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bis counsel the efforts of reform. He or thoughtlessly, but maturely conhas assured a friend of mine present, sidered." whatever aid the British government When the Baron Pinaldi ceased to can extend to us, will be readily given, speak, a whispering conversation en as long as the government of England sued for some time among the persons is not openly compromised. Assist- assembled there ; and then a gentleance, too, and of a most important man rose, and proposed a deputation kind, and one more congenial to Italian should be appointed, selected from feelings, lies even nearer to the Lom- their number, to wait upon Carlo bard territory. The King of Sar- Alberto, in order to solicit his coundinia, whose sympathies in Italian in. tenance and assistance. The motion dependence has often before been was put and unanimously carried, and evinced, even now is casting an eager Signor Porro and the Baron Pinaldi and longing glance towards the march were selected for the purpose. Thus of events; and, in my opinion, it would was formed the second conspiracy need but a bold determination on our the noblest of the Lombard nobility, part to fulfil the duty we owe to our casting aside ancient feuds and prejumanhood, and the glorious recollections dices, bad become united heart and of past days, to insure an effective soul as one, in life and in death-the assistance from his army. Signori, I Pioneers of Happiness, the Herculeses bave given you my opinion, not idly of Freedom!
"L'Italia farà da sé."-Proclamation of Carlo Alberto.
1 On the left bank of the river Po, in a ing one, full of expression; his hair wide and beautiful plain between the alnıost white; bis form apparently bills of Monferrato and the Cottian powerful, tall, and well made. Before Alps, rises Turin, the capital of Sar- him, on a table, was laid a number of dinia. Its clean streets, its magnifi- books and maps, and a portfolio concent buildings, its beautiful environs, taining a quantity of letters and decked with a thousand charms, ren- papera, one of which he was Þusily der it a city of which the beart of employed in reading. The person every Italian may well feel proud. was no other than Carlo Alberto, But when the Sardinian contemplates King of Sardinia. it, and reflects tbat there alone, and in Carlo Alberto ascended the throne its tributary territories, he can raise on the 27th of April, 1831, and was bis voice freely and boldly, to denounce born in the year 1798. His career had the vices and crimes of the tyrant rulers been one of the utmost difficulty, and of his native land, how far greater was throughout teening with extraorbecomes his pride, and how earnestly dinary, incidents.
When heir prehe thanks his God that from tbose sumptive to the throne, he associated fields spread, from year to year, the bimself to some extent with the revoseed of life and thought, pouring their lutionary faction of the Carbonari, way onwards like a mighty river, inun- who unfurled the tri-coloured flag in dating the minds of thousands, and different parts of Italy. For this he tens of thousands, with the love of drew upon bis head the enmity of true freedom. In its confines still Austria, who, throughout his whole lingers the parting spirit of a Brutus, reign, had more or less shown that the and from thence, and thence alone, recollection of his revolutionary tenwill arise the renovating power of dencies still rankled within her heart. avenging justice!
A short time after he was serving as a In the regal and magnificent palace volunteer in the expedition of the of the King of Sardinia, a few days Duke d'Angouleme to Spain, and disafter the scene we have described in played at various times, especially at the last chapter, was seated in a room, Trocadero, considerable courage, cool. at about eleven in the morning, a per- ness, and skill. Recalled to Sardinia, son of some fifty-five years of age. he ascended the throne upon the death His countenance was a bold and pleas. of Carlo Felice, and devoted himself
until the opening of our tale, with con- the adoption of their principles, the siderable assiduity, to the improve- statesmen and advocates of moderate ments of his kingdom. He seemed, reform. That their opinions were however, always to look with an eye just, ably conceived, and well suited of jealousy upon the sinister influence for Italy, time has fully proved, and Austria exerted, as if by right, over even by the admission of their bitterest all the states of Italy, and which she foe, Mazzini, who declared Italy was attempted even within the boundaries not ripe for a Republican government. of his own territory. The tortuous At the end of the year 1847, the system of policy pursued by the Met- moderate party had drawn over to ternich cabinet, the open professions their views the Pontiff, with the Kings of friendship made by Austria for his of Sardinia, Naples, and the Grand person, whilst at the same time she Duke of Tuscany; and everything was adopting secret and underhand seemed to foretell the ultimate triumph means to lessen the influence of Sar- of their yet peaceful movement. Howdinia throughout the Italian states, ever successful such a league might were sufficient to arouse the pride of prove amongst themselves, it was ut. the King, and to make him view with terly hopeless to expect Austria could distrust the hollow tokens of Austrian ever be induced to join the Confededisinterestedness.
ration. The whole policy, whereby Years rolled on, and the aggressive she governed her heterogeneous terriviews of Austria upon Sardinia be- tories, was entirely at variance with came more manifest. In 1846, an the adoption of constitutional governimpost duty of five francs was imposed ment, and her whole efforts were bent upon Piedmontese wines entering Lom- to crush the hopes of the Liberals. A bardy; and this act was sufficient to conspiracy broke out at Rome, formed paralyse the commerce of several of by Cardinal Lambruschini, a tool of the Sardinian provinces. Differences the Austrian Cabinet, followed by an of other kinds soon after arose, which open attack on her part, upon some widened still farther the breach ; and frivolous pretence, upon
Ferrara. the discovery of a treaty between the Every where her emissaries spread Emperor of Austria, the Dukes of themselves, endeavouring to excite Parma, Placentia, and Modena, made insurrections against the constituted it manifest that it was necessary for authorities, and thereby to terrify the Sardinia to look to her own safety, Pontiff and the other crowned heads, Exiles from every part of Italy crowded who had joined the Confederation, the streets of Turin, and were openly against proceeding further in their received with a hearty welcome. All march towards reform. Her efforts foreboded that the storm of words were partially successful, yet not suffiwould soon be exchanged for the cient to stifle a movement no power, battle-field of actual warfare.
however gigantic, could possibly crush. For some time anterior to this
pe- The thought had been planted in the riod there had been gradually forming mind; it required the grave to anniin Italy a strong and powerful party, hilate its immensity! Nor can the efled by the genius of a Gioberti, a forts of any despotic government be D'Azeglio, a Balbo. Their objects, able to crush eventually a people de. publicly stated by their writings, and termined to be free. The fear of ab. even by the admission of Metternich, solutism may float triumphant to-day; was to form Italy into a “confedera- to-morrow it lies prostrated before the tion of states, subject to the direction spirit of Intellectuality, whose guide of a central supreme power.” They is Justice, Immortality its hope ! seemed to be deeply convinced that To return to our narrative. After the only hope of ever raising Italy having perused the various papers befrom her state of degradation lay in fore him, the King carefully laid them the endeavour to unite the democratic aside; and touching a small bell that and constitutional monarchical form of lay on the table before bim, a gentlegovernment into one. Thus, instead man in attendance made his appearance. of exciting the enmity of Europe, and 66 Who waits without ?" exclaimed arraying against them a powerful in- the King. fluence, they would be able, by adopt- “ The Marquis Pasalacqua, in coming a conciliatory course of policy, pany with two gentlemen, sire, reto-draw into their views, and to quests an audience of your Majesty."
“ Admit them; I expected their has sternly refused to listen to any attendance."
measures which might tend to alleviate “ So the hour has come at last," your evils. It is easy, therefore, to muttered Carlo Alberto, as the gen- perceive, from the impulse given to tleman-in-waiting withdrew.
the cause of reform by the boly Pon. dream of my youth-nourished in boy- tiff, - by the agitation which prevails hood, and cherished in manhood, con. through all classes of society - by the cealed carefully in the recesses of my continued acts of petty cruelty enacted heart - is near its realisation. Yet- by the servants of the Imperial House strange uncertainty of purpose — the of Hapsburg, – that at no distant pehour is come, and instead of my mind riod a revolution will become inevitaboldly leaping forward to hail 'its ar. ble. Be therefore assured, gentlemen, rival, it shrinks at its approach, as if that if I perceive, at any period here. some terrible mystery hung over its after, the slightest opening where the fate. Can it be the presentiment of arms of Sardinia may be of use in furevil, the inscrutable hand which at thering your efforts to ameliorate your times warns us of danger ? No, I condition — so deeply do I sympathise cannot, I will not believe it; rather with you — I will not hesitate to give let me think this unknown vagueness my countenance openly to your moveof purpose is but a feeling of terror at ment. Further I cannot promise." the daring step I am about to take “Deeply will your Majesty deserve the leap before which expands at every the gratitude of every true Italian," instant the vision I contemplate, in said the Baron Pinaldi, “by the course rarer and more glorious colours. But your Majesty has so generously prohere comes the deputation-to-day re- mised to pursue. The organisation of ceived in secret-a few months hence, the Lombard nobility is fast proceedits object loudly proclaimed."
ing; the union of the middle classes * Gentlemen,” continued the King, and the people will soon be accomas he rose from his seat, while the plished ; and joined with the powerful Marquis Pasalacqua, the Baron Pinal- aid of your kingdom, sire, the liberty di, and Alberico Porro entered the of Lombardy, and perhaps that of the room, “it is with pleasure I greet whole of Italy, will be achieved. May your appearance. I have read over God grant the Italian race sussicient carefully the various documents you wisdom and spirit to show, on a future handed me at the last interview, and day, how deeply they feel the poble have thought deeply over the propo- and kingly pledge of your Majesty, sals of the Lombard nobility. That which, when known, will raise around my heart sympathises fully with your your throne, sire, the hearts of all Italy: " sufferings and wrongs, my actions “ Gentlemen, my earnest hope is, must have proved to you before now, L'Italia farà da sè. The future glitand especially of late. I have used ters with golden promises; on the my influence with every crowned head energy and union of the Lombards in Italy, to induce them to respond to depends their realisation." the cry heard on all sides, by granting After conversing a short time longer those reforms so essential to the well- with the King, whose destiny from that being of every people. From each hour was marked out, rich with the government I have received more or ancient spirit of heroic chivalry, the less encouragement to proceed in the deputation took their leave, with hopes course I have thought proper to adopt, elated, and trembling with a joy long with the exception of Austria, who a stranger to their hearts.
THE MORNING OF THE 18TH OF MARCH. * The boldness with which the national party reared its head in Milan itself, the head-quarters of a numerous Austrian army, would seem to have rested on a deeper foundation.
It would appear to indieate an anticipation, founded on a secret concert and intelligence, of that explosion which some two months later occurred in every important quarter of the Austrian empire, and on an assurance that the aid of Charles Albert would be extended to the Milanese nobility, upon the contingency so expected." - Military Events in Italy. BRICHTLY over the face of nature ern Italy, on the morning of the 18th arose the sun on the capital of north- of March, 1848. For several days
previous the general excitement reign- rally the dictate of the conscience ing throughout society, from the high- of those who learn to govern a people, est to the lowest circle, had been ex- not by their love but by their fears, a treme; and in every public assembly, coward's flight, with the deserved exgarden, and coffee house, the politi. ecration of every pure, honest, genecal course of events were openly can- rous, and noble mind. Conscience ! vassed, and the conduct of the Aus- what a true judge art thou, and how trian Government denounced in the virtuous would not mankind be if they strongest terms. Not even the infa- hearkened but to thy silent yet unermous enactment of the guidiccio sta- ring voice, one of the most precious tario, which authorised the authori. gifts ever bestowed by a beneficent ties to arrest, try, and shoot any sus, Providence to guide the soul to the pected party in the short space of two Fountain of Life! hours, was sufficient to prevent hun- It was a Saturday* morning which dreds from freely giving loose to their dawned over the northern city of the opinions, and to the detestation in German Cæsars, the Cisalpine of which they held their rulers. These modern republican hope. In deathdecided manifestations of popular will, like silence broke the hour on scenes 80 unheard of, and carefully reported which soon were to be filled with the to Government by their secret agents forms of thousands of human beings, and spies, were sufficient to create not animated with the common feel alarm in the minds of the different ings which stir the human mind to enmembers which constituted it, and counter the daily business of life, but following out the cowardly example with those exhibiting the darker and set them in France, by the flight of the fiercer passions of nature — ferocity, Citizen King, Louis Philippe, who cruelty, and hatred-revenge, despair, dared not confront the brave people and patriotism! Over the calmness whose generous confidence and trust of the scene shone joyously, forth the he had basely betrayed, several of them rays of the sun, dying with hues of openly took fear for their guide, and fled purple and gold the thick clouds floatin terror from the scenes of their ing over the blue firmament of heacrimes. The governor Spucer was the ven, as if indicative of the approach first to set the example, and his was of the storm, which was to reign not soon followed by the minister Figuels merely in its own sphere, but also in the mont, who had so courageously boast- hearts of the people, over whose head ed but a short time previously, “He they floated through immensity. Slowbeld in his hands an infallible means ly passed along the hand of time, and of making the good Milanese forget their then a few stragglers were seen quietly idol, Pius IX., and their wishes for calling at various houses, and breakpational independence;" but which, ing by the echo of their footsteps the like all coward boasts, turned out to silence of the streets. Gradually the be but the vaunt of a feeble and imbe- number of passengers increased, but cile mind, incapable of standing by seemingly, as if by some preconcerted what it asserted. On the day previous plan, the principal part of the way. the news had reached Milan of an in- farers directed their steps towards surrection having broken out at Vien- the Piazza de' Mercanti, the Duoda, and the intelligence spread with mo, and other places, where conspilightning rapidity through every part cuously were posted large placards, of the city. But a few hours after, by order of Government. The excited the Viceroy of Lombardy, terrified at looks and manners of the people, after the ominous aspect of affairs, fled in perusing the contents of the poster, haste towards Vienna, carrying with told how much their welfare and intehim every article of value, even to his rest was concerned in the proclamamoveables ; and this but tended to add tion, and of what importance they fuel to the fire of popular excitement deemed it. The announcement was and discontent which already reigned signed by the Conte O'Donnell, and around on every side. Such is gene- proclaimed by order of the Emperor
I bave noticed with some surprise the mistake made by two or three authors, in altributing the outbreak of the Revolution at Milan to have occurred on a Sunday, and not on a Saturday. It took place, most certainly, on Saturday, the 18th day of March.
of Austria, the abolition of the cen- weighed down by the sense of a thousorship of the press, and the pro- sand acts of injustice, rise up spontamise of the convocation of the States neously, prince and peasant mingling of the kingdom, both German and indiscriminately together as brothers, Slavonic, on the 3rd of July next, at to claim the unalienable rights of man, farthest. * Beneath the placard ap
sanctified by the voice of prophecy peared another, on which was painted and the Spirit of God-pale and mute the national emblem of Italy, the tri- in their stern features, offering their coloured flag, and under the words breasts a walled phalanx to the foes' were written—" Italians ! let your an- bayonet, their lives a willing sacrifice swer be to your Emperor, No com- at the eternal altar of judgment ! promise. A Nationality of our own ! At a house in the Corsie dé Servi, To arrive at this there is but one at an early bour in the morning, in a course, to arms! to arms !"
spacious room, was seen Porro, and The promises contained in the pro- around him collected a number of the clamation, which time has shown was members of some of the most inbut an invention to allay the popular fluential and most ancient nobility excitement, and thus gain time for new of Italy — the Count Martina, the specious pretences,t had, even if they agent of the King of Sardinia; the contained truth, arrived too late. It Count Hasati ; the two chiefs of was not merely a more open acknow- the Borroméo family ; Vrambilla, Visledgment of law which was required, conte, Velgiojoso, Trivuszi, Litta, with its more equitable administration- Pasalacqua, and a number of others, the Lombards desired an Italian dy- whose ardent love of country and connasty of their own. Thirty-two years tempt of danger, which they soon after of suffering and oppression had taught exhibited, has endeared them to their them the bitter lesson of experience- countrymen, and enriched the page of the little reliance there could be placed history with the example of a patriotin the faith of an Austro-German ab- ism as lofty and as pure as was ever solutism. The hour for slight and beheld. On the countenance of each gradual improvements to keep pace with person present was seen depicted the the steady march of human progression strong marks of mental excitement, the and thought, had long passed away, nervous twitching of the hands, the never to be recalled; for the hopes face pale and stern in its expression, held out, yet never realised; the pro- the body, moving and restless in its mises given, yet always broken ; the motions, all proclaiming that the hour wearying, yet sickening sensation of had come! The hour long dreamt of, long years of prayer and abject en- long thought of, long wished for had treaties, unheeded, unnoticed_all had
- come at length to crush the conspired to render useless any con- galling serfdom of years of agony, of cessions whatsoever ; promises were torture, of slavery!--the hour had come disbelieved, atonements accepted as a to triumph or to die! On their unity sure sign of weakness; threats but and courage, ay, even on their very awoke a louder expression of dissatis- despair, depended the liberty of their faction ; in short, the hour of retribu- country; the victory of mind over igtion bad come! Terrible, yet how norance, of virtue over vice, of justice beautiful is that hour, when a people, and honesty over infamy and cruelty !
The proclamation was as follows:—“The President of H. I. M. Government thinks it his duty to publish the following news, contained in a telegraphic despatch, dated Vienna, 13th instant, which arrived the same day at Chilli, and at Milan yesterday evening :
“H. M. the Emperor has determined to abolish the censureship, and to publish, without delay, a law on the press, as well as to convoke the States of the Kingdom, buth German and Slavonic, and also the Central Congregations of the Lombarda Venetian Kingdom. The meeting will be held on the 3rd of next July at latest.
" CONTE O'DONNELL, Vice-President. “ Milan, 18th March, 1848."
† That the promises made in the proclamation issued by the Conte O'Donnell were never intended to be realised, the author is positive of, for he has seen a letter, in the possession of a friend of his, and written by a Minister of the Austrian Crown, avowing, at the time the proclamation was published, that it was only a barefaced cheat to deceive the Milanese people, for the purpose of keeping them quiet.
VOL. XLVI.NO. CCLXXIII.