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carry over with them large and thriv- to let your judgement wade, rather ing talents, as those servants did, than swim, in the sense of the Scripcommended by our Saviour.--Let tures : because our deep, plongers not the irreligion of any place breed have often been observed to bring in you a neglect of divine duties : up sandy assertions. For, if Brightremembring, God heard the prayers man, known by myself pious and of Daniel in Babylon, with the same learned, could be so out in his calcuattention he gave to David's in Sion. lations for the Pope's fall, as to the -Consort with none who scoffe at' time; what encouragement remains their own religion, but shun them as for you to perplex your studies or spies or atheists.”

expectation, when those hieroglyfical IV. Government. " Contract not obscurities shall be performed ---Be the cominon distemper, incident to not easily drawn to lay the foule imvulgar braines, who still imagine more putation of witchcraft upou auy, much ease from some untried yovernment lesse to assist at their condemnation, than that they lye under..Be not too common among us: for who is the pen or mouth of a mullitude, con sufficient for such things ?---Be not gregated by the gingling of their own hasty to register all you understand fetters ; lest a pardon or compliance pot in the black Calendar of Hell, -as knock them off, and leave you to the some have done the weupon-su?ve, vengeance of an exasperated power: passing by the cure of the King's but rather have patience, and see the Euil, altogether as improbable to tree sufficiently shaken, before you sense ; neither rashly condemn all run to scamble for the fruit; lest, in- you meet with that contradicts the stead of profit and honour, you meet common received opinion, lest you with a cudgell, or a stone."Tis not should remain a foole upon record, dutiful nor safe, to drive your prince as the Pope doth, that anathematized by a witty answer, beyond all possibi. the Bishop of Saltzburg for maintain. lity of reply. This a Carver at Court, ing Antipodes ; and the Consistory, formerly in good esteem with K. that may possibly attain the same James, found to his prejudice, who honour, for decreeing against the probeing laught at by bin for saying bable opinion of the Earth's motion ; the wing of a rabbit, maintained it as since the branding of one truth imcongruous as the fore-legge of a capon, ports more dis-repute than tho a phrase used in Scotland, and by broaching of ten errors, these being himself bere : which put the King so only lapses in the search of vew reaout of patience, as he never looked son, without which there can be no on the gentleman more. Tbe like I addition to knowledge : that, a murhave been told of a Bishop, who dering of it, when by others greater being reproved by the same Prince for wit and industry it is begoiten ; not preaching against the Papists, during to be accounted less than an unparthe treaty with Spaine, replyed, He donable sin against the spirit of learncould never suy more than his Ma- ing. Therefore mingle charity with jesty had writ. Goe thy way, quoth judgement, und temper your zele the King, and expect thy next trans- with. discretion ; so may your own be tation in heaven, not from me.---At preserved, without intrenching upon a conference, to speak last is no small that of others.” advantage, as Mr. John Hampden Conclusion. « Beare alvraies a wisely observed, who made himself filial reverence to your deare Mother, still the Gaol-keeper of his party, and let not her old age, if she attain giving his opposites leasure to loose it, seem tedious unto you ; since that their in the loud and less significant little she may keep from you, will tempest, commonly arising upon a be abundantly recompensed, not only first debate : thus by coufounding the by her prayers, but by the tender weaker, and tiring out the acuter care she

hath, and ever will bave, of judgements, he seldom failed to at- you. Therefore, in case of my death taide his ends."

(which weariness of the world will V. Religion. “Read the Book of not suffer me to adjourn, so much as God with reverence, and in things by a wish), doe not proportion your doubtful, take fixation from the au- respect by the mode of other sons, thority of the Church.---Be content but to the grealuess of her desert, Gent. Mag. October, 1810,

beyond 3

beyond requitall in 'relation to us ode, 'not the slightest vestige is apboth..--I have thus left you finished parent that could lead to the supposi(deare Son) a picture of the World, tion, that those iambics were the two in this at least like it, that it is fragile epodes in Canidiam. However, in and confused ; being an Originall, not order to see clearly into this curious a Copie ; no more forrein help having affair between Canidia and our bard, been employed in it, than what iny we are in need of no other candle than own miserable experience bras im- that which himself has lighted for us. printed in my memory. And as you How much soever we may be inclined have by triall already found the truth to impute the bitter sarcasms, and the of some of these : so I must earnestly horrible accusations, with which he beg of you to trust the rest, without overwhelms this person, either to the thrusting your fingers, like a child, vengeance of an offended poet, who into those Hames in which your father was so apt to be angry, (irasci celeris, hath formerly been burnt ; and so epist. xx. 25.) or to the reports and add by your own purchase to the anecdotes, that might be in common multicude of inconveniences he is circulation about Canidia as a power. forced to leave you by inheritance. ful witch, or in short to the humour “ Now you are taughi to live, ther 's no

aud imagination of the poet, wbo thing I

chose to divert himself on this occaEsteem worth learning, but the way to Die.sion with the subject of magic in Yours, &c.

J. B. · general : there still remain some data, (To be continued.)

that we may reasonably admit as true, which first gave rise to our author's

displeasure against Canidia ; and withILLUSTRATIONS OF HORACE.

out which it would not be conceivable Book I. Sat. VIII.

how he could bring hinuself to lance A Mind Ghhe pothese if Ilaracertain his wit with such deliberate cruelty at find three wherein

a beióg of that description. From Canidia is handled most unmercifully; comparing and combining these sethe Satire now before us, and the

veral circumstances togther, my belief fifth and seventeenth of the Epodes.

is, that by the following statement She is there described, more, espe we shall come as near as possible to cially in the last, as a creature, who, the truth of the inatter. Canidia bad after having followed in her youth in her youth been one of that class, the infamous profession of a priestess to which the beautiful Lydia, Pyrrha, of the Venus Volgivagu *, was at last Leuconoë, Glycera, Cynara, Barine, reduced to the necessity of practising Lycymnia, Lyce, Neobule, Inachia, magical arts, in order still to procure Neæra, and who can tell how many custoiners for her faded charms. It others, belonged, of whom our bard may be, that her real name was Gra- had been enamoured, and whose tidia, and herself a Neapolitan un- praises he had sung in his blooming guentaria (perfumer); but from what years : but their spring-tide of life quarter the Scholiasts derived their had long since been passed, when their information, that she had been a mis- acquaintance with him began, aud tress of our Poct, nay, the very same they cast their nets in vain for the person to whom the Palinodia ad minion of the Graces, who, it appears, Anicam (the 16th Ode of the first possessed the talent to please the most Book) is addressed, I am as much at amiable, and to whom the sævu mater a loss to guess, as how that ground- Cupidinum was seldom cruel. Per.less, and, in all its circumstances, so incoherent an assertion, could obtain their attractions, they had recourse

ceiving at length the insufficiency of credit with even some modern Com, to magical charms. The natives of mentators. Horace bad affronted Italy have been in all ages, like the some anonymous fair by satirical iam- Greeks, extremely superstitious; and bics ; this he himself confesses : but there prevailed among the common throughout the whole of that palin- people, or rather amongst all, whose

* Amuta nautis multùm et institoribus, conceptions were not refined by phithe mistress of every sailor and shop. Josophy, a traditional notion, that keeper; á sort of people who worked hard, there were arts, by the assistance of and were well paid. Confer Ode iii. 6.

the subterranean deities, and by speJin. 29, et seqq.

cilic inagical processes, formularies,


talisinans, and other methods of sor- the ridiculous belief of his countrycery, of working wonders ; as, for men in the black art, and, to crowa instance, to conjure up the spirits of all, with the infatuated wretch Cathe dead, in order to learn of them nidia. future events; to transform theni It cannot well be otherwise, thau selves and others into the likeness of that such a fiction, however itioffenvarious and strange animals ; by cer sive to the contemporaries of our tain philtres, or other spells and ope- bard, should come in collision here rations, (such as are described aby and there with our more fastidious Virgil in his virith eclogne) to make conceptions of decorum. The god of people nolens volens fall in love with the gardens was a boorish, rude, and them, and the like. Among the obscene deity ; Horace must either Greeks, the Thessalians, and among have not spoke of him at all, or the Italians, the Marses and Sabines * Priapus must be allowed to talk conwere particularly famous for these sistently with his character ; and, so magical arts; and how greatly dis to say, his own peculiar language. posed the antient Roman ladies were This poetical licence, as it was the to heighten the patural magic of their poet's duty to assert, so it is ours to charms, by calling in the aid of love- grant him ; and we must be able to potions, is evident from numerous transport ourselves in imagination for examples. Whatever relation now this a few moments back to the age, manmight have to the fascinating prac- ners, and ideas of the antient Romans, tices which Canidia seems to have re in order to reap that entertainment sorted to, for forcing Horace to love from the wit and humour of this inher against his consent ; thus much imitable piece of pleasantry, which at least is evident, that he was pro- it doubtless afforded to Mæcepas and voked by it to summon up all his wit the good company met together in to revenge himself on her in such a the Esquiline gardens. manner as must have been most sen Pantolabo scurræ, Nomentanoque sibly cutting to an elderly and decayed nepoti.] A couple of graceless felcourtezan.

lows, of whom one defrayed the exThe present composition forms the pences of his kitehen by the revenues first act of his resentment 1. He makes of his seurrility, and the other having the fig-tree Priapus, which (according been such a bad æconomist of his to the Roman custom) was set up in ample patrimony, that probably he a corner of the newly-planted "Es- had to look to po better a place of quiline gardens, blab the mystic cere

interment than that. The former monies and magical arts, practised in had been already quoted by Horace the dead of night by Canidia, and the in his first Satire, as the complete old hags her companions, on the model of a glutton and spendthrift. campus Esquilinus, as an unobserved Seneca, in his ingenious and long£ye-witness of these deeds of darkness. winded disputation against the vo- A happy conceit, as furnishing him luptuousness of the Epicureans (cap. with an opportunity for diverting xi. de vita beata) places him on a pahimself, as it' at one stroke, with the rallel with the celebrated Apicius. divinity of the wooden Priapus, with “Behold,” says he, “a Nomentanus,

an Apicius, who collect together * This appears from various passages whalever, according to their termino. in our author. See Epist. v. 76. xvii. 27. logy, is good either on land or in et seqq. Sat. lib. I. ix. 29, 30.

water, and njuster upon their tables + This I infer from the answer, which

the animals of all nations! Look at in the xviith Epode he makes Canidia give them, bending down from their to his ironical declaration of love. Inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia

roseate thrones to snuff up the fumes Vulgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis ?

of their culinary preparations, &c." Et Esquilini pontifer venefici

Pantolabus (if we may credit the Impune ut urbem nomine impleris meo?

Commentators) is improperly so Unbidden pontif of our arts,

called, his real name being Mallius By which we fix inconstant hearts,

Verna, as the patronymic of NomenShall you divulge Cotyttian rites,

tapus was Cassius. He is again menAnd laugh at our voluptuous nights ?

tioned afterwards in the first Satire of And unreveng'd expose my shame, the second book. And make a town-talk of my naine !


Esquiliis.] The Esquiline mount all the others, lay within the walls of the was included in the precincts of the Esquiline hill, whatever the pretended city of Rome by King Servius Tullius. Scholiast Porphyrion may say to the It was of so large a circuit, that it contrary. How else could Priapus, antiently composed the second, and who, aš the guardian of these new on the new division by Augustus, in- pleasure grounds, was probably set cluding the Viminalis, the fifth region up at the extremest verge of them, of that capital. The place here de- have been an eye-witness to the mascribed, as selected by Canidia to be gical mysteries of the two witches ? the scene of her mystic rites, in all or how wonld the sudden crack which probability lay at the farthest ex burst from bis godship's hinder parts, tremity of the Esquiline, and appears have been so dreadfully alarining, not to have been the same with the as to make them abruptly leave their puticulæ mentioned by Varro and unfinished rites, and, all confusion, Festus. To me it seenis likely, that scamper into the town ? Our poet those puticulæ, where in the remotest was certainly not the man to neglect ages of Rome the corpses of malefac on any occasion his own rule, tors and paupers had been customarily

Ficta voluptatis cuusâ sint proxima veris. inbumed, were indeed entirely without the Esquiline gate ; that, however,

Animas responsa daturas.] The in process of tiinc, in consequence of pagan sorcerers abusively made their the vast enlargement, and still in religion subservient to their mysteries, creasing population of Rome, the

as the Christian exorcists, necromanground-plot of which Horace speaks, cers, treasure-finders, diviners, &c. situate within the walls of the campus

have the Christian. Thus, for exam. Esquilinus, had been bequeathed by ple, they were wont to slay a black some humane land-owner for the ex

lamb *, to appease, or to propitiate, press purpose of being used as a com

the manes of the departed; in the mon burial-place for slaves, and per- opinion, that the steam of the vicsons of the lowest class. For this

tim's blood was grateful to them, and latter seems evidently to follow from

that they inhaled it with great avithe expression ; that a monument dity t, in hopes that the shadowy there erected, with the usual letters form between nothing and something, H. N. ,

which they now musi put up with ina thousand feet in length, and three stead of their pristine body, would hundred in breadth, could not be thereby acquire somewhat more conclaimed by the heirs of the anony

sistence and energy. Canidia and Samus, who had left it as a legacy to gana, who wanted to inquire into the necessitous part of the com

futurity of these sprighis, bring them, munity, as their inheritance. Nar

therefore, the customary offerings; dini, it is true, finds this opinion but, in order to preserve the approincumbered with several difficulties; monial of night-bags, the poet makes

priate costume, the proper cerebut, since after all, they proceed entirely from ignorance of the true

them not slay the lamb, but tear it antient site of the place, their solu- in pieces with their teeth and nails. tion is neither possible nor necessary. &c.] The poet, without explicitly

Lanea et effigies erut, altera cerea, It may suffice, that Horace, who must best have known the Esquiline, revealing (as it would not have been and the situation of the newly-planted proper in a description of such mysgardens of Mæcenas (which is here the terious witcheries, especially in the point in hand) expressly says : these mouth of Priapus, who relates barely gardens had rendered the region of the

what he could see) yet with sufficient Esquiline, which had before been a perspicuity gives it to be understood, loathsome cæmetery for slaves and that Canidia's object in these nocbeggars, a salubrious and delightful turnal enchantments, was to make abode. He seems, therefore, to have some obstinate wight in love with her left us in no doubt, that the retired by magical spells and charms. To and lonely spot, where Canidia, with that end the two sympathetic figures her associate hag, assembled, in hopes off It is well known, that no other than of practising their nocturnal sorceries black victims were slaughtered to the subundisturbed, formed a part of Mæce terranean deities. pas's new plantations, ana uo less than + See the eleventh book of the Odyssey,


were principally subservient. The Virgil, in the vith book of the Æneis, smaller que, of wax, represented the says : patient who was to be enchanted ; the

Visæque canes ululare per umbram greater one, of woollen, with the Adventante deâ *. scourge in hand, probably Canidia Priapus heard likewise the howling herself. The former was formed of of these dogs; for the voces furiarum wax, that it might be pierced by the in the 45th line mean nothing else. pecdles with which the lash was armed, and then melted in the fire : cording to the Scholiasts, this Pria

Julius et fragilis Pediatia.] ACbut why the other was of wool, ! peian piece of pleasantry is aimed at know not; that it had some superstitious notion for its basis, may easily knight, who, after having wasted his

a certain Julius Pediatius, a Romau be supposed, and more than this the substance, is said to have had recourse Commentators are unable to tell us.

to infamous practices for gaining a Virgil makes his Pharmaceutria pụt livelihood. Concerning our other two figures of her lover in the magic fire, one of wax, and one of clay, Scholiasts likewise relate a dull anec

stranger, the thief Voramus, the saying

dote, which, after all, tells us no As fire this figure hardens, made of clay, thing more, than that he was And this of wax with fire consumes away ; thief. Such let the soul of cruel Daphnis be,

Lupi barbam.] Pliny the Natural. Hard to the rest of women, soft to me.

ist (lib. xxviii. cap. 10.) says, it was Hecaten vocat altera, sævam altera a common practice to nail a wolf's Tisiphonem.] Hecate, or the subter- muzzle against the village gates, the ranean Diana ('Apleuis vádo, in vulgar believing it a powerful preTheocritus) was worshiped as a for- servative from all kinds of witchcraft. midable and mysterious subterranean

This seems, in some measure, to ex. . deity. In truth, her theology is so plain why the witches here bury primysterious, that it is not possible to vily in the earth a wolf's, muzzle; see clearly into it. It was a prime namely, by this ceremony to .render article of faith with the necromancers impotent the means that might be

nd witches, that they could accom- adopted to counteract their enchantplish nothing without her aid ; and ments. The same affinity perhaps therefore they regulariy began their obtained with the serpent's teeth. incantations by endeavouring to pro

Nam, displosa sonat quasi vesica, pitiate this puissant goddess. It'she &c.) Judging from circumstances, appeared at their invocations, then this Priapus was quite as new as the all proceeded well. Tisiphone, here Mæcenatian gardens, to which it was invoked by the other witch, was one appointed the guardian, and probably of the Furies; and Horace appears by made of green woud; it is therefore the fiction of this extraordinary in- perfectly natural, that it should sudcident, to have pointed at the amo- denly split, with a crack so loud as to rous fury of poor Canidia, no less terrify the witches : but the conceit than her utter despair of effecting any of making such a droll use of it, is thing by her personal charms; seeing equal to the best of the kind in all she is forced to call in the aid of the Rabelais. Furies, in order to procure herself a Calliendrum.] A sort of fontanges, Jover. In the nocturnal incantations with a head-dress of false hair, says described by Theocritus in bis second one Scholiast, who seems to have had Idyll, he makes his enchantress infer a better guess than another, who the approach of Hecate solely from makes it a simple bonnet. the barking of the dogs in the town : Orniond-street.

W. T. The barking town-dogs, Thestylis, I hear, Announce that Hecate is drawing near.

Mr. Urban, Doughty-street, Jul.13.

N vol. LXXX. p. 250, your ReHere, however, Priapus actually sees infernal snakes and hell-hounds, as

some edition of Hall's Works, in 10 signals announcing the arrival of He"cate and Tisiphone, although these

* And howling dogs in glimmering light goddesses were not visible in their

advance proper form. To the same purport

Ere Hecate came. DRYDEN.


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