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himself, according to the words “judge yourselves and ye shall not be judged" —

:-" The judgment to come is that in which all who have not judged themselves—all unbelievers of the human race, and all the fallen angels, shall be judged by the Saviour—but these two characters, viz. unbelievers of the human race, and the fallen angels, shall be placed, the former on the right, the latter on the left hand of their Judge; the one under the denomination of poeep, for whose salvation the Saviour laid down his life-the other under the denomination of goats, who are the accursed, whose nature he passed by—“. The human nature," i. e. the fbeep or unbelievers of the human race, “as the offspring of the everlasting Father, and the ransomed of the Lord---Shall be brought, by divine power, into the kingdom prepared for them, before the foundation of the world---the cther nature, i.e. the goats, or fallen angels, “will be sent into the fire prepared for them."'* From which it appears, that it is their opinion, that unbelievers of the human race, or feep, and the fallen angels, or goats, will be the only classes of creatures concerned in the awards of the latt judgment--- and that the righteous, or believers in Chrift, will not then be judged, having previously judged themselves t..." But the rest of mankind,” say they, “ will be the subjects of this judgment, when our Saviour pall be revealed from heaven in fiaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the coppel; and they jhall then be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and the glo:y of his power," Their inferences from, and expofition of this paflage, are peculiar, and will serve to give the reader an idea of their manner of explaining other parallel passages of Scripture. From this awful revelation of the Saviour, to take vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the gospel, they infer this consequence, they shall then be made to know God, and obey the gospel.---'The everlafting destruction, from the presence of the Lord and the glory of his

* The reader will doubtless notice that the plural pronoun obim, is several times used to express the fingular noun buman nature, and Prince of ibis world, as the bumax Fature, &c. shall be brought into the kingdoin prepared for them; the other nature will be sent into the fire preprared for them--the Prince of tbis world shall be cast out, and judgment be executed on them. This is a phraseology apparently peculiar to this denomination.

+ In the following passage, the contrary seems to be a fierted. Speaking of the last judgement it is said, “ Here, instead of head and members being judged together, by the bead, Christ, the divine nature, the members are considered in their distinct characters, as good and evil, or believer and unbeliever, as children of ligbl, and children of darkness-mand judged by their own heal.”

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power, with which they fall be punished, they suppose is suffered by unbelievers, in consequence of the revelation of the everlasting deftruction, previous to this awful period ---and that they will suffer no punishment after it---for “ it is not said,” they say, " that they shall be everlastingly panished with destruction.” They explain their idea of everlasting punishment and suffering the pain of eternal fire, thus, “ Were it possible to find a culinary fire that never would be extinguished, but remain in the stricteft sense of the word, everlafting or eternal--hould any inenber of the body pass through that burning flame, though but a moment of time had been thus spent in passing through; yet even in that moment, it would suffer the pain of eternal fire." But whether they believe it possible that there should be such a fire, or that unbelievers shall be doomed to suffer the punishment of eternal fire by thus passing through it, I do not find expressly asserted, but it is highly probable that they do.

They do not suppose that “all mankind will be on a level in the article of death, but that they who die in unbelief, will lie down in foro row, and rise to the resurrection of damnation, or condemnation, and when the books shall be opened, and the dead, both small and great, shall be judged out of the things written in the books---every mouth shall be stopped, and all the world become guilty before God; and while conscious of guilt, but ignorant of a Saviour---they shall call on the rocks and mountains to fall on them to hide them from the wrath of the Lamb---But that in this judgment the judge is the Saviour---they will be judged by their own head;” and as the head of every man is Chrift ---all of course must be acquitted and saved.

Although they believe that the Devil is the doer or worker of every thing that gives offence; yet they assert that “all men at all times are finners, and come short of the glory of God”---but they believe that what Chrift fuffered, " was considered by the Great Laugiver, as done and suffered by every man in his own person; and that every man is as much interested in what Christ, the second Adam did, as they were in what the first Adam did"... This idea appears to be incongruous with any future judgment of any kind, The Confiftent Universalift, therefore “ does not conGder himself under the law any more than a woman confiders herself under the direction or dominion of a husband that is dead and buried---nor is he afraid of death, being assured that Jesus hath abolished death, and left nothing of it hut the fadow.

The Universalists of this denomination, in common with other Chris. tians, profess themselves to be the advocates of piety, religion, and morality. They affert the duty of doing right as men--as members of civil

fociety

society—and as Christians. As mere men,” they hold, that they must follow nature, or they will fink beneath the level of the beasts of the field,”-aud yet they affert that all the rightcousness found in the best of mere human nature is but a filthy rag”—That as members of civil society they must submit to the laws, or if thought too severe, they may avoid them by a removal from the state.”—That as Christians they must be under the direction of Christ, and do whatsoever he commands them; and these are his commandments, that we believe in him, and love one another."

This denomination of Universalists, are not very numerous in the United States, some are in Pennsylvania--some in different parts of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire ; but the body of their are in Boston, and Gloucester, in Massachusetts. They have several constituted churches, which are governed by an ecclefiaftical constitution, formed in 1789, by a convention of their ministers at Philadelphia.

SHAKERS.

This is a small and fingular feet of Christians, which have sprung up in America as lately as 1774; when a few of this sect went from England to New York, and there being joined by a few others, they settled at Nisqueunia, above Albany, which is their principal settlement : a few others are scattered in different parts of the country.

The head of this party, while she lived, * was Anna Leese, styled the Elect Lady. Her followers asserted, that she was the woman spoken of in the twelfth chapter of the Revelations, and that she spoke seventy-two tongues: and although these tongues were unintelligible to the living, she conversed with the dead who understood her language. They alledged also that she was the mother of all the Eleat ; that she travailed for the whole world that no ble{ling could descend to any person but only by and through her, and that in the way of her being possessed of their fins, by their confefling and repenting of them, one by one, according to her direction.

Their leading doctrinal tenets, as given by one of their own denomination,

“ That the first resurrection is already come, and now is the time to judge themselves. That they have power to heal the fick, to raise the dead, and cast out devils. That they have a correspondence

are,

This woman asserted, that the should never die; but notwithstanding her predictions and affertions to the contrary, me died in 1784; and was succceded by one James Whitaker, who also died in 1787. Joseph Meacham, who has attained the reputation of a prophet among them, is at present their leader.

with angels, the fpirits of the saints and their departed friends. That they speak with divers kind of tongues in their public assemblies. That it is lawful to practise vocal mufic with dancing in the Christian churches, if it be practised in praising the Lord. That their church is come out of the order of natural generation, to be as Christ was; and 'that those who have wives are as though they had none. That by these means heaven begins upon earth, and they thereby lose their earthly and sensual relation to Adam the first, and come to be transparent in their ideas, in the bright and heavenly visions of God. "That some of their people are of the number of the hundred and forty-four thousand, who were redecmed from the earth, and were not defiled with women. That the word everlasting, when applied to the punishment of the wicked, means only a limited period, except in the case of those who fall from their church; and that for such there is no forgiveness, neither in this world nor that which is to come. That it is unlawful to swear, game, or use compliinents--and that water baptism and the Lord's Supper are abolished. That Adam's fin is not imputed to his pofterity-and that the doctrines of election and reprobation are to be rejected."

The discipline of this denomination is founded on the supposed perfection of their leaders. The Mother, or the Elect Lady, it is said, obey's God through Christ. European elders obey her. American labourers, and common people obey them: while confession is made of every secret thing, from the oldest to the youngest. The people are made to believe that they are seen through and through in the gospel glass of perfection, by their teachers, who behold the state of the dead, and innumerable worlds of spirits good and bad.

These people are generally instructed to be very induftrious, and to bring in according to their ability, to keep up the meeting. They vary in their exercises. Their heavy dancing, as it is called, is performed by a perpetual springing from the house foor, about four inches up and down, both in the mens and womens apartment, moving about with exIraordinary transport, singing sometimes one at a time, sometimes

more.

This elevation affects the nerves, so that they have intervals of poud. dering, as if they were in a strong fit of the ague, they sometimes clap hands and leap so as to strike the joists above their heads. They throw off their outside garments in these exercises, and spend their strength yery cheerfully this way. Their chief speaker often calls for attention; when they all stop and hear some harangue, and then fall to dancing again. They assert that their dancing is the token of the great joy and happiness of the new Jerusalem fate, and denotes the victory over VOL, I, a E

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fin. One of the postures which increases among them, is turning round very swift for an hour or two. This, they say, is to how the great power

of God. They sometimes fall of their knees and make a sound like the roar, ing of many waters, in groans and cries to God, as they say, for the wicked world who persecute them,

JEWS. The Jews are not numerous in the United States. They have, however, synagogues at Savannah, Charleston, (South Carolina) Philadelphia, New York, and Newport. Besides those who reside at these places, there are others scattered in different towns in the United States.

The Jews in Charleston, among other peculiarities in burying their dead, have these : After the funeral dirge is sung, and just before the corpse is deposited in the grare, the coffin is opened, and a small hag of earth, taken from the grave, is carefully put under the head of the deceased; then some powder, said to be earth brought from Jerusalem, and carefully kept for this purpose, is taken and put upon the eyes of the corpse, in token of their remembrance of the holy land, and of their expectations of returning thither in God's appointed time.

The articles of their faith are well known, and therefore need no description. They generally expect a glorious return to the Holy Land, when they fall be exalted above all the nations of the earth. And they flatter themselves that the period of their return will speedily arrive, though they do not venture to fix the precise time,

The whole number of persons who profess the Jewish religion, in all parts of the world, is supposed to be about three millions, who, tv their phrase is, are witnesses of the unity of God in all the nations in the world.

Besides the religious sects here enumerated, there are a few of the German inhabitants in Pennsylvania, who are styled SW INSEILDIANS, and, | in Maryland, a small number called NICOLITES or New QU 2 KERS; but the distinguishing sentiments of these fects are not material, conufting chiefly of a few peculiarities.

II. Adame's “ View of Religions." Article Sbakers,

HISTORY

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