop the grumbling of should be the object of subsequent ar- the people: it was undertaken by the rangements.
commander with a consciousness that Of the two campaigns in the Baltic, the means placed at his disposal were we have only to say, adverting to a insufficient for any real work. All former expression* of our opinion of that Sir James saw in a fleet of 44 sail the possibilities of the case, that as and 2,000 guns was, the material for a much seems to us to have been accom. coup d'etat : he would have knocked plished as could reasonably have been ships, guns, and crews against the rocks expected, and somewhat more than of Sweaborg, without a thought for we should a priori have counselled. A their safety, when the national exultablockade of the Russian coast of that tion at the Tartar story of the fall of sea offers the advantages of materially Sebastopol startled him from his dream damaging the commerce of the enemy of peace-patching. Sir Charles saw and diminishing his means of carrying in the same mighty armament only a on war, and, at the same time, of ef. command; to obtain which he perilled fecting a diversion of his military force; his personal honour, by boasting of an and these, we believe, were to a con- intent to perform exploits which he siderable extent obtained during the was conscious be had not the means to campaigns of the past and present sum- accomplish. Neither one nor the other mers. In the destruction of Bomar- seem to have understood that the obsund, if our naval reputation was little ligation in which they bound themadvanced by the over prudence which selves to the country, in undertaking brought so large a force to the accom- the management and direction of that plishment of so small a deed, still it is costly fleet, was to use its power with probable that the germ of much future the single view of forcing Russia into mischief was thereby stopped in its submission. No one had conceived a growth. Of the bombardment of Swea- comprehensive plan for distressing the borg we confess we are not inclined to enemy, in the working of which each of form so favourablean opinion. It was an the various operations should play its inconsequential and useless operation, appointed part. The cause of this not calculated to enhance the general going to war without counting the cost, estimation of the daring qualities of was manifestly the faith placed by the our seamen ; while its results in the Aberdeen ministry in the success of exposure of the bad quality of the their negotiations. They did not beordnance employed, and the deficiency lieve in the existence of war, even when of its supply, cannot but lower the Bomarsund had been bombarded : character of our administration in the after Alma and Inkermann, they talked eyes of the world. Had it, indeed, of sparing the military honour of Rus
* DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, for July, 1854.
sia; and of respecting her territory, to the defence of the integrity of the when one of her most valued provinces Ottoman Empire. What is it at the had been formally taken possession of by present moment? The simple answer the outpouring of torrents of the best is - THE HUMILIATION AND CRIPPLING blood of France and England. The of Russia. This is the only intelligible time for these absurdities has passed interpretation of the much-abused away, and a period has arrived when phrase, a safe and honourable peace, the object of the war must be defined, and it is the meaning attached to it and a plan for attaining it laid down. by the English and French nations.
The convention between England, That gagantic autocracy has grown too France, and the Porte, signed on the great for the freedom and civilisation 13th of March, 1854, bound the of Europe, to which it is antagonistic; Western Powers to “assist the Sultan and the common sense of the western in repelling the attack which has been people has discovered and resolved to made by his Majesty the Emperor of redress the evil. How is the great all the Russias on the territory of the defensive work to be conducted ? To Sublime Porte -- an attack by which reply satisfactorily to this question the integrity of the Ottoman Empire would be to frame a plan of the war: and the independence of the Sultan's to sketch a slight outline of our view throne are endangered." The assist: of what that ought to be, is, however, ance was to be in addition to that the utmost we can at present attempt. already given by the ordering of When Peter the Great succeeded to strong detachments of their naval the throne of Russia in 1689, she had forces to repair to Constantinople, to no seaport but Archangel on the afford to the territory and the flag of White Sea, while her western frontier the Sublime Ottoman Porte such protec- did not extend beyond Smolensko. tion as the circumstances should admit During the century and a half that of." It was to extend to “ the protec- followed, her territorial dominion was tion of the Ottoman territory in extended, at the expense of neighbourEurope and Asia against the attack of ing nations, to the Black Sea and the Russia," and with that view their River Araxes on the south, to the majesties engaged to "send land troops Baltic on the north-west, and so far to any such point or points of the into central Europe, that her boun. Ottoman territory as shall appear suit: daries are now within one hundred and able." It is plain that the stipulations eighty miles of Berlin and Vienna. of this convention have been long Cronstadt, St. Petersburgh, Helsingsince fulfilled, and their limits over. fors, Sweaborg, and Revel, stand upon passed. When the Russians withdrew Swedish soil. So late as 1809, the behind the Pruth, in July, 1854, they whole of Finland belonged to Sweden: abandoned the attack they had made it was not 'until 1812 that the fron. upon the territory of the Sublime tier of Russia was advanced to the Porte, and neither in Europe nor Asia Pruth, and that she obtained posses. did a single Russian soldier remain to sion of Bessarabia and the mouths of insult the Ottoman flag. Tlie ostensible the Danube. Since 1800, she acquired object of the war was then at an end; Georgia, and with it a footing south and had the Czar been content to of the Caucasus ; and it was only in pocket a very slight affront, peace 1828-9 that she wrested from Persia would have been concluded, and her and Turkey the provinces of Erivan Majesty the Queen and his Majesty and Nakshivan in Armenia, Anapa, the Emperor would have been bound Poti, and the ports on the eastern by their treaty, subsequently ratified shores of the Euxine, from which her in the terms of the convention, to garrisons have recently fled. " Assu
immediately take measures to with redly (said Bonaparte to Las Casas), draw their military and naval forces," in such a situation, I should arrive at and to deliver up the fortresses and Calais by fixed stages, and be the positions in the Ottoman territory arbiter of Europe." As the encroachoccupied by them, " in the space of ments of Russia bave been chiefly forty days." The articles of that made in the three directions we have treaty have become obsolete: a new indicated, so the plan of an active and distinct war was, in fact, declared resistance to her aggression is natu. and commenced when the allied armies rally divided into operations upon ber landed in the Crimea, and the object north-western, western, and southern of hostilities then ceased to be limited frontiers.
to affairs in those parts. Their first consideration should, therefore, be the establishment of several places d'armes, the organisation of a numerous corps of Circassians, and the union of the mountaineers against Russia. This accomplished, an advance against the Kuban should follow; and when the Russian forces were repulsed behind the Don, their military road across the Caucasus should be menaced. Simultaneously with operations on the Kuban, and along the coast of the Sea of Azoff, a corps, assisted by the Turkish forces at Sakum Kale and Redout Kale, should attempt the occupation of the Rion valley; and if successful, execute a march upon Teflis conjointly with the main army of the Turks, which would put an end to the Russian rule in the Caucasus."
from the mouth of the Danube to Odessa. That this object should not long since have engaged the attention of the admirals, as a means of diverting the tedium of their long inactivity, is indeed one of the strangest features of the war.
Let us now return to the operationson the southern frontier of Russia, where alone they have assumed an aggressive character. We confess we venture to differ in opinion from some highly competent military critics, in thinking the invasion of the Crimea defensible upon strategic and political grounds, although we admit the details of the undertaking justify no more favourable commentary than that conveyed in Sir George Brown'sexplanation that they were based upon no plan, and carried out in ignorance of the locality of the enterprise.* At all events, circumstances have decided the general question, and the Crimean campaign must now be prosecuted to a successful ter. mination, or defeat and disgrace be courted by the Western Powers. Recent events leave little room for doubt, that the Russians may be driven out of the Peninsula, if the superior force of the Allies be used with vigour and promptitude ; and that we should be able to keep it, with our complete command of the sea, we cannot bring our. selves to question. For the operations along the coast, which we have already suggested, and for observation of the Isthmus of Perekop, and of the shores of the Sea of Azoff, a large supply of gun-boats, of a light draught of water, would now be invaluable. If well worked, they would render the subjection of the Crimea a matter of certainty : their co-operation would faci. litate the undertaking, even in the short remnant of the present season, of an extension of the southern attack, which we cannot indicate in fewer or more intelligible terms than those of M. Klapka, with whose views we so far concur:
Were this point once obtained, with the Crimea in the hands of the Allies, we conceive the objects of the war would be gained. Russia would be humiliated and crippled, and her contemplated promenades to Constantinople and to Hindostan (via the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf) would be effectually interrupted. If Georgia was restored to independence, civil and political ; Circassia supported by assistance in arms and ammunition; free traffic established in the eastern ports of the Euxine and the Sea of Azoff ; the Crimea put in safe keeping; and the mouth of the Danube opened, the interests of civilisation would be secured from Russian aggression in the East. A firm Swedish alliance would provide equal security in the NorthWest; and Germany would be placed in all the better condition to constitute herself, if she pleased, the champion of the liberty of Central Europe. With so much accomplished by themselves, the Allies would do well to allow Austria and Prussia to consider that matter at their leisure. A difficulty might indeed arise in getting the former power out of the Danubian Principalities, but we are not inclined to fear that it would prove very formidable. There would also be some trouble in arranging a government for Wallachia and Moldavia, and in settling for the keeping of the Crimea ; points into a consideration of which it is not now in our power to enter. It is not impossible that they might prove to be the beginning of another end.
"By their successes in the Sea of Azoff and the eastern coast of the Black Sea, where the Russians bave evacuated Anapa and retreated to the Kuban, the Allies have it still in their power, spite of their former oversights, to give an extremely favourable turn
* Speech at Elgin, in Times of September 14, 1855.
“ Not come, Craggs!" said Harcourt, “ Yes; Craggs has just returned, as, late on the Saturday evening, the and says there's no sign of a carriage Corporal stepped on shore, after cross- for miles on the Oughterard road.” ing the Lough.
“I ought to have known it,” said “No, sir, no sign of him. I sent a the other, in a voice of guttural sternboy away to the top of the Devil's “ He was ever the same; an Mother, where you have a view of the appointment with him was an engageroad for eight miles, but there was ment meant only to be binding on nothing to be seen.
those who expected him." “You left crders at the post-office “Who can say what may have deto have a boat in readiness if he ar- tained him. He was in London on busirived ?"
ness-public business, too, and even “Yes, Colonel,” said he, with a mili- if he had left town, how many chance tary salute; and Harcourt now turned delays there are in travelling. moodily towards the Castle.
“I have said every one of these Glencore had scarcely ever been a very things over to myself, Harcourt; but cheery residence, but latterly it bad they don't satisfy me. This is a habit become far gloomier than before. Since with Upton. I've seen him do the the night of Lord Glencore's sudden same with his Colonel, when he was a illness, there had grown up a degree of subaltern ; I've heard of his arriving constraint between them, which, to a late to a court dinner, and only smilman of Harcourt's disposition, was po- ing at the dismay of the horrified coursitive torture. They seldom met, save tiers." at dinner, and then their reserve was Egad,” said Harcourt, bluntly, painfully evident.
“I don't see the advantage of the The boy, too, in unconscious imita- practice. One is so certain of doing tation of his father, grew more and fifty things in this daily life to annoy more distant; and poor Harcourt saw one's friends, through mere inadverhimself in that position, of all others tence or forgetfulness, that I think it the most intolerable - the unwilling is but sorry fun to incur their ill-will guest of an unwilling host.
by malice prepense." “ Come or not come,” muttered he “ That is precisely why he does it.” to himself, “I'll bear this no longer. “ Come, come, Glencore; old RixThere is, besides, no reason why I son was right when he said — Heaven should bear it. I'm of no use to the help the man whose merits are canpoor fellow; he does not want - he vassed while they wait dinner for him.'
If anything, my pre- I'll order up the soup, for if we wait sence is irksome to him; so that, hap- any longer we'll discover Upton to be pen what will, I'll start to-morrow, or the most worthless vagabond that ever next day at farthest.”
walked.” He was one of those men to whom “I know his qualities, good and deliberation on any subject was no bad,” said Glencore, rising and pacing small labour; but wbo, once that they the room with slow, uncertain steps; have come to a decision, feel as if they “ few men know him better. None had acquitted a debt, and need give need tell me of his abilities ; none need themselves no further trouble in the instruct me as to his faults. What matter. In the enjoyment of this others do by accident, he does by denewly-purchased immunity be entered sign. He started in life by examining the room, where Glencore sat impa- how much the world would bear from tiently awaiting him.
him; he has gone on, profiting by the “Another disappointmentl" said the experience, and improving on the pracViscount, anxiously.
tice." VOL. XLVI.NO. CCLXXIV.
never sees me.