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for their improvement and extension,-as- We come now to the history of the tronomy, mechanics, natural history, medi. discovery of the universality of the cine, and literature, and the arts, are entitled

attraction of gravitation, and the ex. to the same protection.”—Vol. I. p. 104.

planation of the motions of the whole

of the heavenly bodies by one general We cannot, of course, say what con- simple law. What we bave said before siderations may have swayed the mind as regards the nature of light, is appliof Sir Robert Peel in the establishment cable here too. We who have been of the Institution referred to in Lon- familiar from our childhood with the don, and the kindred Institution in idea of gravitation, can hardly realise Dublin. We have, however, always to ourselves the mental state of men been led to suppose that the idea of who were destitute of it. In order these Museums originated in the mind fully to understand the majesty of of the late Sir Henry De la Beche; Newton's simple theory, we should be that when he commenced, in the first familiar with the complicated hypoinstance, almost entirely on his own theses not only of the cycle and epi. resources, the geological survey of cycle of the Ptolemaic system, but of Cornwall and Devon, with a view to the vortices of Descartes, with which its being ultimately continued by the all men's heads were bewildered till Government over the whole kingdom, Newton's time, and many of them even the Museum of Economical Geology, beyond it. as it was then called, arose from the The idea of gravity first occurred to necessity for having some place in Newton in 1665; it had been kept in which to store, exhibit, and arrange abeyance during his optical investithe specimens collected, together with gations, and it was not till the years models of mining machinery and other 1685 and 1686 that, urged by several practical matters. This idea grew and friends, among whom Halley must be increased, until it has been expanded especially mentioned, he composed and into its present size, which we by no gave to the world the Philosophiæ means look upon as anything like its Naturalis Principia Mathematica.” full growth. "Upon the principle that The whole of the history of the publia Museum, without lectures explana- cation of the “ Principia,” as given by tory of the objects contained in it, is a Sir David, is very interesting: All mere curiosity-shop, educational ar- men of science, and especially all rangements have followed as a neces- those who claim England for their sary and logical consequence of the birth-place, must ever feel an interest foundation of the two Museums in in knowing the minutest particular London and Dublin, and will, we con- about this the loftiest effort of the clude, follow that which is to be es- human mind; that of which it has been tablished shortly in Edinburgh, that well said education having a special technical

“ Nec fas est propius mortali attingere divos." direction, limited by the nature of the contents of the Museun in each case. It would occupy, however, too much

We do not by any means agree with of our space to give even the brief abSir David Brewster in looking on these stract of the contents of this work that Institutions as the enlargements of any Sir David lays before us; the reader section of an Academy of Sciences or will find it in his first volume, pages National Institute, or as containing the 319-330. We will just quote the germs for the development of such a

following passage, by which it is intronotion. Based on a great survey of duced:the mineral resources and the geological structure of the United Kingdom, “ Such is a brief notice of the composition which has both theoretical and practi- and printing of the first and second editions cal results of high importance for its

of a work which will be memorable not only object, these Institutions will be the

in the annals of one science, or of one country, store-houses and the record-offices of

but which will form an epoch in the history this survey, and the places where those

of the world, and will ever be regarded as

the brightest page in the records of human results, and everything connected with,

reason, - a work, may we not add, which and of kin to, them may be preserved would be read with delight in every planet and arranged, and explained, and ex- of our system,-in every system of the uni. pounded, long after the survey itself verse. What a glorious privilege was it to shall have been brought to a conclusion, have been the author of the Principia !

There was but one earth upon whose form them one against another, and estimate and tides and movements the philosopher the amount of matter contained in could exercise his genius,-one moon, whose them. Now, since the discovery by perturbations and inequalities and actions he

Herschel of the planet Uranus, it was could study, - one sun, whose controlling

found, by continued observation, that force and apparent motions he could calculate and determine,—one system of planets,

after allowing for the effect which whose mutual disturbances could tax his

Saturn and the rest of the heavenly highest reason, --one system of comets, whose

bodies must exert on his motions, there eccentric paths he could explore and rectify,

still remained over and above a certain and one universe of stars, to whose binary amount of irregularity in this orbit, and multiple combinations he could extend such as could only be accounted for the law of terrestial gravity. To have been on the supposition of yet another the chosen sage summoned to the study of planet outside of Uranus exerting a that earth, these systems, and that uni- certain amount of “pulling" or attracverse,-the favoured lawgiver to worlds un

tive influence upon him. numbered, the high-priest in the temple of

Two young astronomers, Adams of boundless space,-- was a privilege that could be granted but to one member of the human

Cambridge, and Leverrier of Paris, at family ;-and to have executed the task was

the same time undertook, unknown to an achievement which in its magnitude can

each other, the investigation of this be measured only by the infinite in space, problem, and they not only proved and in the duration of its triumphs by the

that there must be such an external infinite in time. That Sage--that Lawgiver planet, but, by calculating the amount --that High-priest was Newton."-Vol. I. and direction of its attractive influence, pp. 318, 319.

they pointed out the exact spot in the

heavens, within a single degree, where Ever since the publication of the it would be found. Even astronomers “Principia,” astronomers and philoso- royal were not prepared for this, and phers have been engaged in extending

nine months were allowed to pass away and amplifying the rules there laid before Airey and Challis gave themdown. One very remarkable instance selves the trouble to look for it in of the application of Newton's laws bas England, and eight months were happened in our own time. Newton equally allowed to elapse on the contidemonstrated that every particle of nent. No sooner, however, had the matter in the universe is attracted by, telescopes of Professor Challis at Camor gravitates to, every other particle of bridge, and M. Galle at Berlin, been matter, with a force directly propor- pointed to the spot indicated, than tional to their quantities of matter, and they saw the new planet as a star of inversely to the squares of their dis- the eighth magnitude, in the exact tances.

place that had been predicted equally It follows that all the planets, as by Adams and Leverrier. they move around the sun, are acted It was in October, 1845, that Adams upon by the sun and by each other, had completed his task; in November and that, as their mutual places and of the same year Leverrier laid his distances are for ever varying, each memoir before the Academy of Sciences one is pulled a little out of its mean at Paris. It was in August, 1846, path, now on this side and now on that the star was seen. Sir David that, according as the puller varies its says :position. Inasmuch as the quantities of matter, however, contained in each

" The honour of having made this disdo not vary, and inasmuch as this

covery belongs equally to Adams and pulling or disturbing action always Leverrier. It is the greatest intellectual ultimately compensates itself by ex- achievement in the annals of astronomy, and erting at one time as much force in one the noblest triumph of the Newtonian Phidirection as it did at another in the losophy. To detect a planet by the eye, opposite, the stability of the whole

or to track it to its place by the mind, are system is perfectly secured. More

acts as incommensurable as those of muscuover, by observing and measuring the

lar and intellectual power. Recumbent on

his easy chair, the practical astronomer has amount of this perturbation," as it is

but to look through the cleft in his revolving called, exerted by any two bodies on

cupola, in order to trace the pilgrim star in each other, as for instance Jupiter and

its course; or by the application of magnifySaturn, and knowing their size and ing power, to expand its tiny disc, and thus their distance, we are able to weigh transfer it from among its sidereal companions to the planetary domains. The was very meek, sedate, and humble, never physical astronomer, on the contrary, has seemingly angry, of profound thought, his no such auxiliaries : he calculates at noon, countenance mild, pleasant, and comely. I when the stars disappear under a meridian cannot say I ever saw him laugh but once, sun: he computes at midnight, when clouds which was at that passage which Dr. Stukely and darkness shroud the heavens, and from mentioned in his letter to your honour, which within that cerebral dome, which has no put me in mind of the Ephesian philosopher, opening heavenward, and no instrument but who laughed only once in his lifetime, to see the Eye of Reason, he sees in the disturbing an ass eating thistles when plenty of grass agencies of an unseen planet, upon a planet was by. He always kept close to his studies, by him equally unseen, the existence of the very rarely went a visiting, and had as few disturbing agent, and from the nature and visitors, excepting two or three persons, Mr. amount of its action, he computes its mag- Ellis, Mr. Laughton of Trinity, and Mr. Vinitude and indicates its place. If man has gani, a chemist, in whose company he took ever been permitted to see otherwise than by much delight and pleasure at an evening the eye, it is when the clairvoyance of rea- when he came to wait upon him. I never son, piercing through screens of epidermis knew him to take any recreation or pastime and walls of bone, grasps amid the abstrac- either in riding out to take the air, walking, tions of number and of quantity, those sub- bowling, or any other exercise whatever, lime realities which have eluded the keenest thinking all hours lost that was not spent in touch, and evaded the sharpest eye."-Vol. his studies, to which he kept so close that he I. pp. 369, 370.

seldom left his chamber except at term time,

when he read in the schools as being LucaThe next phase in Newton's life

sianus Professor, where so few went to hear was his controversy with Leibnitz as

him, and fewer that understood him, that regards the invention of the Differen- ofttimes he did in a manner, for want of tial Calculus. There can be little

hearers, read to the walls. Foreigners he doubt that, as Leibnitz was capable of received with a great deal of freedom, canthe independent invention of this cal- dour, and respect. When invited to a treat, culus, so he did arrive at it indepen. which was very seldom, he used to return it dently. It is certain that Newton's very handsomely, and with much satisfaction

to himself. So intent, so serious upon his Fluxions (the same thing in another form) were his own. Leibnitz's case,

studies, that he ate very sparingly, nay, oft

times he has forgot to eat at all, so that, however, is unfortunately stained by going into his chamber, I have found his the dishonesty and disingenuity of his

mess untouched, of which, when I have reproceedings, and by his treachery to

minded him, he would reply,— Have 1! his friend Bernoulli, who told lies for

and then making to the table, would eat a his sake. It is a painful passage in bit or two standing, for I cannot say I ever the lives of great men, and had its evil saw him sit at table by himself. At some seleffect even on the calm and dispas- dom entertainments, the Masters of Colleges sionate mind of Newton.

were chiefly his guests. He very rarely went Passing over this passage in his life, to bed till two or three of the clock, sometimes we meet in Sir David's pages with

not till five or six, lying about four or five some curious and interesting accounts

hours, especially at spring and fall of the leaf,

at which times he used to employ about six of his mode of existence at Cambridge.

weeks in his elaboratory, the fire scarcely The letters of his amanuensis, Dr.

going out either night or day, he sitting up Humphrey Newton, are very amusing, one night and I another, till he had finished We give an extract from one of his chemical experiments, in the performanthem :

ces of which he was the most accurate, strict,

exact. What his aim might be I was not "In the last year of King Charles II.,

able to penetrate into, but his pains, his diliSir Isaac was pleased, through the media

gence at these set times made me think he tion of Mr. Walker (then schoolmaster at

aimed at something beyond the reach of Grantham), to send for me up to Cambridge,

human art and industry. I cannot say I of whom I had the opportunity, as well as

ever saw him drink either wine, ale, or beer, honour, to wait of for about five years. In

excepting at meals, and then but very sparsuch time he wrote his Principia Mathema.

ingly. He very rarely went to dine in the tica, which stupendous work, by his order, I

hall, except on some public days, and then copied out before it went to the press. After

if he has not been minded, would go very the printing, Sir Isaac was pleased to send

carelessly, with shoes down at heels, stockme with several of them in presents to some

ings untied, surplice on, and his head scarcely of the heads of Colleges, and others of his

combed.”_Vol. II., pp. 91–94. acquaintance, some of which (particularly Dr. Babington of Trinity) said that they might study seven years before they under- In 1687, in the contention between stood any thing of it. His carriage then James II, and the University, he was thematician and a natural philosopher, he widow longer than she could help to

one of those who nobly resisted the from Sir I. N. to ' It bas po date, attempted encroachments of the King, but, as we shall presently see, it must have and was elected afterwards by the

been written in 1703 or 1704 :University a member of the Conven.

56 MADAML--Your lady bip's great grief tion Parliament, which settled the

at the loss of Sir William, shews that if he terms of the constitution in accordance

had returned safe home, your ladyship could

have been glad to have lived still with a huswith which William III. ascended the

band, and therefore your aversion at present throne.

from marrying again can proceed from noSubsequently to this he was occupied

thing else than the memory of him whom with the Lunar theory, which brings you have lost. To be always thinking on us in contact with another controversy, the dead, is to live a melancholy life among that has been revived in our own day sepulchres, and how much grief is an enemy by the friends of Newton and Flam- to your health is very manifest by the sick steed, and can hardly be said to be ness it brought when you received the first even yet set at rest. With this we news of your widowhood. And can your shall not meddle, since it would occupy

ladyship resolve to spend the rest of yonr too much space to give a full expla

days in grief and sickness? Can you resolve nation of it. Newton may in this, as

to wear a widow's habit perpetually,—a habit

which is less acceptable to company, a labit in other instances, have been more

which will be always putting you in mind “touchy" than there was exactly occa- of your lost husband, and thereby promote sion for, while it is obvious that Flam

your grief and indisposition till you leave it steed's disposition was of the kind best off. The proper remedy for all these mis. described as " cantankerous." Of chiefs is a new husband, and whether your their scientific merits there can be no ladyship should admit of a proper remedy for question-the one was the quarryman

such maladies, is a question which I hope or stone-mason, the other the architect.

will not need much time to consider of In 1996, through the influence of

Whether your ladyship should go constantly his young friend, Charles Montague,

in the melancholy dress of a widow, or flou

rish once more among the ladies ; whether afterwards Earl of Halifax, he was

you should spend the rest of your days cheermade Warden, and, in 1699, Master

fully or in sadness, in health or in sickness, of the Mint. In November, 1703, he are questions which need not much considerwas elected President of the Royal ation to decide them. Besides that your Society, and in April, 1705, on the ladyship will be better able to live according occasion of Queen Anne visiting Cam- to your quality by the assistance of a hus bridge, he received the far less con- band than upon your own estate alone; and siderable honour of knighthood.

therefore since your ladyship likes the person In the meantime he appears, when

proposed, I doubt not but in a little time to at the age of sixty, to have had some

have notice of your ladyship’s inclinations to thoughts of marriage, and to have

marry, at least that you will give him leave

tc discourse with you about it. made proposals to Lady Norris, a lady

"" I am, Madam, your ladyship's most whose husband had been Resident-Fel

humble, and most obedient servant." low of Trinity, when Newton was Lu- -Vol. II., pp. 211, 212. casian Professor, and afterwards made a baronet and ambassador at Delhi to There is yet one side of Newton's the Great Mogul. The letter to Lady mind which we must not wholly neglect, Norris is certainly a very curious one, and that is the theological side: and just the kind of precise and argumentative love-letter one would have “ If,” says Sir D. Brewster, “Sir Isaac imagined Newton likely to write. He Newton had not been distinguished as a maendeavours to reduce her remaining a

would have enjoyed a high reputation as a an argumentum ad absurdum, and then theologian. The occupation of his time, to propose himself, by way of a hypo

however, with those profound studies for thesis, sufficient to satisfy the condi

which his genius was so peculiarly adapted,

prevented him from preparing for the press tions of the case, or at all events suffi.

the theological works which he had begun cient to reason logically upon :

at a very carly period of life, and to which

he devoted much of his time, even when he " It is in the handwriting of Mr. Conduitt,

mixed with the world, and was occupied who, doubtless, intended to publish it, and is

with the affairs of the Mint." entitled, in the same hand, Copy of a Letter to Lady Norris, by -' while on the These theological writings are very back is written in another hand, 'A Letter remarkable. Among them we may

class, perhaps, his “Chronology," as bas been defended by Dr. Clarke, Whiston, well as his “ Observations upon the Semler, Griesbach, Wetstein, and others. In Prophecies of Daniel and the Apoca

our own day it has been controverted, with lypse of St. John." The most inte

much ability and learning, in an elaborate

dissertation by Dr. Henderson, who has not resting, however, is his “ Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions

justified its retention as a portion of revealed

truth."-Vol. II., pp. 335, 336. of Scripture,” in which he shows that the texts, I John, v. 7, “For there

In addition, Newton left the fol. are three that bear record in heaven, lowing MSS., evidently intended for the Father, the Son, and the Holy

publication Ghost, and these three are one;" and “Paradoxical Questions concerning 1 Timothy, iii. 16, “ Great is the

Athanasius." mystery of godliness, God manifest in

A History of the Creed.” the flesh," are both gross and unwar

“ A Church History," complete. rantable corruptions, which ought long

Many “ Divinity Tracts.” ago to have been removed from our

It was doubtless necessary to the conBibles. In the first, the words “the

victions of Newton that the texts menFather, the Son, and the Holy Ghost"

tioned above should be set completely were mere marginal interpretations of beyond a doubt one way or other, since, Jerome, which the Latins transferred

though a deeply religious and pious into the text, though they are not in

Christian, there can be no doubt that any of the ancient Greek manuscripts

Newton, like his friend Locke, was or other versions. Luther omitted

not an orthodox believer in the Trini. them from his Bible, in which he is

ty, and that it was for that reason supported by such men as Erasmus,

that he always resisted the importunity Grotius, Clarke, and Bentley. In the

of his friends to take holy orders. other text the word “God” ought to In addition to his other scientific be "which," the Greek word signify; pursuits, Newton was also a diligent ing the latter, being casily altered

and enthusiastic student of chemistry, into the Greek contraction which

as far as it was known as a science in stands for the former. It was in the

his time, and was at some periods of sixth century that this alteration took

his life constantly occupied in his laplace in the Greek manuscripts, and

boratory. it does not appear in either the Ethio.

It was in 1722, when now in his pic, the Syrian, or the Latin versions to this day :

eightieth year, that the first symptoms of mortal disease began to undermine

the hitherto vigorous frame of Sir Isaac "Sir Isaac thus sums up his arguments:- Newton. Gout and stone begun now * The difference between the Greek and the

to trouble him, and of the latter disancient version puts it past dispute that either

ease he died on Monday, the 20th of the Greeks have corrupted their MSS., or the

March, 1727, in his eighty-fifth year. Latins, Syrians, and Ethiopians their versions; and it is more reasonable to lay the

Sir David gives us the following infault upon the Greeks than upon the other teresting particulars respecting him :three, for these considerations:--It was easier for one nation to do it than for three to con- “In his personal appearance, Sir Isaac spire---it was easier to change a letter or two Newton was not above the middle size, and in the Greek than six words in the Latin. in the latter part of his life was inclined to In the Greek the sense is obscure,—in the be corpulent. According to Mr. Conduitt, versions clear. It was agreeable to the in- he had a very lively and piercing eye, a terest of the Greeks to make the change, but comely and gracious aspect, with a fine head against the interest of other nations to do it, of hair as white as silver, without any baldand men are never false to their own interest. ness, and when his peruke was off was a The Greek reading was unknown in the times venerable sight.' Bishop Atterbury asserts, of the Arian controversy, but that of the on the other hand, that the lively and piercversions was then in use both among Greeks ing eye did not belong to Sir Isaac during and Latins. Some Greek MSS. render the the last twenty years of his life. Indeed,' Greek reading dubious, but those of the ver- says he, in the whole air of his face and sions, hitherto collated, agree. There are no make there was nothing of that penetrating signs of corruption in the versions, hitherto sagacity which appears in his compositions. discovered, but in the Greek we have showed He had something rather languid in his look you particularly when, on what occasion, and manner which did not raise any great and by whom the text was corrupted.' expectation in those who did not know him.' “ The view taken of this text by Sir Isaac This opinion of Bishop Atterbury is con


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