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dent within the influence of a railway in the to that attained by the neighbouring United States is 12s. 6d. per annum. The commonwealth. The experiment is population on and within fifteen miles of the truly curious and interesting, no less Grand Trunk Railway is about a million and
in its apparent results than in its spea-half, and is rapidly increasing; making the most ample allowance for competition by
culative future. By the concession of water, it can fairly be estimated for the
responsible government, the colony has Grand Trunk at 8s. a-head.
been, in truth, set free from British * The export of four from Upper Ca
domination as completely as the United nada is now about two millions barrels a- States were by the Declaration of In. year. The average cost at present of con- dependence. In the one case the reveying it to the Atlantic seaboard is a dol- volution has been as a friendly dissolar and three-quarters (78. 3d. sterling) a lution of partnership between father barrel. It is not too much to assume that and son, in which the older and stronger when the Grand Trunk line is completed to relative renounces his claim to filial the west, at least three-fourths of the above
obedience, while the younger and amount will be carried by it.”
weaker retains a right to parental pro
tection. In the other case, the sepaOf this large amount of bread-stuff's ration has thrown parent and child 400,000 barrels are required by the altogether upon their own respective provinces of Nova Scotia and New resources. It remains to be seen wheBrunswick; and the State of Maine, ther the wisdom and good feeling of in the chief city and port of which is the Colonial Government will sufice to one of the termini of the line, takes overcome this great difficulty, and yet, yearly 700,000 barrels, equal to about if rightly used, great advantage of 70,000 tons. Coincidently with this their position ; or whether the colonial demand the wheat crop of Upper Ca- relation be really incompatible with nada is stated to have quadrupled in provincial independence. There are, ten years, and to bave afforded, in unquestionably, many obstacles in the
1854, a surplus over the quantity re- way of Canada, which had no existquired for domestic consumption of ence in the case of the American colotwelve millions of bushels. We have nies, and amongst the most formidable promised not to weary our readers of these are the two systems of law, with statistics, so we shall barely and the two languages still counteremind them that the population of nanced by the Government. The Upper Canada, which in 1811 was common law and the common tongue 77,000, was shown by the census of of England were the inheritance of the 1851 to have increased to 952,000, and United States, with which they began that it is now believed to be little short business as a nation. Canada has been of 1,400,000 ; that the value of the vexed with seignorial rights, English imports of the province in five years, clergy reserves, and a French Church 1849 to 1853, increased from three to establishment, and is impeded in the close upon eight millions of pounds; work of settling such questions by the and that during the same period the want of a common medium of discusrevenue
from £513,431 to sion. At a debate in the provincial £1,522,659.
parliament, on the election of Speaker, Need we go further in proof that described by Mr. Weld in his intethe rail in Canada is a great fact? and resting and truthful “Vacation Tour,” can we adduce more satisfactory evi- last autumn, there were "ten specidence, than the rapid, and yet sub- mens of oratory-seven in French and stantial, growth of railway enterprise, three in English. Among the speakof the public confidence in the magni- ers were Mackenzie, the celebrated tude and availability of the internal leader of the rebel movement at Toresources of that great province? ronto, whose action and language Those resources remained undeveloped abounded with excitement and vioin forest, field, and river, until free lence; Papineau, the O'Connell of dom begat self-reliance, and self-reli- Canada; Hincks, and M.Nab. The ance engendered public confidence, French Canadians, were, however, far home as well as colonial ; from thence more eloquent and energetic than the sprang the rail, now the indispensable English members. At present (Mr. pathway to material prosperity. Along Weld adds) few persons in Upper Cait Canada seems likely to advance nada are conversant with French, and with a speed scarcely, if at all, interior consequently members of parliament
hear long speeches which they do not law were effected, which put an end to this comprehend. The tedium of this in- anomaly. As there was at that time hardly fliction was exemplified by the impa
any semblance of a civil force in the protience manifested by several honourable
vince, her Majesty's troops were constantly members, who, by various mocking required to render services which would tones and noises, more ingenious than
have been discharged more effectually and
more consistently with British practice, by gentlemanly, endeavoured to put down
a body of police. I am happy to say that a French orators.” No such absurdity very different spirit has been manifested in as this confusion of tongues would
meeting the requirements which the recent have been permitted for a moment reductions in the military establishment of in Congress, notwithstanding the the province have occasioned; and that there variety of race in some of the States. seems to be every disposition to provide the It is a sore aggravation of Canadian funds necessary for the organisation and esdifficulties, which the Anglo-Sax
tablishment of an efficient local force. I am on colonists would never have al
confident," he adds, “that nothing will lowed to be established had their en
more effectually tend to the security of the franchisement not been a friendly
empire, or to the establishment of a high
standard of national and manly morals compromise rather than an open rup
among the colonists, than the assumption by ture. In another respect also the
themselves of some portion of the responsibiUnited States were fortunate. The
lity in respect of self-defence, and the pretime of their undertaking to do for servation of internal tranquillity, which has themselves was one in which both heretofore been cast upon the mother counsword and gown yet retained their pre- try." cedence before the mere purse.
The use of arms was then the pride of the We mention these matters in congentleman, and the valued privilege of nexion with the rail, because, viewing the citizen ; there was no reluctance that as a social and political, no less ever shown by the colonists to under- than a commercial institution, we see take their own protection against any in its operations many chances of esenemies, and they seldom failed to cape from the difficulties of the sishow their competency to the work. tuation. The locomotive may be exThe act of revolt was indeed the means pected to abolish distinctions of lanof specially calling forth the military guage at no distant period, and upon virtue, which, when joined with a pa- that will follow an assimilation of triotic spirit, commands the respect of manners, which will end in a unity of the generous portion of mankind, and laws and customs. The dispersion of is decried only by those who see in the the population, immigrant and native, poverty and weakness of their fellows which two thousand miles of railway an opportunity for the profitable exer- in active operation can scarcely fail to cise of low cunning. "A formidable cause, will also naturally tend toward obstacle in the way of Canada was the the production of the same result. prevalence of the colonial spirit of With the increase of wealth, brought corrupt dependence, under whose in- by an extended commerce, it may be fluence demagogues taught that a na- hoped the inclination to “pull at the tion could enjoy freedom, and yet exchequer” will continue to decline, commit the defence of it to the arms of so as that in no long time the entire of others. It is cheering to observe that the provincial expenditure shall be this delusion is passing away, that the borne by the revenue of the province. establishment of an effective militia is There is an earnest of this given in no longer opposed, and that the force the arrangements for defence, to which of regular troops in the province has we have alluded; there is an earnest been reduced from 8,000 or 10,000 to of something much better in the unani. some 1,600 or 1,700:
mous vote by the Canadian Parliament
of £20,000 as the munificent contri. “ When I arrived in the province in
bution of the province toward the reJune, 1847," says Lord Elgin, “I found
lief of the widows and orphans of the that certain articles imported by the commissariat for the use of the troops, and pur
soldiers and sailors belonging to either chased with British funds, were chargeable
of the allied forces, who may fall in on their introduction into the colony with
the service of their country during the duties which went into the provincial trea- present war. With Lord Elgin we think sury; and it was not until the sessions of it not “ too much to expect, that, if at 1849 and 1850, that the alterations in the some future day, when the material
strength of these flourishing provinces shall have been more fully developed, ber Majesty should chance to be engaged in a contest which carries with it, as the present contest does, the sympathies of all her people, the same spirit which prompts to this liberal contribution in the cause of charity, may lead Canadians to desire to share with their brethren of the mother country the glories and the sacrifices of honourable warfare.
Until the relations between the imperial and colonial governments shall arrive at this condition, something will be wanting to full equality and friendly independence; and towards the attainment of that goal we venture to think the extension of railway communication, as proposed, into the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, would contribute valuable aid. It may seem but a poor speculation to invest money in carrying on the rail through the howling wilderness between the St. Lawrence and Halifax; yet its early political result would, in all probability, be a confederation of the North American colonies. That would involve a supremacy of English law and language throughout the new union, a more complete reliance upon colonial resources, and, we should hope, a more firm and permanent connexion with England, upon terms of the strongest moral obligation; a binding to. gether by the ties of blood and common interest, unhampered by any bond more galling than the link of a common crown. That this consummation would be the solution most agreeable to the majority of the Canadians we are con. vinced, well assured as we are that Mr. Weld's judgmert, formed upon his ob
servations at the opening of the Provincial Parliament, is perfectly correct. “I was gratified to find” (he says), “that, with few exceptions, a loyal and affectionate spirit exists towards England, although the mace was particularly offensive to some republican spirits of the sterner sex seated near me, who were loud in their denunciations of the gingerbread absurdity,' as they styled it, of the whole affair."
But, some Manchester schoolman among our readers will exclaim_"We sat down to read a description of the rail, and scarcely have we got upon the train when we are hurried off into a discussion of knotty points of colonial politics." We can only answer, in excuse for our wanderings, that not being shareholders in any colonial railway company, we have considered the rail not exclusively as a dividend-making machine, but as also a sign, at once, and an agent of social and national ad. vancement. It can, we are well aware, only serve the latter
while it is successfully accomplishing the former ; and we see ample ground for confidently expecting that the results of the present extraordinary movement of railway enterprise in Canada will not disappoint either the ec mist or the statesman. In the meantime we trust that our tale may confirm the faith of believers in free institutions nay, that it may go some way towards convincing sceptics that, notwithstanding the evi. dence of recent events, and the weight of princely opinion, great designs can be conceived and carried into execution, even though “unity of purpose and action, impenetrable secrecy, and uncontrolled despotic power,” be a. wanting in the British system.
THE DRAMATIC WRITERS OF IRELAND. —NO. VII.
F. PILON - LORD CARYSFORT - REY. M. WEST - LEONARD MACNALLY - JACKMAN - WHITELEY
MACREADY-OULTON-PRESTON- ATKINSON-REV. 1. BOYD-SULLIVAN-ANDREW CHERRY.
"If anything be overlooked, or not accurately inserted, let no one find fault, but take into consideration that this history is compiled from all quarters. "-TRANSLATION FROM EVAGRIUS.
FREDERICK Pilox was born at Cork, about the year 1750 or '5l; the exact date we have been unable to ascertain. He became a good classical scholar at a very early age, and exhibited powers of oratory which he never omitted an opportunity of displaying in the several debating societies which then ex. isted in his native city. Before he reached his twentieth year, his friends sent him to Edinburgh to study medicine; but he disliked dry lectures and practical anatomy, and being partial to the Muses, determined to try a road to fortune of his own selection. The stage was his choice ; but nature had not seconded inclination. With genius and industry, he possessed neither voice nor figure. He contrived to obtain an appearance on the boards of the Scottish metropolis, as Oroonoko; but although his conception was good, his physical defects were too obvious, and the experiment proved a failure. After a few more trials he felt convinced that he had made a mistake, but having incurred the displeasure of his family, he was without any other imme. diate resource, and found himself compelled to endure the drudgery of a strolling actor's life for three or four years, at various provincial theatres in the northern parts of the kingdom. At length he returned to Cork, and made a solitary and unsuccessful debût in The Earl of Essex. Less obstinate than many
others in the same predicament, he yielded to the advice of some judicious counsellors, and abandoned a profession for which he appeared to be totally unfit. He then repaired to London, the great mart for unemployed talent in every line, and commenced literary adventurer. He had a ready pen, an active imagination, and a mind tolerably well stored with desultory reading. His manners were agreeable, and his temper conciliatory: Almost immediately on bis arrival, he was engaged by Griffin the bookseller, then printer of The Morning Post, to write
for that paper, and his articles gave much satisfaction ; but, in a short time, his employer died, and he lost the situation. In this necessity, he took to writing occasional tracts on any inci. dental topic which presented itself. llenderson was at that period (1777) in the first run of his success. Pilon produced a critical " Essay on Hamlet as performed by Henderson," which attracted inuch notice, and contained some acute reasoning and sound ob. servations. This pamphlet, which went through two editions in one year, ob. tained for him the friendship and pa, tronage of the elder Mr. Colinan, and an introduction to write for his theatre. He was fortunate in his selection of applicable subjects, founded on passing events, and met with considerable success. If his pieces do not overflow with ingenuity or invention, or fail to excite strongly the auditor or reader, it must be remembered that they were chiefly written on the spur of the moment, to answer a particular purpose ; and that he was seldom allowed either the time or opportunity to correct or improve them. They are, at least, agreeable and inoffensive, and if the humour is neither rich nor exuberant, it never lapses into coarseness or indelicacy.
Pilon lived habitually beyond his means, and found himself compelled by the pressure of debt to retire to France. During his absence, his affairs were accommodated by his friends, and he returned to England, when he married Miss Drury, a young lady of Kingston, Surrey, in 1787. He died in little more than one year after, on the 17th of January, 1788, and was buried at Lambeth. With respect to his private character, it appears that for a considerable portion of his life, he indulged in habits of extravagance and dissipation. Those who exist on the precari. ous revenues of chance, are sometimes tempted to anticipate what fortune frequently fails to realisc. Thus Pilon
often experienced the want of that half- 1819 for William Farren, then in his guinea which had been forestalled for first London season. the luxury of the preceding day; and 5. The Siege of Gibraltar, a musihis love of venison and turbot led to the cal farce, acted at Covent Garden in compulsory omission of a more neces- 1780, and repeated only five times. sary meal. His dissipation, however, At the conclusion, Admiral Rodney's was not of that kind which Dr. John- fleet appeared in the bay, supposed to son has ascribed to Savage_lonely, self- be returning from his victory over the gratifying, and obscure. Pilon loved Spaniards under Don Juan de Langathe social festivity and enlivening con- ra, off Cape St. Vincent. versation, as well as the more substan- 6. The Humours of an Election, a tial indulgences of the table; and, farce, produced at Covent Garden, on still better, he could subdue his ruling the 19th of September, 1780. This passion at the call either of friendship piece had a run of fourteen nights, or necessity, and, to relieve the wants and was revived in 1806 for Liston of others, could cheerfully deny him- to represent the character of Goose, self the gratification he had planned, originally acted by Edwin. Pilon in and in which he so much delighted. this farce has introduced many of the His table talk was above the average, corrupt practices which take place at and although he seldom sent forth elections, but he falls far below the brilliant coruscations of wit, or effusions humour which the subject permitted. of fancy, his reasoning was clear, and 7. Thelyphthora, or more Wives he had words and argument in ample than One, a farce, utterly condemned supply. His knowledge of the world on the second night. This trifle, as rendered him an agreeable companion, well as another, subsequently acted on while the gentleness of his nature made the 20th of April, called Chit Chat, him no less acceptable as a friend. He or the Penance of Polygamy (by B. has been thus described by one who Walwyn), was written in ridicule of knew him intimately and loved him the doctrines expounded in Dr. Marwell.
tin Madan's “ Thelyphthora," an apo. Gifford speaks contemptuously of logy for polygamy, which drove the rePilon, in the preface to the “ Ma. verend divine from his popularity and viad ;" but Gifford, although a whole. pulpit. However absurd or erroneous some satirist, is not always as just as Madan's principles might be, they he is severe, and sometimes exercises were ludicrously exaggerated in both the flagellating rod with more of pre- these farces. He did not approve of, judice than discretion.
or recommend polygamy in general, Pilon was the author of thirteen dra- but thought that it might be tolerated matic pieces, enumerated in the follow- un ler particular circumstances. Maing list :
dan was a gentleman of independent 1. The Invasion, or a Trip to fortune, educated for the bar ; but he Brighthelmstone, a farce, acted at went into orders from the purest moCovent Garden, on the 4th Nov., 1778, tives, and became a favourite preachwith moderate success.
He is said to have built the cha2. The Liverpool Prize, a farce, pel of the Lock Hospital at his own produced at Covent Garden, on the expense, and after having reimbursed 22nd of February, 1779, and repeated himself, to have given it to that chariseventeen times.
table institution—an instance of cleri. 3. Ilumination, or the Glazier's cal disinterestedness as commendable Conspiracy, a prelude. This trifle was as it is rare. His situation as a chapbrought out for Lee Lewes's benefit, lain of the hospital made him peculiarand ran eight nights. It had reference ly well acquainted with the miseries to the illumination which took place on resulting from seduction and prostitu, the acquittal of Admiral Keppel. tion; this induced him to write his
4. The Device, or the Deaf Doc. “ Thelyphthora,” a book which made tor, a farce. This piece failed on its a great stir at the time, but has now first representation, September 27th, sunk completely into oblivion. 1779, but in the following February One of the best jokes made against was brought forward again, at Co- Madan was an epigram, in which the vent Garden with alterations, under writer solicited the hand of his daugh. the title of the Deaf Lover, and met ter. lle acknowledged that he had one with good success. It was revived in wife already, but presumed that would