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was manifestly a main part of his de- bench uppermost, we are bound to sign in forwarding the mission. White- believe that a very jovial evening was locke, who zealously seconded the commenced, and non obstante Mr. General's intent, became immediately Peters, the wicked custom of cup“Lord Ambassador," and sat with the health drinking seems to have been to Committee of Council, covered, dis- some extent indulged in. “There were coursing with them touching coaches, three very long tables full in the hall; liveries, clothes for himself, table-linen, those at each table severally, and with hangings, household stuff, and bedding, ceremony, first drank to Cromwell, the provision and allowances for which then to Lagerfeldt, and they afterwere the subject of more apparent wards, severally, drank to each table; anxiety than the preparation of the then all the tables together drank to envoy's

commission, which was referred Whitelocke, wishing him a good voyto the Committee for Foreign Affairs. age, and their respects to the Queen of The retinue finally approved of was a Sweden." noble following, numbering about one The Phønix and Elizabeth frigates hundred persons. It included two were appointed to convey the ambaschaplains, a physician, steward, re- sador and his suite, special instructions ceiver and chief secretary, gentleman being issued to their commanders under of the horse, clerk of the stable, first the hands of Blake and Monk. A vast and second sewers, apothecary, twelve deal of praying and expounding of “gentlemen admitted to his table," places in Scripture then took place, among whom were the ambassador's both in private and in the chapel at two sons. These gentlemen had of their Whitehall. Leave was taken of breservants about twenty-five, and all thren in the Court of Chancery, of their lacqueys in Whitelocke's livery. gentlemen at the bar, and of the ofThere were, besides three gentlemen ficers. The commission, credentials, of the ambassador's bedchamber, a and public instructions were formally barber, messenger, two gentlemen delivered to Whitelocke at the table of “chietly for music," a purveyor, four the House of Commons. He received troopers, gentlemen servitors at White his private instructions in two papers locke's table, with a host of pages, from the Council ; and upon the 30th lacqueys, trumpets, cooks, butlers, of October, being the Lord's day, dined coachmen, postilions, grooms, and privately with Cromwell at the Cocklaundresses, When all was ready, pit, where they two talked above an Cromwell sent one of his gentlemen to hour together. Amongst the topics Whitelocke with a farewell present- discussed at this tête-à-tête was the a sword and a pair of spurs richly in- subject of one of the papers of private laid with gold, of a noble work and instructions, in which the ambassador fashion. He also received a noble was directed to sound the Queen of present from Mr. Bushell, an ingenious Sweden as to her willingness to join gentleman who had been a servant to with England in "gaining the Sound, the Lord Chancellor Bacon, being a and against the Dutch and Danes," curious rich cabinet of green velvet, respecting which Cromwell declared with silver lace; in it were two dozen no business can be of greater conseof the most rare and best distilled quence to us and our trade, wherein spirits of hot waters, after the direction the Dutch will endeavour to overreach of his lord ; and every glass had its us; and it were good to prevent them screws, and cover of Welsh silver, and the Danes, and first to serve our chiefly found out by himself. Finally, own interest. The second private the good old English character of the paper contained an order which would transaction was vindicated by a public have seemed strange a year or two dinner at Grocers' Hall, whereat the since, before the rapid course of events ambassador met the Lord - General forced us to supply the armouries of Cromwell

, the generals at sea, and manufacturing England from the many of the land and sea officers—the forges of Belgium. In it the ambassacompany being three hundred in num- dor was commissioned to buy 550 pieces ber. Before dinner, Mr. Peters prayed of brass or copper ordnance to carry and expounded a place of Scripture, bullets from twelve to thirty-six pounds and a psalm was sung, after which weight. Had this fact been thought Mr. Lagerfeldt, the Swedish resident, of when we set out to fight the Rusbeing set by Cromwell at the board's sians with a train of nine and eighteenend, and Whitelocke on the right hand pounders, believing all the while that our mechanical appliances for war were some diet, and safety on firm land, to unrivalled in the world, England might come to stinking water, salt and bad have been spared some loss and a great meat boiled in it, such as they could deal of ridicule. The reminiscence would not eat; from good beds and warm have been still more instructive and to chambers, to cold, close cabins, and the point, if it had included an obser- to be dashed all over with water; for vation made by Whitelocke in the ar- security on shore, to be lost in the senal of Stockholm, where he saw two deep sea.” Nevertheless, the evil hour pieces taken from the Muscovites, each passed away, and, between preaching of them weighing 18,000 pounds, and and drolling, the hearts of those luxucarrying a bullet of ninety-six pounds rious slaves were kept from utterly also a great mortar-piece, of brass, of sinking. When the chaplains were a fathom and three fingers in diameter prostrated with sea-sickness, one Per. at the mouth of it. But we were too call, a kind of master's mate, prayed much occupied in boasting of our thir


before Whitelocke and his company, teen-inch shells and ninety-five hun- and preached very well and honestly ; dred-weight guns, to allow of our while Whitelocke himself lost no oplooking back to old stories either of portunity of encouraging his followers, war or diplomacy.

and persuading them to put their conOn the 3rd of November, 1653, fidence in Ilim who could still the Whitelocke tore himself from his wife raging of the seas. He was much on the and ten of his children, amidst a great decks, drolling and discoursing with outpouring of their tears and lamen- the officers and mariners, “especially tations; the sorrow of parting being by affording them now and then a somewhat enlivened by the splendour douse in the neck, or a kick, in jest, of his embarkation.

seeing them play, and then giving

them some of his own tobacco, wine, “At the Tower wharf, multitudes of peo- and strong waters, as there was occaple crowding about liim, he enters the barge sion, which demeanours please these of ten oars. When he put off from shore, kind of people.” At length the port the Tower saluted him with eleven pieces of of Gottenburg was gained ; and the ordnance. As he passed by the ships of war Swedish court being then at Upsala, in the river, they gave him the like respect

the ambassador, after a short rest, of their great guns; so did the fort at the

proceeded tbither. The journey ocHope. He went directly to the Phønix frigate, riding in that road, whose captain,

cupied twenty days, and was not Foster, received him with as much honour

finished until the 20th of December, as he could express ; his pennons all hung although a land transport corps of one out, his waste clothes to the cabin door, and

hundred saddle-horses, and as many he fired twenty-one guns for his welcome. wagons, drawn by horses or oxen, From thence he visited the Elizabeth frigate, and driven by women, was provided whose captain, Minnes, welcomed him with by the Swedish authorities for his serhis guns, and all ensigns of respect, as Fos- vice. ter did ; and in his return to Gravesend, the From the moment of his landing, mariners of the Elizabeth gave a great the first thought of Whitelocke was shout, and were answered by those of the

to assert and sustain the honour of Phenix, to testify their being pleased with

England by a magnificent hospitality, the ambassador's being on board of them, and with the voyage. In his way the men

and by the most rigid exaction of the of-war saluted him with their guns, and

compliments and ceremonies customparticularly and unexpectedly a Holland arily paid to the ambassadors of kings frigate, which lately brought over their am- of the highest rank; and in this course baesador, and now wore her wbite flag. he followed on consistently to the last. Though both Commonwealths were now in Scarcely bad he set foot on shore, when actual war, yet she saluted Whitelocke with he gave a taste of his quality to one three guns as he passed by her."

Martin Thysen, a Dutchman, and Vice

admiral in the Swedish service, who, The voyage to Gottenburg was being “roundly answered by Whitetedious and stormy; but we must not locke," when, “falling into discourse, pause over the amusing record of its he magnified the actions and successes incidents. The discomforts of the sea of the Dutch, and undervalued the were deeply felt by some of the com- English," was much displeased, and took pany, who “solemnly repented that advantage of every opportunity that of they had left good colleges, and kind fered to raise questions calculated to mothers and friends, full and whole embarrass the ambassador. Thanks to the activity of the naval commanders in in the afternoon, dinner being bashis suite, an occasion of this kind was tened because of it. soon offered; for scarcely was the convoy placed in safety, when the " At his going out, Whitelocke was in Elizabeth took a Dutch prize, and this equipage: At his gate stood his porter brought her into Gottenburg; and

in a gown of grey cloth, laced with gardes Captain Welcli, a bold fighting sea

of blue velvet between edges of gold and man, who commanded a stout private

silver lace, two in a seam ; his long staff, man-of-war, with a crew of eighty

with a silver head, in his hand. The liveries

of his coachmen and postilions were buff men of his own temper, proceeded to

doublets, laced with the same lace ; the do a little business on bis own account. sleeves of their doublets thick and round Against these proceedings the Vice- laced ; their breeches and cloaks of grey admiral, bringing with him the ma- cloth, with the like laces. His twelve lac. gistrates of the town, expostulated queys, proper men, had their liveries of the angrily ; but finding that Whitelocke same with the coachmen; and the wings of was not to be vapoured or threatened their coats very thick laced with the like into a conformity to their desires, they

laces. The liveries of his four pages were soon fell into a way of more respect

blue satin doublets and grey cloth trunkand civility. My Lord then consented

breeches laced with the same lace very thick;

the coats up to the cape, and lined with blue to receive a petition from the Dutch

plush ; their stockings long, of blue silk. skipper, praying for the release of his

His two trumpets in the like liveries. The ship, and his sly design being thereby

gentlemen-attendants, officers, and servants to try if the Dutchman would acknow.

of his house were handsomely accoutred, ledge the Commonwealth of England and every man with his sword by his side. in his person, he was with difficulty The gentlemen of the first rank were nobly induced to be satisfied with the phrase- and richly habited, who spared for no cost, ology of a document, intituled “ No- in honour to their country and to their bilissime et Excellentissime Domine,

friend ; and their persons, and most of the my Lord Whitelocke, patrone devene

others, were such as graced their habili. rande." He did, however, suffer his

ments. His secretary, for the credit of his dignity to be appeased; and in the

master, had put himself into a rich babit.

Whitelocke was plain, but extraordinarily end, gave orders for the restoration of

rich in his habit, though without any gold the poor fisherman's boat. The land

or silver lace or embroidery. His suit was shere, or chief magistrate of the town, of black English cloth, of an exceedingly he astounded by visiting him in state, fine sort; the cloak lined with the same with about fifty of his gentlemen cloth, and that and the suit set with very walking bare before him, some of the fair rich diamond buttons; his hat-band of first rank following close after him, diamonds answerable ; and all of the value his pages and lacqueys after them, and of £1,000." with their swords by their sides. Mar. tin Thysen he subdued by a splendid

Thus arrayed, the chief persons of dinner, with abundance of sack and

the cortege were conveyed to Court in claret, where they made it dark before

the Queen's coaches; and Whitelocke, they rose from table, the company

passing across the great court of the then taking their leaves with many

Castle through a line formed by one thanks and compliments. Through

hundred musketeers, was received at out the entire period of the mission

the foot of the stairs by Count Gabriel the same line of conduct was pursued,

Oxenstiern, nephew to the great ChanWbitelocke being, upon all occasions,

cellor, with his marshal's staff of silver ready to fight or drink — though he

in his hand. This civil and well-fawould pledge no healths — for the ho

shioned gentleman having complimentnour of his General and the Common

ed Whitelocke in French, they went up wealth. The grand object of the em

two pair of stone stairs in this order:bassy was manifestly to impress upon the public mind of Europe a high no- “First the gentlemen and officers of the tion of the prosperity, power, gene

Queen, bareheaded ; after them, Whiterosity, and especially of the gentility

locke's gentlemen-attendants and of his of England, and of her ruler and lead.

bedchamber, with the inferior officers of his ing men ; and the means adopted were

house; then followed his gentlemen of the

first rank; after them his two sons; then well suited to the end desired to be ob

the master of the ceremonies; after him the tained. The first audience of the am

two senators; then the Hof-Marshal; after bassador at court was truly a splendid him Whitelocke, whom his secretary and affair. It took place at two o'clock chaplains followed; and then his pages, lacqueys, and other liverymen. The Queen's amity and good correspondence which lacqueys carried torches ; and when they had hitherto been between the two nahad mounted many stairs, they came into a tions, but further to enter into a more large hall, many people being in the way; strict alliance and union for the good from thence into a great chamber, where


of both, such as the affairs of Chris. Prince Adolphe, brother to the Prince-herio

tendom, and especially with the neightier of the Crown, then Grand Master or High Steward of Sweden, met Whitelocke ;

bouring princes and states, laid obligaand it was observed that he had not done tions upon them to entertain. All that honour to any ambassador before. After this was spoken out boldly, without many compliments and ceremonies, they diplomatic blind or artifice, and in the passed on, Whitelocke upon the right hand face of the world; for a public recepof the Prince, who conducted him to another tion of an envoy at the Court of chamber, where stood a guard of the Queen's Sweden, in that day, was a matter of partisans in livery coats, richly embroidered

European notoriety. And the same with gold. In the next room beyond that, manly

-We regret that with the Vienna which was large and fair, was the Queen

conferences fresh in our minds we berself. The room was richly hung with cloth of arras; in the midst of it great can

cannot say the same English-tone dlesticks full of wax-lights, besides a great

characterised the negotiations that fol. number of torches. He perceived the Queen

lowed, whether these were carried on sitting at the upper end of the room, upon

with the Queen herself, or more for. her chair of state, of crimson velvet, with a mally with Oxenstiern. Throughout, canopy of the same over it. Some ladies Whitelocke held steadily in view the stood behind the Queen, and a very great general object of the establishment of number of lords, officers, and gentlemen of an offensive and defensive league bethe Court filled the room. Upon the foot

tween the two nations, with a particu. carpet, and near the Queen, stood the sena

lar article guaranteeing the freedom of tors and other great officers, all uncovered ;

trade and navigation to the two confede. and none but persons of quality were admitted into that chamber. Whitelocke's gen

rates in the European seas, and especi. tlemen were all let in, and a lane made by

ally in the Sound, and mutually pledgthem for him to pass through to the Queen.

ing them to a defence of the same As soon as he came within this room, he

against all disturbers who would interput off his hat, and then the Queen put off rupt it, and force it to their own will her cap, after the fashion of men, and came and the common injury. Throughout, two or three steps forward upon the foot- Christina and her Chancellor met carpet. This, and her being covered, and these demands fairly yet cautiously. rising from her seat, caused Whitelocke to

Both parties stated freely what they know her to be the Queen, which otherwise

desired to have, and what they would had not been easy to be discerned, her habit

not consent to : where the necessity for being of plain grey stuff ; her petticoat reached to the ground; over that a jacket,

an appeal to the sword was foreseen such as men wear, of the same stuff, reach

and thought justifiable, the willingness ing to her knees. On her left side, tied with

to make the appeal was simply affirmed, crimson ribbon, she wore the jewel of the and where prudence seemed to prescribe order of Amaranta; her cuffs ruffled à la peaceful counsels, the dislike to engage mode ; no gorget or band, but a black scarf in an opposite course was frankly acabout her neck, tied before with a black rib- knowledged. Thus:bon, as soldiers or mariners sometimes used to wear. Her hair was braided, and hung “What do you judge (asked the Queen) loose upon her head. She wore a black vel

the best means to procure free navigation vet cap, lined with sables, and turned up through the Sound ? after the fashion of the country, which she " WHITELOCKE_I know no other means used to put off and on as men do their but force; the King of Denmark deny. hats." A speech was made by Whitelocke

“QUEEN — That is the way indeed; but

what shall then be done with the castles upon in French, and answered by the Queen

the Sound, and the King of Denmark's land in Swedish, both being uncovered there? at the time of speaking, and White- " WH.-If it shall please God to give a locke carefully putting on his hat blessing to the design, the castles must whenever, in the course of the ceremo. either be razed, or they and the islands put nies, her Majesty assumed her cap, into good hands, such as both may trust. The point of the speech was a tender "Qu.—That is to the purpose." of the friendship of the Conimonwealth of England, and an offer not only to So indeed it was ; and, perhaps, our renew and preserve inviolably that readers may discover a practical ap.

ing it.

plication of the argument that would and with English sauces, ereams, puddings, be no less to the purpose in our own custards, tarts, tansies, English apples, tines. Again, when the sagacious

bon chrétien pears, cheese, butter, neat's Cbancellor propounded the doctrine of

tongues, potted venison, and sweetmeats “ free ships, free goods," and when the

brought out of England, as his sack and

claret also was. Queen suggested that the proposed

His beer was also brewed,

and his bread made by his own servants in his freedom of navigation should be ex

house, after the English manner; and the tended to America, Whitelocke used

Queen and her company seemed highly no circumlocution in peremptorily de- pleased with this treatment. Some of her claring that he would consent to nei. company said she did eat and drink more ther :

at it than she used to do in three or four

days at her own table. The entertainment " Why (asked Oxenstiern) may not our (he continues) was as full and noble as the merchants, being your friends, and friends place would afford and as Whitelocke could to your enemies, carry any goods to either make it, and so well ordered and contrived, of you, without being, as we are, taken and that the Queen said she had never seen any endamaged.

like it. She was pleased so far to play the “Our enemies (replied Whitelocke) though good housewife as to inquire how the butter perhaps seeming friends to you, yet will not could be so fresh and sweet, and yet brought suffer your ships, nor any other, to bring us out of England. Whitelocke, from his cooks, any goods, imperiously forbidden by them; satisfied her Majesty's inquiry, that they and it is but equal, if not necessary, that we put the salt butter into milk, where it lay all do the like."

night, and the next day it would eat fresh

and sweet as this did, and any butter new To the Queen's proposition, which, made ; and commended her Majesty's good in fact, included in it a nullification of housewifery, who to express her contentthe famous Navigation Acts, White

ment in this collation, was full of pleasantlocke simply said he could not consent.

ness and gaiety of spirit, both in supper-time

and afterwards. Among other frolics, she The precedent, we may suppose, was commanded Whitelocke to teach her ladies known to Lord John Russell; had its sim.

the English salutation, which, after some plicity influenced his diplomatic prac- pretty defences, their lips obeyed, and Whitetice upon a recent occasion, the charac- locke's most readily." ter of that distinguished stateman might still have remained a valuable possession Upon this auspicious occasion the to his country.

ambassador was all amiability and It is not within our present plan humble courtesy towards his illustrious either to review “Whitelocke's Jour,

guest ; but the case was different when, nal," or to discuss the special merits in his visits to the court, any question of the diplomatic transaction of which arose touching his personal or national it supplies a valuable record. Our dignity. Thus, when the Danish amobject, in truth, is no other than to bassador claimed precedence at give our readers a glimpse of Old Eng. masque, by virtue of his being the relish diplomacy, as it was conducted presentative of an anointed king, under the guidance of the powerful whereas Whitelocke's master was but hand of Cromwell; and another in. the Protector - a new name, and not stance or two of Whitelocke's spirit sacré-my lord plainly intimated that will show how competent service he would assert his claim vi et armis. seldom fails a strong-willed master. He represented the nations of Eng. We have seen my lord putting on and land, Scotland, and Ireland ; and off his hat in the royal presence when- though they were under a constable, he ever the honour of England required would not suffer any diminution of or permitted these rites. He was not their honour by his person to please less exact in reciprocating acts of mu- any whatsoever :nificence with the Queen, presenting her with costly gifts, and entertaining

“ Bat (pleaded the master of the ceremoher and her court with princely splen

nies) when you come into the room and find dour. On May day Her Majesty ho

the Danish Ambassador set, you cannot help noured him with her company, when

it, though he have the upper place. he treated her, as his mistress, after

“ WHITELOCKE-I shall endeavour to help

it, rather than sit below the Danish Amthe English fashion, with some little

bassador. collation:

“Mast. CER.-I presume you will not

use force in the Queen's presence. * Their meat was such fowl as could be · WH.-Master, it is impossible for me, if gotten, dressed after the Englista fashion, it were in the presence of all the queens and


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