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And afterwards (iv. 7) we have Lord Say, in somewhat similar circumstances, thus appealing to Cade and his mob of men of Kent:

Hear me but speak, and bear me where you will.
Kent, in the Commentaries Cæsar writ,
Is termed the civilest place of all this isle ;
Sweet is the country, because full of riches;
The people liberal, valiant, active, worthy;

Which makes me hope you are not void of pity." “O traitors! murderers!” Queen Margaret in the Third Part (v. 5) shrieks out in her



when the Prince her son is butchered before her eyes ;

“They that stabbed Cæsar shed no blood at all,
Did not offend, nor were not worthy blame,
If this foul deed were by to sequel it:
He was a man ; this, in respect, a child;

And men ne'er spend their fury on a child.” In King Richard the Third (iii. 1) is a passage of great pregnancy.

“Did Julius Cæsar build that place, my lord ?" the young Prince asks Buckingham when it is proposed that he shall retire for a day or two to the Tower before his coronation. And, when informed in reply that the mighty Roman at least began the building, "Is it,” he further inquires,

6 upon record, or else reported Successively from age to age, he built it?" "It is upon record, my gracious lord," answers Buckingham. On which the wise royal boy rejoins,

“But say, my lord, it were not registered,
Methinks the truth should live from age to age,
As 'twere retailed to all posterity,

Even to the general all-ending day.” And then, after a “What say you, uncle ?", he explains the great thought that was working in his mind in these striking words:

" That Julius Caesar was a famous man':,
With what his valour did enrich his wit
His wit set down to make his valour live.
Death makes no conquest of this conqueror,

For now he lives in fame, though not in life.” Far away from anything Roman as the fable and locality of Hamlet are, various passages testify how much Cæsar was in the mind of Shakespeare while writing that Play. First, we have the famous passage (i. 1) so closely resembling one in the Second Scene of the Second Act of Julius Cæsar :

“In the most high and palmy state of Rome,
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,

graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets;
As t stars with trains of fire, and dews of blood,
Disasters in the sun ; and the moist star,
Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands,

Was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse.” I Then there is (iii. 2) the conversation between Hamlet and Polonius, touching the histrionic exploits of the latter in his university days:-"I did enact Julius Cæsar: I was killed i' the Capitol; Brutus killed me. brute part of him to kill so capital a calf there” (surely, by the bye, to be spoken aside, though not so marked).Lastly, there is the Prince's rhyming moralization (v.1):

“Imperial Cæsar, dead and turned to clay,
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away.
0, that that earth which kept the world in awe
Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw!'

" " It was a

" This


* His conqueror” is the reading of all the Folios. restored by Theobald from the Quarto of 1597, and has been adopted by Malone and most modern editors.

† Something is evidently wrong here; but even Mr Collier's annotator gives us no help.

| This passage, however, is found only in the Quartos, and is omitted in all the Folios. Nor, although retained by Mr Collier in his “ gulated" text, is it stated to be restored by his MS. annotator.


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Many notices of Cæsar occur, as might be expected, in Cymbeline. Such are the boast of Posthumus to his friend Philario (ič. 4) of the valour of the Britons ::

"Our countrymen
Are men more ordered than when Julius Caesar
Smiled at their lack of skill, but found their courage

Worthy his frowning at;
Various passages

in the First Scene of the Third Act:“When Julius Cæsar (whose remembrance yet Lives in men's eyes, and will to ears and tongues Be theme and hearing ever) was in this Britain, And conquered it, Cassibelan, thine uncle (Famous in Cæsar's praises no whit less Than in his feats deserving it),” etc.;

“There be many Cæsars, Ere such another Julius; ”

66 A kind of conquest
Cæsar made here; but made not here his brag


and overcame : with shame
(The first that ever touched him) he was carried
From off our coast twice beaten ; and his shipping
(Poor ignorant baubles !) on our terrible seas,
Like egg-shells moved upon their surges, cracked
As easily 'gainst our rocks. For joy whereof
The famed Cassibelan, who was once at point
(O giglot Fortune !) to master Cæsar's sword,
Made Lud's town with rejoicing fires bright,

And Britons strut with courage;” “Our kingdom is stronger than it was at that time; and, as I said, there is no more such Cæsars; other of them may have crooked noses ; but to owe such straight arms, none ;”

" Cæsar's ambition
(Which swelled so much that it did almost stretch
The sides o' the world) against all colour, here,
Did put the yoke upon us; which to shake off
Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon

Ourselves to be." Lastly, we have a few references in Antony and Cleopatra ; such as :

Of came,

6 Broad-fronted Cæsar,
When thou wast here above the ground, I was
A morsel for a monarch ” (i. 4);

- Julius Cæsar,
Who at Philippi the good Brutus ghosted” (ii. 6);

" What was it
That moved pale Cassius to conspire ? And what
Made the all-honoured, honest, Roman Brutus,
With the armed rest, courtiers of beauteous freedom,
To drench the Capitol, but that they would
Have one man but a man ?” (ië. 6);

“ Your fine Egyptian cookery
Shall have the fame. I have heard that Julius Cæsar

Grew fat with feasting there” (ii. 6);
“When Antony found Julius Cæsar dead,

He cried almost to roaring; and he wept
When at Philippi he found Brutus slain " (iii. 2);

Thyreus.—“Give me grace to lay
My duty on your hand.

Cleopatra." Your Cæsar's father oft,
When he hath mused of taking kingdoms in,
Bestowed his lips on that unworthy place
As it rained kisses (iii. 11).

6 The

These passages taken all together, and some of them more particularly, will probably be thought to afford a considerably more comprehensive representation of “the mighty Julius” than the Play which bears his name. We cannot be sure that that Play was so entitled by Shakespeare. “The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar," or Life and Death of Julius Cæsar," would describe no more than the half of it. Cæsar's part in it terminates with the opening of the Third Act; after that, on to the end, we have nothing more of him but his dead body, his ghost, and his memory. The Play might more fitly be called after Brutus than after Cæsar. And still more remarkable is the partial delineation that we have of the man. We have a distinct exhibition of little else beyond his vanity and arrogance, relieved and set off by his goodnature or affability. He is brought before us only as "the spoilt child of victory." All the grandeur and predominance of his character is kept in the background or in the shade—to be inferred, at most, from what is said by the other dramatis persona-by Cassius on the one hand and by Antony on the other in the expression of their own diametrically opposite natures and aims, and in a very few words by the calmer, milder, and juster Brutus--nowhere manifested by himself. It might almost be suspected that the complete and full-length Cæsar had been carefully reserved for another drama. Even Antony is only half delineated here, to be brought forward again on another scene : Cæsar needed such reproduction much more, and was as well entitled to a stage which he should tread without an equal. He is only a subordinate character in the present Play; his death is but an incident in the progress of the plot. The first figures, standing conspicuously out from all the rest, are Brutus and Cassius.

Some of the passages that have been collected are further curious and interesting as being other renderings of conceptions that are also found in the present Play, and as consequently furnishing data both for the problem of the chronological arrangement of the Plays and for the general history of the mind and artistic genius of the writer. After all the commentatorship and criticism of which the works of Shakespeare have been the subject, they still remain to be studied in their totality with a special reference to himself. The man Shakespeare as read in his works--Shakespeare as there revealed, not only in his genius and intellectual powers, but in his character, disposition, temper, opinions, tastes, prejudices, -is a book yet to be written.

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