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Morat (June, 1476), between the I snatch thy mirror-break it-strew
Swiss and the invading Burgundians The scatter'd relics far and near-
and the haughty Duke Charles the But see! full many a vivid hue,
Bold, in which the latter was most

And gleam and ray are sparkling here.
O'er all

the wilderness they beam, signally defeated. A young soldier of

The shiver'd crystal's atoms bright, Freyburg was anxious to be the first to

And make the illumin'd landscape seem announce the triumph of the Swiss.

Refulgent with a wondrous light. He ran all the way (a distance of about ten miles) with such speed, that when

Like earth-born stars here glittering keen, he reached the market-place he was

Like fragments of a rainbow therejust able to exclaim “ Victory !"

Like jewels dropt by elfin queen, when he dropped, and expired of fa- Like fountain's spray, like dew-drops fair, tigue. A sprig of lime-tree, which he The shattered mirror multiplies carried, was taken from his dead hand, Its vainly-broken fairy spell. and planted on the spot, where it still O Hope! in thee what magic lies! stands. The trunk is now twenty feet Thy power is indestructible ! in diameter, the branches are thick and wide-spreading, but much decayed, The tall straight POPLAR (populus though still bearing leaves. In order alba), too formal where there are to preserve the tree as much as possible, many together, gives, when judiciousthe boughs are supported on stone ly introduced, as in the clump, which pillars.

we can see from this, a pleasing va. On the Mall at Utrecht are eight riety to a wood. Look at the leaves rows of limes, which were spared by on this spray of poplar ; they are of a the troops of Louis XIV., when they full-coloured green above, and are took that city, and destroyed every- nearly white beneath. The classic thing else save those trees.

poets say that the leaves were origi. The lime was introduced into Eng- nally of an uniform hue, but changed land in 1591, by Spellman, the paper- when Hercules went down to Tartarus maker, at the first paper-mills, at to bring up Cerberus, at the desire of Dartford, where his trees are (or at Eurysthenes. On his downward course least were very recently, if not still) he pulled branches of the poplar that extant and flourishing.

grew by the river Acheron, and made The lime is a great favourite with a wreath to keep his head cool. The us. Its stature is so stately that it outside of the leaves were darkened by rises like a pyramid of foliage; its the smoke of Tartarus, and the inside green blossoms are so ornamental, and bleached by the heat of the hero's so much loved by the bees, and its temples. To himn the poplar was de. springtide verdure is so bright, yet dicated, because having slain a robber so tender, that it always looked to us who harboured in a cave on Mount like the true tint of Hope's waving Aventine, the victor crowned himself robe. Let us, then, appropriate to it from the poplars which grew round a hopeful strain :

the den; hence Virgil (Georgica, lib. ii.), speaking of the poplar, says

“ Herculeæ arbos umbrosa corona." Amid the desert's rugged scene,

The poplar has been from early times Delusive Hope! why dost thou stand,

esteemed the tree of the people, or poDisplaying thus with smiling mien

p(u)lar tree. So it was considered A mystic mirror in thine hand ?

among the Romans, and was planted as Alas! my sinking heart to mock

the tree of liberty during the time of the The gleaming crystal cheats mine eyes, Republic, as it was in France during Casting on barren sand and rock

the first Revolution, when it was set The light, the tints of paradise.

up in the streets, and crowned with

the cap of liberty. The French name Reflected in the glass I see

peuplier is cognate with peuple, the Bare rocks with moss and flow'rets gay; Young leaves bedeck the blighted tree,

people; as in Latin populus is the peoAnd’mid the sands a streamlet's play

ple, and a poplar. Perhaps the origin But false are flower, and stream, and leaf;

of this appropriation might have been I look around the vision's o'er

the dedication of the tree to Hercules, Cease, cruel Hope ! to sport with grief; who was a great antagonist of tyrants,

Thy magic shall deceive no more. and a reformer of abuses ; yet he was


M. B. M.

himself, for a time, under the com- too, is the incised autograph of her mand of Eurysthenes, as great a des- son; Charles XI., whose kingdom pot, and as full of caprices as his ma- flourished during his mother's regenjesty the people in his wildest and cy, who, like his father, warred sucfreest mood.

cessfully with the Danes, and, like The Aspen (populus tremula) is him,t died early. Here, too, a visitor said by tradition to have furnished the to this tree, to dream perhaps beneath wood for our Lord's cross; wherefore its shade of military glory, came the the leaves have never since been able redoubtable warrior Charles XII., to rest ; but are always quivering and and here he has added his name to whispering, as though with grief and those of his father, grandfather, and dismay.

grandmother. It has been observed that Virgil At the Pythian games, in honour of showed his skill as a naturalist when Apollo's conquest over the great serpent he selected the BEECH (fagus sylvati. Python, the prize for the victor in ca) to shelter his reclining swain ;* for running, chariot-racing, quoit-throw, no tree forms a more complete roof of ing, wrestling, boxing, fighting in verdure. Its beauty and its shade armour, &c., was originally given in have made it a poet's tree. Near Bin- gold and silver ; but subsequently a field, in the precincts of Windsor Fo. more romantic spirit predominated, and rest, stands the now old and shattered the prize awarded was a beechen crown. beech at whose foot Pope loved to At first the contest was merely musical bask, and beneath which many of his and poetical, and the prize was given early poems were written. Lady to him who best sang the praises of Gower caused the words, Here Pope Apollo, accompanying himself on the sang," to be carved upon its trunk. lyre ; a far more pleasing competition

At Stoke Pogis is Gray's favourite than the violent exercises afterwards beech, of which he says in one of his introduced. Hesiod, the celebrated letters that he used "to squat at its Hesiod himself, was rejected as a confoot, and grow to the trunk for a petitor because he could not play upon whole morning." He alludes to it in the lyre, an indispensable qualification. his "Elegy "

The sacrifices offered at the Pythian " There at the foot of yonder Lodding beech,

games were of unusual magnificence. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high, For those prepared by Acastus the Ar. His listless length at noontide would he stretch, gonaut and King of l'hessaly, he comAnd pore upon the brook that bubbles by."

manded all his cities to fatten a certain Waller's beech is still shown at number of oxen, sheep, and swine; Penshurst, where he sang of his fair and proposed a crown of gold for the but scornful Sacharissa.

citizen who should produce the fattest On the borders of Lake Weter, in ox, to head the procession of the Sweden, stands a remarkable beech, victims; and this is the earliest “cattle called, « The Twelve Apostles,” be show" of which we have read. cause it originally divided into twelve Of old the beech was venerated next stems; one of which, however, was to the oak, as its mast, or nuts, furfelled by a zealous peasant, who said nished food for man, as well as the that "the traitor Judas should have acorns. In these better times we abanno part with his brethren." He might don both to our pigs, whose salted have let it stand in honour of St. Mat- flesh has, according to Verstegan, dethias, who filled up the vacant place rived its Saxon name bacon, from the of Judas. This beech bears names beech mast on which our ancestors inscribed by royal hands. Here is the fattened their hogs -- bucon, beechen name of Hedwiga Eleonora of Hol. (buch, a beech). But beech has also stein, Queen of Charles X. of Swe- an etymology connected with a much den, the wedded wife of but six short nobler class of beings than the actual years, who during the frequent wars swinish multitude - i.e., the literati. of her brave young husband came Its smooth, easily-cut bark renders it sometimes to this quiet scene to re- suitable for writing tablets. Hence our create her anxious thoughts. Here, word book is from the German buch,

* Tityre, tu patulæ recubans sub tegmine fagi. t Charles X. died 1660, aged thirty-seven ; Charles XI. died 1697, aged forty-two.

the cypress.




a beech; and in German, a letter of with its dark, slender, formal leaves, the alphabet is buchstab, literally a reminds us of a mourning plume, and beeeh-staff.

well beseems a funereal tree. Being Laurence Coster when walking * in evergreen, it was planted in church a wood near Haerlem, amused himself yards as a symbol of eternity and imby cutting words on the bark of a mortality. It was brought into fashion beeeh ; he then filled up the hollows of in England by Evelyn, to supersede the words with dust, and took off the impression on a moistened sheet of The longevity of the yew is extraorpaper. With the help of his son-in- dinary, There is one on the road from law be improved on his experiment, Lake Maggiore to Milan, said to be coand invented printer's ink; whence he is eval with Julius Cæsar. It was wound. considered by the Dutch as the inven- ed by Francis I. (of France) in his tor of printing.

fury at the loss of the battle of Let us permit an ancient Italian Pavia. poet to inscribe his axioms on the in- When Napoleon I. was making the viting trunk of this literary tree:- famous road from the Simplon, he

caused the road to be turned, in order to spare this tree, which stood in the route as originally planned; in which

the Emperor showed a better taste and ("Fior di virtù si e zentil corazo," &e.) feeling than the King. The flower of virtne is a noble heart:

A yew is recorded by de Candolles The fruit of virtue, honour, firm, unbent;

of Geneva, to have lived over 2580 Vessel of virtue, thou, proud valour, art ; years.

The name of virtue, is "a man content:" At the famous Ankerwyke yew, still And virtue's face is modesty's bright hue : extant, was the meeting place of Henry

And virtue's mirror, no offence to see ; VIII. and Anne Boleyn, when the And virtue's love is service prompt and true; fickle monarch poured his professions And virtue's gift is fair posterity :

of love into her ear. And virtue's throne is wisdom's seat sublime;

Under a yew at Cruxton Castle, And virtue's arm is welcome, warm and

Mary Queen of Scots consented, in an free; And virtue's sense, love triumphing o'er

evil hour, to wed with Darnley; and time;

in memory of the circumstance she And virtue's work, unwav'ring loyalty :

caused a yew to be stamped on some of And virtue's power, patience enduring still ;

her coins. Poor Queen Mary's tree is And virtue's sum is rendering good for ill. dead, but a yew raised from one of its

scions is living in the Botanic Gardens The common MAPLE (acer campes- in Glasgow. tre), of more shrub-like growth than As a funereal tree we will append other forest trees, is much esteemed by to it a few stanzas in harmony with its turners; the “ treen" (tree-en) cups character : and trenchers of our forefathers were generally made from its wood. Virgil

IN MEMORIAM V. M. represents Evander, the old Arcadian

M. E. M. prince and emigrant, who received Æneas hospitably in Italy, as seated Thou art gone! thou art gone ! on a maple throne, solio acerno

Young, lov'd, and good, and brave! (Eneid viii.)

The eastern sun shines warmly on Our SYCAMORE (acer major, or acer

Thine honour'd early grave; pseudo platanus), with its handsome, There, where thy war-worn comrades bore lobed leaves, is a kinsman of the maple.

thee, The sycamore of Scripture is a diffe

While deep-voic'd bugles wail'd before thee,

The farewell volley thunder'd o'er theo rent tree, having a fruit like the fig,

A soldier's rites were thine. and a leaf like the mulberry, whence

Yet more upon thy sword-cross'd bier its name, from the Greek words sukos,

Froin manhood's eye fast rain'd the tear ; fig, and moros mulberry. Its wood

Yea, Valour's self wept sore to see was esteemed for mummy cases.

How soon the cypress bough for thee This spray of Yew (taxus baccata), Should round the laurel twine.

* In 1420.



Thou art dead! thou art dead! favourite Atys, whom she turned, in a
Yet doth thy mem'ry live

fit of jealousy, into a pine.
Sweet as the odours lightly shed

In the Isthmian games, celebrated That wither'd roses give.

at Corinth in honour of Neptune, the For thee shall no dark tears be streaming,

prize was at first a garland of pine, But pure, calm, bright--as best beseemning

then a wreath of dry parsley was subThy dear remembrance, star-like beaming, All cloudless and serene.

stituted; but subsequently the pine So hast thou liv'd, and so hast died;

was resumed.
We think of thee with grief and pride-
Pride, that thy name and blood was ours,
Grief, that thy days like gather'd flowers
So briefly fair have been.

Εκλαςθην επι γης ανεμω πιτυς-κ. τ. λ.
Thou'rt lying lone and low :

What me, the wind-struck-me, the prostrate
Not where thy kindred lie :

Pine !
Not where our native shamrocks grow

Me woulds't thou send as ship to tempt the
Green beneath Erin's sky.

brine ? But thou canst rest as calmly, sleeping

How could I brave at sea the tempest's roar, With Asia's violets round thee peeping,

Who thus had suffer'd wreck on land before ? Where Bosphorus, in sun-light leaping, Laves Anatoli's shore.

The congener of the pine, the LARCH Peace to thine ashes ! Joy to thee,

(pinus larir) is more beautiful and Spirit ! from mortal coil set free!

graceful than the former. The RoGo! meet thy sainted mother's love

mans became acquainted with the larch In those eternal realms above, Where death is known no more.

during their wars in Germany, and introduced it into Italy, where its tim

ber was much esteemed for strength Do you not like the resinous scent and durability. On old larches in of the young cones that rise among northern countries grows a valuable the stiff, narrow, blue-green leaves of fungus, which is given medicinally in this branch of Pine? °(pinus sylves- intermitting fevers. It is saponaceous, tris). It pleased the ancients so well, and used as soap by the Siberian wothat they extracted the turpentine The Tungusians draw from it a from it to strengthen their wine a deep red dye. strange flavour it must have had); The Fir (pinus picea) is used in hence the pine-cone was used in the

those Roman Catholic countries where rites of Bacchus, and was placed on the palm does not grow, as a substithe end of the thyrsus.

tute for that Oriental tree, in the This tree was sacred to Pluto, as an commemoration of Palm-Sunday. In emblem of death ; because when once Germany it is used for the favourite cut down it does not shoot up again" Christmas Trees,” bright with tapers from the roots like other trees. and rich with gifts. From its verdure

It was also sacred to Ceres, because in all seasons it is an emblem of faithshe used its branches for torches when fulness. she was wandering night and day in search of her daughter Proserpine. And it was the peculiar tree of those hirsute rural deities, Pan and the Fauns, be. ("O Tannen baum, 0 Tannen baum!

Wie treu sind deine Blätter l') cause its peculiar foliage bears some resemblance to goats' hair.

O friendly Fir, O changeless tree ! The poets sang that the nymph Thy leaves are faithful ever : Pithys was beloved by both Pan and They live as fresh in winter's snow Boreas; but she slighted the latter for

As e'en in summer's warmest glow. the former; and the rude Wind-God

Green fir tree! type of constancy, dashed her against a rock, and man.

When fades thy verdure ?-never! gled her so cruelly, that Pan in com. passion changed her into a pine - a

O friendly Fir, O changeless tree,

I've loy'd thee long and dearly ; tale which is but a play upon words,

How oft on merry Christmas niglit the name of the nymph signifying in When thou wert wreath'd, and gay, and Greek a pine.

bright, Branches of this tree wreathed the I've gazd with joyous eyes on thee, brows of Cybele, in memory of her And hail'd thee so sincerely !




dish, and Danish is Christ dorn," i.e., Christmas thorn.

Evelyn bad at Sayes Court, near Deptford, a magnificent hedge of holly, four hundred feet long, nine feet high, and two feet thick-and of this fine fence he was extremely fond. When that “splendid savage" Czar, Peter the Great, occupied Sayes Court by favour of the owner, his Imperial Mac jesty amused himself every morning in trundling a barrow through and through the hedge, and thus destroyed its beauty, to poor Evelyn's grief and dismay.

The armed and shining holly, with its bright red berries, is the handsome cognisance of the Clan Drummond.

As the holly is an “ anniversary tree,” we will connect with it a commemorative strain

O friendly Fir, O changeless tree!..

Thy leaves can teach us truly,
That hope and constancy impart
Strength, peace, and soothing to the heart,
Whate'er the hour, the season be

Learn we the lesson duly. Touch carefully the shining, but prickly leaves of the hardy HOLLY (ilex aquisslium). Though this is with us a religious tree, from its connexion with Christmas and the new year, its association with that season is older than Christianity. The ancient Romans considered it an auspicious tree, and sent sprigs of it with gifts, on the first day of

the year, as symbolic of good-will. The origin of this custom is said to have been, that Tatius, the Sabine king, received as good augury on New Year's Day, a present of holly boughs cut in the Forest of the goddess Strenia, whose name comes from the obsolete word strenus, signifying good and happy : and Tatius decreed that thenceforward that prickly tree should be dedicated to the new year, and accounted propitious. The temple of Strenia was near the Via Sacra, and from her name was formed Strenæ, new year's gifts, which the French wrote estrennes, and now etrennes.

The Romans dedicated the new year to Janus, the two-faced god, looking back to the past, and forward to the future. They sacrificed to him in new robes, whence the custom still existing of putting on something new on the first day of the year. They wished each other prosperity,* and avoided the utterance of words of evil augury. They did not, however, spend the festival in idleness, but worked a little at their usual business, that they might not be without occupation all the year. After the fall of paganism the new year's festivities were permit. ted to be retained, on the condition that all idolatrous observances should be abolished, that the feasts should be conducted with propriety, and the gifts should be considered only as tokens of mutual kindness. The holly and other evergreens were allowed to decorate the churches and houses as emblems of immortality. The etymology of holly is "holy," from its use in churches. Its name in German, Swe


M, E. M. With rolling seasons yet once more returned, O well-remembered night! belov'd and

mourn'd, All hail to thee! though at thy coming now I feel a weight press on my pallid brow: All hail ! though former joy and present pain Thou brings't to mingle in my aching brain.

Long time is past since fled the night that

bears Same date as thine, except, alas ! in years, That night we met-it boots not who to say ; We met who soon were sever'd_far awayWe met—these words are mockery to the

heart, When those who meet are destin'd but to


That night we met in spacious crowded hall,
Illumin'd bright for joyous festival;
How little did I deem those hours of mirth
Should give to long and sad remembrance

birth; That the blithe strain to which we danc'd

the maze Should echo like a dirge in future days.

That night now stands a monument of years, Where rests the mourner's eye suffused with

tears; An era whence to mark each after-date : A point of Time sad thoughts commémo

rate The natal night of feelings that will last, Till with the heart that holds them life be


* " At cur læta tuis dicuntur verbis Calendis :

Et damus alternas accipimusque preces."--OVID, FASTI,

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