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Were a Minister like him to arise, (and EXETER, Devonshire. The COUN. who does not pray for such au event ?) TY House of CORRECTION--Keeper, who, besides his own unavoidable ex William Ford. Salary, € 150. ; and pences, had a family to support, his em

a considerable portion of the Prison. barrassment must be such as, with a man even of the firmest mind, would hang Chave : who is also Chaplain to the

ers' earnings.--Chaplain, Rev. Edw. heavy on its powers, and divide, if not weaken those exertions, wbich the public Quarter Sessions. Duty; on Thurs

Gaol, and to the Magistrates at their weal should engross.” Pp. 42–44.

day, Prayers; on Sunday, Prayers LETTER LXVI. ON PRISONS.

and a Sermon. Salary, for the whole

duty, £126. 10s. — Surgeon, Mr. “ Can I forget the generous few, Who, touch'd with human woe, redressive Benjamin Walker. Salary, for the

Gaol and House of Correction, 50. sought Into the horrors of the gloomy jail ?

-Number of Prisoners, June 21, ti Unpiti'd and unheard, where misery 1810, 68: every one of whom is em moans ;

ployed in some kind of labour. Al Where sickness pines"

lowance : to each, twenty-two ounces THOMSON, Winter.

of good wheaten Bread per day. Sunbrook Court, Aug. 15. REMARKS. This extensive and no ROM Howard's History of Pri- ble Structure, now completed, is F BOM

sons, he visited those of Exeter equally admired for the solidity of its in 1775, 1779, 1763, and 1787 ; and construction, the excellence of its although he gives an unfavourable

masonry, and its handsome appearaccount of the state of them, he ac

ance, which will remain a lasting hoknowledges the attention with which

nour to the County of Devon. It he was received, and notices a pre- stands on somewhat more than an valent disposition to promote their

acre and a half of ground, and is siimprovement, for which indeed there tnate in a field, on a fine eminence was much occasion ; for he observes, adjoining to the County Gaol. Its that he " found the men together en foundation was laid near three years

couraging and confirming one another since ; and underneath is placed a tin * in wickedness, and the women obliged plate, with the following inscription :

to associate with them in the day " The Foundation Stone of this time.”

House of Correction was laid by SAOn his visit 1787, probably his last,

MUEL FREDERICK MILFORD, Esq. ** he notices, that an elegant Shire-hall Chairman of a Committee of Magisis now finished ; and hopes “ that the

trates of the County of Devon, in the gentlemen will turn their thoughts Presence of the said Committee, on to this crowded, offensive, and de

the 22d Day of August, in the Year structive Gaol (High Gaol).”

1807. The Coadjutor of Howard, my “ Geo. MONEYPENNY, Architect." friend Neild, visited the prisons of Exeter in 1796 and 1803. See Letters

The Prison is encircled by a bounL. and Ll. vol. LXXVIII. p. 412. 502.

dary wall, twenty-two feet high ; in

the front of which is the Keeper's In the first, he describes the High Gaol for felons with approbation, lodge, a handsome stone building, but not the others, as appears by

rendered very conspicuous by a noble Letter LI. " I understand," he adds, gate of entrance, sixteen feet high, “that a new Bridewell on a very good

and eight feet wide ; adorned with plan, adjoining to the High Gaoi, is

rustic cinctures and arch-stones of unDow in building, so that this miserable common grandenr, adopted from a place of confinement is likely to be design of the Earl of Burlington, as soon discontinued."

executed in the flanks of Burlington There is a pleasure in tracing the House, Piccadilly. Above the gate progress of virtuous exertion ; and

is a stone cornice, crowned with a that gratification is still more height- tablet, on which is inscribed : ened, when it is crowned with ample

" THE HOUSE OF CORRECTION success, whilst the name of Milford FOR THE COUNTY OF DEVON, will be associated with the names of ERECTED IN THE YEAR 1809." Howard and Neild.

On passing the lodge, in which are J. C. LETTSOM.

the turnkey's apartments, amply Gent. Mag. August, 1810.


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fitted up with every accommodation, On the first floor of each division, a spacious flag-stone pavement leads to which the ascent is by stone stairthrough a neat shrubbery to the cases, are six cells, and on the second keeper's bouse, an octagon building, floor six others, making in all seventysituate in the centre of the Prison ; two; each seven feet by ten, and ten on the ground floor of which are a feet six inches high to the crown of Conmiitee-room for the Magistrates, the arch ; lighted and ventilated by a parlour for the keeper, an office- iron-grated apertures over the doors, room, and a kitchen : and under- of two feet six inches by onefoot, withneath, in the basement story, are out glass. Each cell is fitted up with large vaulted apartments for domestic one, and some with two wooden purposes.

bedsteads, in the form of those used The House of Correction consists of in the Royal Hospital at Haslar, to three wings, detached from the keep- be used in case of necessity. All the er's house by an area twelve feet wide; cells open into spacious' and lofty ar each wing containing two Prisons to- cades, guarded by iron rails ;

and tally distinct, so that there are six thus a free circulation of air is predivisions for as many classes of Pri. served, which cannot fail to render this goners, with a spacious court-yard Prison always more healthful than it appropriated to each, surrounded by could be with close confined passages, wrought-iron railing, six feet high, into which the cells and rooms of which prevents access to the boun- other Prisons too generally open. dary-wall, and preserves a free coin The floors of all the cells and arcades munication of 12 feet in breadth' are paved with large fiag-stones, and betwixt the wall and the court, the cell-doors lined with iron-plates. yards.

On the upper floor, at the back of The entrances to all the court-yards the right and left wing, are two and prison apariments open from the rooms, each thirteen feet six inches area round the keeper's house, through by ten feet, and ten feet six inches wrooght-iron grated gates opposite high, to the crown of the arch, set the several windows of his apartments. apart for faulty apprentices. These

There are also iron-grated apertures rooms are lighted by sash windows, in the arcades of the ground-floor, and have a fire-place in each ; tbe which open into the area ; so that floors are paved with flag-stones, and the whole Prison is completely in- each room is fitted up with wooden spected, and the different classes at bedsteads, in like manner as the cells. tended to, without the necessity of On the first floor of the keeper's yassing or entering the court-yards; house is the Chapel, an irregular octhe keeper from the windows of his tayon, 38 feet in diameter, and 14 own dwelling having a view into the feeť high ; lighted by eight large airing grounds and workshops of all sash windows, and neatly divided by the divisions.

framed partition pews, which are so In each court-yard, on the ground. heightened by crimson blinds, as to floor, are spacious vaulted arcades, prevent the classes seeing each other. fitted up as worle-shops for light en The prisoners have a communication ployment; and in which a number of with the Chapel, from the first floor prisoners are occupied in weaving, vif the arcades, into the different dipicking, and sorting wool, beating visions set apart for each class of prihemp, cutting bark, &c. Adjoining Supers, where they enter and return, to the arcade in cach division, is a without mixing with, or being in day-room, lighted by two large sash sight of each other. windows, and fitted up with a patent

This Prison is supplied with fine kitchen stove, which answers every water from a reservoir (placed on an purpose of domestic cookery, Be- arcade in the area between the back tween the stone piers that support wing of the Prison and the Keeper's the vaulted cieling of the day-rooms, house) which is filled from a well unare wooden dressers, and benches of derneath by an Hydraulic pump of wood are placed round the rooms. excellent contrivance, that is worked The prisoners have access to the day: ‘by the prisoners every morning, sooms only during their meals, and from the reservoir pipes are laid into for one hour previously to their being all the day-rooms of the Prison, the

turnkcy's lodge, and the kitcbeo mi



Jocked up.


the keeper's house ; in each of which and excellent Magistrate. Mr. Milrooms, eight in number, is fixed a Ford in this laborious work, I see stone trough, with a pipe and cock. deservedly recorded by public thanks.

The sewers of this Prison are judi The plan laid down by the skilful ciously placed at the ends of the dif Architect has not here been narrowed ferent wings: they are spacious, lofty, by ill-timed parsimony. It exhibits well ventilated, and the vaults are 30 distribution, and conveniences for feet deep.

employment almost without its equal. All the areas and walks round the 1 anticipate the pleasure the worthy Prison, and the arcades and day-rooms, Magistrates will receive in improving are paved with large flag-stones, and the morals of the lower classes of the six court-yards with fine gravel. people, and by the punishneut of The roofs of the whole building are early transgression, prevent its in, so constructed as to shelter the walls and the foot-paths round the Prison Laziness and evil associations pre. in wet weather. They project five pare the mind for the commission of feet beyond the walls, and the soffit the worst of crimes ; but here all of the projection is relieved by canti prisoners not in a state of absolute livers, in the manner of the carly debility, have employment suited to Grecian Temples; of which the all gradations of strength, skill, and Church of St. Paul, Covent Garden, capacity. is an example.

I am, my dear Sir, At the back of the Prison, and

Yours nost sincerely, communicating therewith, is a spa

JAMES NEILD. cious work-yard, in which are soine To Dr. Lettsom, London. extensive working-shops, for the purpose of more laborious employment

ILLUSTRATIONS OF HORACE. than is carried on immediately within

Book 1. SATIRE VI. the Prison ; such as hewing and poJishing stone, sawing timber, cutting

(Continued from p. 22.) bark, &c. In this work-yard are two Quo tibi Tulli, &c.] Who this Tilsewers, and a pump which affords a lius, or Tullius (as he is called in most

fine water.

MSS.) was, is not known ; perhaps it It is in contemplation to erect an is only a fictitious naine. That HoHospital for the use of the Gaol and race designed by it to characterize Bridewell; which will be a detached somebody, who neither by personal building, and contain airy wards for merit, nor by birth and opulence, was male and female invalids, with hot justified in his pretensions to be of and cold Baths.

importance in the Government, is The Rules and Regulations for the manifest from the whole context. So Government of this Prison are excel- much the more absurd is it in Baxter, lent : their principal tendency is to fondly to imagine, with the pædaenforce Cleanliness, Morality, and gogues Lubinus and Minellius, that Habits of Industry. The greatest he was endeavouring to render ridicu. stress is also laid on the constant Se- lous the man who in talents and acparation of the Prisoners into distinct quirements surpassed all his countryClasses, arranged according to the men that had gone before him, and respective nature of their offences; played one of the principal parts in so that the more criminal may no The Commonwealth ; in short, no less longer corrupt those who have been a personage than M. Tullius Cicero, committed for slight offences, and in this passage so utterly and altogethus render them far more depraved, ther inapplicable to bim. Such nonthan before their imprisonment ;

sense deserves no refutation, and which was inevitably the case in the serves only as a fresh instance, how Old Bridewell.

an author of Horace's class must subMy dear FRIEND,

mit to be insulted, when matters are The Prison I bave just described, once coine to that pass with him will long remain a monument of hu- he had himself foretold in the Epistle manity and attention to the health to his Book, and morals of Prisoners.

ut pueros elementa docentem The spirited exertions of that aetive Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus.


supply of

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Nigris medium, &c.] The patri- these, and a multitude of other particians and senators were distinguished culars relative to this subject, whofrom the inferior classes by a particu- ever takes as much delight in it as Mr. Jar kind of half-boots of black sham- Walter Shandy was wont to do, may my leather, which were calied nul- consult the learned work of Rubenius leos.

de Re Vestiaria Romanorum, præLatum demisit pectore clavun.] cipuè de lato clavo, where he will The custom of garnishing the cloaths find collected together all that the by sewing on them stripes of purple, most patient industry could gather narrow or broad, seems to have been from every writer and monument of brought from A sia into Greece, from Antiquity. To conclude, Gesner, in whence it found its way into Italy. explanation of the expression sumere At Rome King Tullus Hostilius was depositum clavum, has very well ob: the first that adopted this fashion; served, that even simple candidates and in process of time, the purple for the senatorian digniiy, in hopes of stripes on the tunica grew into a badge success, affected to put on the latus of distinction, by which the knights clavus by anticipation, and therefore, were cognizable from the common on a failure, were obliged again to lay alty, and the senators from the it aside. This, as it should seem, had knights. The tunica of the knight been the case with Tillius, whom the sad a couple of narrow purple stripes Poet apostrophises in this place ; he on either side tending downwards, had, however, at last found means to and therefore denominated angusti- seize upon the tribunate, as a post clavia ; whereas the senators were conferring a title to the latus clavus. distinguished by a single broad stripe Sic qui promittit, &c.] This pro(latus clavus) descending across the bably may be in ailusion to the form breast to the girdle. The patricians of the oath adıninistered to the prinappear to have worn the lains clavus cipal magistrates at entering upon Is their privilege by birth, and prior their office. to the adoption of the toga virilis. Dejicere è saxo, &c.] The TarAugustus extended this privilege to all peian rock formed the Southern point sons of senators, and in after-ages it of the Capitoline mount, where, prowas conferred ab indulgentia prin- bably, anterior to the time of Romu. cipis, and the latus clavus became a lus, an antient fortress had stood. grace, which might be obtained by Tarpeia, a daughter of Sp. Tarpeius, favour or fortune, even without the who had the command of that post, accessaries of birth and honours. In was, according to an old fabulous trathe reign of Augustus, when care was dition, bribed by Tatius, the Captain had to make the decline of the antient of the Latins, to open to him a private usages by all kinds of modifications door into the foșt; and from her that less strange and surprising, the son of angular rock is reported to have rea plebeiais migbt risc to the equestrian ceived its name. Several instances order by being a tribunus militum, as occur in the Roman history, which the son of a knight could by the same shew, that tribuni plebis, even persons military post, ascend to the sena of the foremost ranks, were menaced torian, or the right of the latus clavus. with destruction from the Tarpeian Under the later Emperors less strict. rock, which probably in days of yore pess still was observed with relation to had been the punishment inflicted on it, and a great number of titular tri- such as were attainted of treason, or bunes * were decorated with that live other atrocious felonies. That in Ho nour, purely that they might be en race's time it was not yet abolished, titled to the latus cluvus. This right, is evident from this passage; and that therefore,' became at last so common,

Cæsar Tiberius brought it again into that it ceased to be an honourable practice on the person of Sextus Ma. mark of distinction. Concerning all rius, who (to his sorrow) was the

richest man in all Spain, is mcntioned * These titulares were however, appa- by Tacitus, in the 19th Chapter of the rently, obliged to perform a half year's vith Book of his Annals. Cadmus duty, and that was the tribunalis semestris seems to have been the name of a then mentioned by several Roman authors of well-knowu public executioner. Upon this kia.

the whole, this passage appears to me

particularly remarkable, as it is impose' light in 689, he was then in bis three sible to avoid concluding from it, that and twentieth year. On the fata the Roman people must have been issue of that famous action, of which under a strange infatuation, so as, the death both of Brutus and Cassius amidst the various measures that Oc were the proxiniate and most unfortavius Cæsar was taking preparatory tunate effects, Horace availed himself to a total revolution in the Govern- of the general amnesty, which was ment, to imagine that in their Com- granted by the conqueror to all such monwealth every thing was still adherents of those two great Chamgoing on upon the antient footing.' pions of Liberty, as should lay down At least Horace here makes them their arins and peaceably return to speak in a strain as if they did ; and their houses. He came home (as he that in a discourse addressed to Mæ expresses himself in the Epistle to cenas!

Julius Florus) decisis humilis pennis, Novius.] Probably no other than with pinions clipt, and humbled pride. a fictitious natee for any novus homo, His little paternal estate at Venusium who was born a degree lower still was forfeited by the proscription than Tillius, or was the son of a Dama decreed by the triumvirate against or Syrus, whom Horace makes the all the accomplices in the murder of people upbraid as before expressed. Cæsar and their partizans. He was it is evident moreover, that in this thus reduced to a situation which left passage throughout he is speaking of him no other resource than what his the popular tribunes.

excellent education and his talent for Quod erat meus.] Libertinus sci- poetry offered, wherein (as may be licet,

inferred from a passage in the 10th At hic.] Novius.

Satire) he had already exercised himNulla etenim tibi me fors obtulit.] self during his stay at Athens *. He In reading tibi me instead of mihi te, no doubt soon after became acquainted I again follow Bentley and common with the two poets, Virgil and Varius, sense. Nothing can be more frigid who, by the attachment they conthan the here so misplaced joke of ceived for him, laid the foundation Baxter, unless it be Gesner's annexed of his future good fortune, by renotula.

commending him to the patronage of Satureiano caballo.] Servius, an Mæcenas. It was only in the year antient Commentator on Virgil, speaks 713, that Virgil himself had coine of a town called Satureium, in the from Mantua to Rome, and got acdistrict of Tarentum, that has escaped quainted with that celebrated chathe notice of Cellarius. That district, racter; and, on the reasonable supin general one of the finest in Italy, position, that in conscquence of was particularly famous for its breed intimale converse with his new friend, of horses; and that satisfactorily elu- he must have been previously concidates this passage.

The turn of vinced of his other amiable qualities, thought is ingenious, in order to give ere he could venture to tell the friend a gentle stroke at the provincial and favourite of Octavius Cæsar, quis townsmen, who, on their first attend esset ; and as, morcover, between abce upon any great man in the me the time when this first happened, and tropolis, naturally wished to make the day when Horace was presented to theinselves of some consequence by Mæcenas, a considerable interval (as talking of their estates, their horses, by the word olim we are given to unpack-hounds, &c.

derstand) must have elapsed: we may Respondes, ut tuus est mos, &c.] upon good grounds admit, that it This passage is particularly deserving could 'scarcely be earlier than the of notice, as furnishing us with data, year 715 when he made his introducfrom whence the era of several lead-. tory attendance on Mæcenas. Be ing coincidences in the life of our tween that and the day when Næcenas Poet may be accurately ascertained. sent for him again, and informed Horace, 'at the battle of Philippi, hiin, that he might in future look which happened in the year 712, was upon him as his friend, nine inonths at the head of a legion, under the bad elapsed : the epocha of the command of Brutus, with whom he more intimate and confidential con. had become acquainted two years before at Alhens. As he first saw the

* Sat. lib. i. Sat. 10. ver. 31.


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