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Malone states, to anticipate the end of life; but still he strangely persevered in printing time for term." Did not Mr Collier himself do the same thing?

709. To stay the providence of those high powers.-To stay is here to await, not, as the word more commonly means, to hinder or delay." Some high powers" is the common reading; those is the correction of Mr Collier's MS. annotator, and might almost have been assumed on conjecture to be the true word.

711. No, Cassius, no: etc.-There has been some controversy about the reasoning of Brutus in this dialogue. Both Steevens and Malone conceive that there is an inconsistency between what he here says and his previous declaration of his determination not to follow the example of Cato. But how did Cato act? He slew himself that he might not witness and outlive the fall of Utica. This was, merely" for fear of what might fall," to anticipate the end of life. It did not follow that it would be wrong, in the opinion of Brutus, to commit suicide in order to escape any certain and otherwise inevitable calamity or degradation, such as being led in triumph through the streets of Rome by Octavius and Antony.

It is proper to remark, however, that Plutarch, upon whose narrative the conversation is founded, makes Brutus confess to a change of opinion. Here is the passage, in the Life of Brutus, as translated by Sir Thomas North-"Then Cassius began to speak first, and said: The gods grant us, O Brutus, that this day we may win the field, and ever after to live all the rest of our life quietly, one with another. But, sith the gods have so ordained it, that the greatest and chiefest [things] amongst men are most uncertain, and that, if the battle fall out otherwise to-day than we wish or look for, we shall hardly meet again, what art thou then determined to do? to fly? or die? Brutus answered him: Being yet but a young man, and not over greatly experienced

in the world, I trust [trusted] (I know not how) a certain rule of philosophy, by the which I did greatly blame and reprove Cato for killing of himself, as being no lawful nor godly act touching the gods, nor, concerning men, valiant; not to give place and yield to divine Providence, and not constantly and patiently to take whatsoever it pleaseth him to send us, but to draw back and fly. But, being now in the midst of the danger, I am of a contrary mind. For, if it be not the will of God that this battle fall out fortunate for us, I will look no more for hope, neither seek to make any new supply for war again, but will rid me of this miserable world, and content me with my fortune. For I gave up my life for my country in the Ides of March; for the which I shall live in another more glorious world."

This compared with the scene in the Play affords a most interesting and instructive illustration of the manner in which the great dramatist worked in such cases, appropriating, rejecting, adding, as suited his purpose, but refining or elevating everything, though sometimes by the slightest touch, and so transmuting all into the gold of poetry.

711. Must end that work the ides of March begun.Begun is the word in the old editions. Mr Collier has began. The three last Folios all have "that Ides of March begun."

SCENE II.-The same. The Field of Battle.

Alarum.-Enter BRUTUS and MESSALA.

714. Bru. Ride, ride, Messala, ride, and give these bills

Unto the legions on the other side:
Let them set on at once: for I perceive
But cold demeanour in Octavius' wing,
And sudden push gives them the overthrow.
Ride, ride, Messala: let them all come down.

[Loud Alarum.


714. Give these bills.-These billets, as we should now say; but Shakespeare takes the word which he found in North's Plutarch :-" In the meantime Brutus, that led the right wing, sent little bills to the colonels and captains of private bands, in which he wrote the word of the battle."

As in all other cases throughout the Play, the notices of the locality of what are here called the Second and Third Scenes are modern additions to the old text, in which there is no division into scenes. The stage directions in regard to alarums, entries, etc., are all in the First Folio.

714. But cold demeanour in Octavius' wing.-The original text has "Octavio's wing." In 716, however, it is Octavius.

SCENE III.-The same. Another part of the field.

Alarums.-Enter CASSIUS and TITINIUS.

715. Cas. O, look, Titinius, look, the villains fly!
Myself have to mine own turned enemy:
This ensign here of mine was turning back;
I slew the coward, and did take it from him.
716. Tit. O Cassius, Brutus gave the word too early;
Who, having some advantage on Octavius,
Took it too eagerly; his soldiers fell to spoil,
Whilst we by Antony are all enclosed.

Enter PINDarus.

717. Pin. Fly further off, my lord, fly further off; Mark Antony is in your tents, my lord!

Fly therefore, noble Cassius, fly far off.

Cas. This hill is far enough. Look, look, Titinius; Are those my tents, where I perceive the fire?

Tit. They are, my lord.

720. Cas. Titinius, if thou lov'st me,

Mount thou my horse, and hide thy spurs in him,
Till he have brought thee up to yonder troops
And here again; that I may rest assured,
Whether yond troops are friend or enemy.

Tit. I will be here again even with a thought.
722. Cas. Go, Pindarus, get higher on that hill;
My sight was ever thick; regard Titinius,
And tell me what thou not'st about the field.-

This day I breathed first: time is come round,
And, where I did begin, there shall I end;
My life is run his compass.-Sirrah, what news?
Pin. [Above]. O my lord!

Cas. What news?

725. Pin. Titinius is enclosed round about

With horsemen, that make to him on the spur;—
Yet he spurs on.-Now they are almost on him.
Now, Titinius!—

Now some light :-O, he lights too:

He's ta'en;-and, hark!

They shout for joy.

726. Cas. Come down; behold no more. O, coward that I am, to live so long, To see my best friend ta'en before my

Come hither, sirrah :



In Parthia did I take thee prisoner;

And then I swore thee, saving of thy life,

That, whatsoever I did bid thee do,



Thou should'st attempt it. Come now, keep thine oath!

Now be a freeman and with this good sword,

That ran through Cæsar's bowels, search this bosom.

And when my face is covered, as 'tis now,


Stand not to answer: Here, take thou the hilts;

Guide thou the sword.-Cæsar, thou art revenged,
Even with the sword that killed thee.


Pin. So, I am free; yet would not so have been,

Durst I have done my will. O Cassius!

Far from this country Pindarus shall run,


Where never Roman shall take note of him.

Re-enter TITINIUS, with MESSALA.

728. Mes. It is but change, Titinius; for Octavius

Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power,

As Cassius' legions are by Antony.

Tit. These tidings will well comfort Cassius.

Mes. Where did you leave him?

Tit. All disconsolate,

With Pindarus his bondman, on this hill.

Mes. Is not that he, that lies upon the ground?
Tit. He lies not like the living. O my heart!
Mes. Is not that he?

735. Tit. No, this was he, Messala;

But Cassius is no more.-O setting sun!
As in thy red rays thou dost sink to night,
So in his red blood Cassius' day is set;
The sun of Rome is set! Our day is gone;

Clouds, dews, and dangers come; our deeds are done!
Mistrust of my success hath done this deed.

736. Mes. Mistrust of good success hath done this deed.
O hateful Error! Melancholy's child!

Why dost thou show to the apt thoughts of men
The things that are not? O Error, soon conceived,
Thou never com'st unto a happy birth,

But kill'st the mother that engendered thee.

Tit. What, Pindarus! Where art thou, Pindarus?
Mes. Seek him, Titinius: whilst I go to meet
The noble Brutus, thrusting this report

Into his ears I may say, thrusting it;

For piercing steel, and darts envenomed,
Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus
As tidings of this sight.

739. Tit. Hie you, Messala,

And I will seek for Pindarus the while.
Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius?
Did I not meet thy friends? and did not they
Put on my brows this wreath of victory,


And bid me give it thee? Didst thou not hear their shouts ?

Alas, thou hast misconstrued everything.

But hold thee, take this garland on thy brow;

Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I

Will do his bidding.-Brutus, come apace,

And see how I regarded Caius Cassius.

By your leave, gods:-This is a Roman's part:
Come, Cassius' sword, and find Titinius' heart.

Alarum.-Re-enter MESSALA, with BRUTUS, young CATO,

Bru. Where, where, Messala, doth his body lie?


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