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“ He looks easier,” said Craggs. “ Have you seen my father? What “Ay, and he feels it,” continued do you think of him?” asked he ea. Billy. "Just notice the respiratory gerly. organs, and see how easy the inter- "Tis a critical state he's in, your costials is doing their work now. Bring honour,” said Billy, bowing ; " but I me a bowl of clean water, some vine- think he'll come round — deplation, gar, and any ould rags you have." deplation, deplation-actio, actio, actio;

Craggs obeyed, but not without a relieve the gorged vessels, and don't sneer at the direction.

drown the grand hydraulic machine, “All over the head," said Billy; the heart-there's my sentiments.". “all over it back and front - and Turning from the speaker, with a with the blessing of the Virgin, I'll look of angry impatience, the boy have that hair off of him if he isn't whispered some words in the Corporal's cooler towards evening."

ear. So saying he covered the sick man “ What could I do, sir?" was the with the wetted cloths, and bathed his answer ; “it was this fellow or nohands in the cooling fluid.

thing." “ Now to exclude the light and save “And better, a thousand times better, the brain from stimulation and excita- nothing,” said the boy, “than trust his tion,” said Billy, with a pompous life to the coarse ignorance of this enunciation of the last syllables; "and wretched quack.” And in his passion then qnies-rest-peace !"

the words were uttered loud enough for And with this direction, imparted Billy to overhear them. with a caution to enforce its benefit, he “Don't be hasty, your honour,” said moved stealthily towards the door and Billy, submissively, - and don't be unpassed out."

just. The realms of disaze is like an “What do you think of him?" unknown tract of country, or a country asked the Corporal, eagerly.

that's only known a little-just round “He'll do - he'll do," said Billy. the coast, as it might be; once ye'r He's a sanguineous temperament, and beyond that, one man is as good a he'll bear the lancet. It's just like guide as another, cæteris paribus, that weatherin' a point at say. If you have is, with equal lights.'” a craft that will carry canvas, there's “ What have you done? Have you always a chance for you."

given him anything ?" broke in the boy, “ He perceived that you were not hurriedly, a doctor,” said Craggs, when they “I took a bleeding from him, little reached the corridor.

short of sixteen ounces, from the tem. “Did he faix ?" cried Billy, half in- porial,” said Billy, proudly, and I'll dignantly. “ He might have perceived give him now a concoction of meadow that I didn't come in a coach ; that I saffron with a pinch of saltpetre in it, hadn't my hair powdered, nor gold to cause diaphoresis, dy'e mind? Meanknee-buckles in my smallclothes ; but, while, we're disgorging the arachnoid for all that, it would be going too far membranes with cowld applications, to say, that I wasn't a doctor. "Tis and we're releeven the cerebellum by the sanie with physic and poetry - repose. I challenge the Hall," added you take to it, or you don't take to Billy, stoutly, "to say isn't them the it! There's chaps, ay, and far from grand principles of traitment.' Ah! stupid ones either, that couldn't com- young gentleman," said he, after a few pose you ten hexameters, if ye'd put seconds' pause, “don't be hard on me, them on a hot griddle for it; and there's because I'm poor and in rags, nor others that would talk rhyme rather think manely of me because I spake than rayson! And so with the ars me- with a brogue, and maybe bad grammar, dicatrix - everybody hasn't an eye for for you see, even a crayture of my a hectic, or an ear for a cough -- non kind can have a knowledge of disaze, contigit cuique adire Corintheam. just as he may have a knowledge of 'Tisn't every one can tošs pancakes, as nature, by observation. What is sickHorace says.

ness, after all, but just one of the phe“ Hush-be still!" muttered Craggs, nomenons of all organic and inorganic “ here's the young master;" and as he matter-a regular sort of sbindy in a spoke, a youth of about fifteen, well. man's inside, like a thunderstorm, or a grown and handsome, but poorly, even hurry-cane outside? Watch what's commeanly clad, approached them. ing, look out and see which way the

mischief is brewin', and inake your Mr. Craggs," said Billy, as he drained preparations. That's the great study bis tankard of beer, and placed it with of physic."

a sigh on the table; "many bappy years The boy listened patiently and even of it to ye-I couldn't wish ye anyattentively to this speech, and when thing better. Billy had concluded, he turned to the “The life is not so bad,” said Craggs, Corporal and said, “ Look to him, “ but its lonely sometimes." Craggs, and let him have his supper, Life need never be lonely so long as and when he has eaten it send him to a man has health and his faculties," my room.”

said Billy; "give me nature to ad. Billy bowed an acknowledgment, and mire, a bit of baycon for dinner, and followed the Corporal to the kitchen. my fiddle to amuse me, and I wouldn't

“ That's my lord's son, I suppose,” change with the king of Sugar said he, as he seated himself, “and a Candy. fine young crayture, too-puer ingen- “I was there,” said Craggs, “it's a nuus, with a grand frontal develop- fine island.” ment; and with this reflection he ad. “My lord wants to see the doctor," dressed himself to the coarse but abun. said a woman entering hastily: dant fare which Craggs placed before “And the doctor is ready for him," him, and with an appetite that showed said Billy, rising and leaving the kithow much he relished it.

chen, with all the dignity he could “This is elegant living ye have here,

6

assume.

PAPERS ON POETRY.NO. III.

SPANISH ROMANTIC AND CHIVALROU8 BALLADS.

À CLASSIFICATION of the Spanish bal- as in connexion with the venerable lads, according to the respective eras relic on which it was modelled ; the in which, from internal evidence, they phantoms of the imagination would be appear to have been composed, has intermingled with the well-defined been attempted in the preceding paper outlines of historical characters, and a of this series-a classification most de- vague, chaotic crowd would perplex sirable and useful, by means of which the memory and fatigue the fancy, we were enabled to trace the progress instead of the eye being delighted and of Castilian poesy from a period but the ear charmed with spectacles of little less remote than the birth of the order and barmonious sounds. We language which was its instrument, shall follow, then, the example of the down to the time of its highest artistic Spanish critics themselves, and distri. perfection, as elaborated and perfected bute the ballads under four or five by the great poets of the seventeenth distinct heads, having reference, when century. Any distribution of the bal. they are historical, not so much to the lads, however regular, which would supposed periods at which they were wholly omit this literary link, would composed, as to the time at which the be necessarily defective; but a rigid events narrated shall have taken place, adherence to it, at least when we come and when fabulous, to their mutual to present specimens of the various bearing or dependance upon each compositions of which Spanish ballad other. This classification of the bal. poetry is made up, would lead to much lads according to their subjects, need inconvenience and confusion. The not exclude a constant reference to same subject is frequently treated by those questions of age and authorship poets of different eras; the fragment which are so interesting in a literary of an ancient ballad of the primitive point of view, when materials for such class often forms the foundation of an an investigation shall be found to exquisite elaboration by a compara- exist. The Spanish ballads may be tively modern writer, which could no- divided, in a general way, into the where be so appropriately introduced five following classes : First, Ballads founded on romantic circumstances, spoiler; at such a period, the feeble generally of a fictitious character, or and the industrious-all those whose on subjects connected with chivalry: position left them weak, or whose Second, Those referring to the history pursuits made them pacific - all, inof Spain and the popular beroes, such deed, except the comparatively few, as Bernardo del Carpio, Fernan Gon- whose kindred tastes or idle and dissisalez, the Lords of Lara, and the Cid: pated habits rendered them the fit Third, Ballads founded on foreign his- instruments of employers in whose tory, principally that of ancient Greece pleasures and plunders they shared ; and Rome, on classical mythological all those classes —and they comprised fables, or on sacred subjects: Fourth, nearly the bulk of what we would now Moorish ballads, which are the most call society-were almost literally depicturesque and poetical of the entire: fenceless, and had to submit to wrong, And fifth, miscellaneous ballads, whe- or to purchase an immunity from it, ther amatory, sentimental, burlesque, or a subsequent relaxation of its sesatirical, or essentially popular, which verity, on terms, the pecuniary procould not well be grouped under any portion of which, though exacting and of the previous heads. In the “ Ro- oppressive, was often the least degradmancero General" of Duran these are ing and the most endurable. The again subdivided into a great number people, no doubt, had then, as they of lesser divisions, which we shall have still, a powerful and an undying notice in their proper order. At defender in the Church_that spiritual present we shall commence our pano- army, with its mitred captains and its ramic view of Spanish ballad poetry croziered chiefs, and its ranks filled by with the stately cavalcade of the innumerable pious souls, all marshalled knights, either riding hawk in hand by the lieutenants of the faith, and gracefully and leisurely to the hunting all making interminable war upon the ground, or spurring with fatal haste invisible enemy, whose agents are the to that celebrated valley, wherein, ac- evil-doers of this world. They had cording to the pleasing delusion of then, as they have still, in the material Spanish national pride

temples and cloisters of the Church, "Charlemain and all his peerage fell

and in the feeling of reverence with By Fontarabbia."

which they were regarded, an asylum

and a protection which was seldom The spirit of chivalry, and the adven- violated. These were the castles of tures of that fabulous heraldic order the weak, the fortresses of the feeble, in which the knights-errant of romance the hospitia of the poor, the lyceums were enrolled, though amusing enough of the ignorant, the, armories in in the splendid exaggeration of Cer- which the young of both sexesvantes, were still so intrinsically noble,

“Wrought linkéd ormour for their souls, before and expressed so high and so elevated

They dared walk forth to battle with mankind"an ideal, that even burlesqued as they are in that immortal satire, they the homes of those who had no other awaken feelings of admiration and af- home; but the spiritual panoply of fection on behalf of the poor crazed religion, which could render the soul knight that long survive the ludicrous invulnerable, was not always capable impressions which are excited by his of protecting the body from indignity, misfortunes. The spirit of chivalry and the hearth from spoliation. Any was the spirit of strength, of justice, mitigation of the evils incidental to a and of self-denial, called into existence period of disorder and barbarism, of by the imagination of the people who individual power and social weakness, pined for a protector, and created for carre from it; but, notwithstanding the purpose of opposing force with the ti uiminution, a great deal of injusonly weapon which force would then tice, a great cleal of oppression had to regard-namely, a sword sharper and be endured without appeal and without more powerful than its own. In the redress. The people who heard the middle ages, ere yet the first seeds of a principles of justice laid down, and public opinion were thrown upon the the terms of retribution threatened by hard surface of society, there for a the anointed dispensers of the law, long time to be trodden down by the saw them broken and set at nought at iron heel of the freebooter or devoured every turn. To them the Sword of the by the vulture beak of some titled de- Spirit seemed of too fine an edge, and of a temper too ethereal to cope with his foray, or overtake the ravisher in the rude weapons to which it was op- his flight; although his personal interposed. How natural for them, then, to ference was never wanting when it imagine, and to love to dwell upon, a could be beneficially used for the prorace of heroic champions, endowed tection of innocence and the prevenwith supernatural strength, gifted with tion of guilt. The popular imagination, superhuman bravery, cased in magic which dislikes abstractions and

delights armour, bearing charmed lances, ac- in the creation of palpable things, saw tuated by motives of justice and of ge- the necessity of an intermediate order nerosity, uninfluenced by selfish con- of beings—a sort of armed priesthood, siderations, bearing fatigues, enduring bound frequently by the same vows, hardships, and all for the sake of suc- influenced generally by kindred mocouring the weak, and resisting the tives, and devoting themselves, after oppressor? What were the paladins a rude fashion, and in a bloody man. and knights of romance but the incar- ner, with sword in hand and shield on nations in a warlike and chivalrous arm, to the prevention or punishment of age of those instinctive longings after crimes, only reached by the tranquil a state of security, protection and homily or the spiritual anathema. responsibility, which modern society Bolts fired in this life to explode in the aims at through all its mingled and next, have far too long a range for the manifold machinery? At that time irreverent malefactors of all times and the altar was the only court of equity, places. So thought the minstrels and within whose sacred precincts alone prose romancists of the middle ages. were heard those principles of justice According to their material notions, and of mutual right, and those limi- the vigilance of Providence should be tations of privilege and power, without public, palpable, and present. A which labour would tremble at its own battle-axe in the hand of an avenging success, beauty would bewail “ the knight, and thundering on the gates fatal gift,” which exposed it to more of a robber-baron, they thought would certain danger, and virtue, that re- strike more terror to his heart than finement which would be regarded the tinkling of the bell of excommunionly as a pervading grace, which ren- cation in the distant chancel. The indered every other charm the more at- security of the female sex led to that tractive. The words that came through chivalrous and romantic devotion to the altar-rails were words of power, some ideal mistress, which Cervantes for they were the words of God; they perhaps unwisely ridicules in the “Don fell soft and sweet, like notes of hea. Quixote;" since with allitsextravagance venly music, on the hearts of those who it greatly assisted religion in assigning listened; they were the only sounds of and securing to woman her dignified and consolation and of hope that were beneficent position in society. The heard for many a long era; they spoke

hold which books of knight-errantry, of the destiny of the soul, of its pre- whether in prose or verse, took upon the sent trials and its future recompense. people did not arise so much from the How-like love in the description of interest of their adventures as mere the poet,

stories, but from the conviction that

the heroes whose prowess they chro" Its holy flame for ever burneth, From heaven it came, to heaven returneth ;

nicled were their own champions, Too oft on earth a troubled guest,

having their interests at heart, and At times deceived, at times opprest It here is tried and purified,

standing before others, as helpless as And hath in heaven its perfect rest ;

themselves, powerful to punish as well It soweth here in toil and care, But the harvest time of love is there."*

to protect. It was so in the early

ages of Grecian history. The advenBut the lips from which those in- tures of Hercules and Theseus, those structive lessons issued, and the hands famous knights-errant of antiquity, that were seldom raised but in bene- which we may be sure were received diction, were consecrated to peace. It with greatest favour, and remembered was not for the minister of religion to most fondly, were not those which rush in his silken vestments and sacer- would appear to us to possess the greatdotal robes to intercept the robber in est inherent attraction, but such as

Southey.

VOL. XLVI.NO. CCLXXII.

N

recorded the destruction of some mon

fatal discomfiture than that which was ster too terrible for ordinary courage

believed to have befallen the bravest to subdue, or the chastisement of some of them exactly eight hundred years oppressor whom it required a demigod beforeto curb; in either case a blessing and "When Rowland brave and Olivier, a boon to the people. The Ama

And ev'ry paladin and peer dises and Orlandos of modern song

On Roncesvalles died." and story were not mere Gothic imita- Nothing, perhaps, indicates more tions of those classical heroes, as some strongly the exceeding richness and inhave been inclined to imagine. They terest of Spanish history itself, than were original creations arising out of the reserve with which the early balcircumstances in some degree similar, ladists received the knights and chamfrom a consciousness of weakness and pions, whose exploits were the comoppression on the part of the people, mon property of western Europe, as and from an indefinable longing after the heroes of their songs. A people, some authority which could effectually who could boast of such heroic chil. check and control the recklessness of dren as Bernardo del Carpio, Fernan passion and the lust of power. This, Gonzalez and the Cid, and whose hiswe conceive, was the original source torical traditions were varied by such of the strong attachment felt for bal. romantic episodes as those contained lads and narrative tales of this descrip- in the legend of “ The Children of tion during the earlier portions of the Lara,” and many others, had little middle ages. Subsequently, no doubt, need to search for subjects of interest the romantic interest of the stories outside their own immediate history themselves, the use of supernatural and soil. It is for this reason that, in machinery, the introduction of mon- the early tales of chivalry, whether in strous exaggerations, such as giants, prose or verse, we find little or no dragons, &c., the influence of enchan- trace of Prince Arthur and the Knights ters, and other magical personages,

of the Round Table - of Launcelot of principally of Oriental origin, and per- the Lake – of Palmerin of England, haps the lax morality that gradually and his numerous namesakes - and of replaced the simple and innocent na- the other famous champions, with turalness that were their earliest cha- whom, for a long period, the rest of racteristics, may have invested them Christendom were familiar. As long as with new but fatal attractions. The the struggle for national independence spirit of chivalry, which was at first a continued, the Spanish ear could find semi-religious instinct, began to dete- no music in any strain that had not riorate. Instead of the knight being, that darling theme for its burden and as he was originally, the armed ideal inspiration - no Spanish heart could of authority, a male effigy of Justice, be thrilled by narratives wbich were still holding the uplifted sword, but not only fictitious, but foreign to those replacing the fluctuating scales by the patriotic feelings which were cherished decisive shield, he became the mere almost to the exclusion of every other. representative of brute force, and dif- When the absorbing interest of the fered only from those evil-doers that great national struggle was over, and popular imagination had called him when poetry, instead of being the into existence to oppose, by surpassing spontaneous expression of popular opithem all in rudeness, rapacity, and nion

- an irrepressible outburst of the voluptousness. Their numbers in. hopes and fears, the hatred and enthucreased, but their comeliness and vi- siasm that lay in the inmost core of the gour diminished, until at length the Spanish heart — when poetry became whole sbadowy army of doughty pala- a mere art, and the poet, instead of dins and wandering knights, with all kindling the ardour, and keeping alive their paraphernalia of giants, enchan- the enthusiasm of his countrymen, ters, and their magic menagerie of merely contributed to the amusement winged dragons, fell prostrate before of their leisure hours - then, indeed, the strokes of a single pen (the lance the shadowy paladins of chivalry, such and the sword of the new civilisation), as the Amadises, and Sir Tristrams, and wielded by a one-armed and indigent others, are found to mingle with the soldier, who had with difficulty es- more clearly defined outlines of Spacaped from the battle of Lepanto; nish historical or traditional heroes thus receiving on the same soil a more not, indeed, before the former had be

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