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" The instances that second marriage move

Are base respects of thrift, but none of love;" that is, the inducements, as we should now say, are base considerations of thrift, or pecuniary advantage. We now use instance in something like its proper sense only in the phrase

s at the instance of,” and even there the notion of pressure or urgency is nearly lost; the word is understood as meaning little, if anything, more than merely so much of application, request, or suggestion as the mere mention of what is wanted might carry with it. In another phrase in which it has come to be used, “in the first instance,” it is not very obvious what its meaning really is, or how, at least, it has got the meaning which it appears to have. Do we, or can we, say

- in the second, or third, instance ? " By instance as commonly used, for a particular fact, we ought to understand a fact bearing upon the matter in hand; and this seems to be still always kept in mind in the familiar expression “for instance.” Shakespeare's use of the word may

be further illustrated by the following passages :-"They will scarcely believe this without trial: offer them instances; which shall bear no less likelihood than to see me at her chamber window; hear me call Margaret, Hero; hear Margaret term me Claudio;" etc. (Much Ado About Noth., ii. 2);

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“ Instance ! O instance ! strong as Pluto's gates;

Cressid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven:
Instance ! O instance ! strong as heaven itself;
The bonds of heaven are slipped, dissolved, and loosed ;
And with another knot, five-finger-tied,
The fractions of her faith, orts of her love,
The fragments, scraps, the bits and greasy reliques
Of her o'ereaten faith, are bound to Diomed.”

Troil. and Cress., v. 2.

508. Like horses hot at hand.-That is, apparently, when held by the hand, or led. Or rather, perhaps, when acted upon only by the rein. So in Harington's Ariosto, vii. 67, Melyssa says that she will try to make Rogero's griffith horse “gentle to the spur and hand.” But has not “at hand" always meant, as it always does now, only near or hard by ? That meaning will not do here. The commentators afford us no light or help. Perhaps Shakespeare wrote " in hand." The two expressions in hand and at hand are commonly distinguished in the Plays as they are in our present usage ; and we also have on hand and at the hands of in the modern senses, as well as to bear in hand (to keep in expectation, to amuse with false pretences”- Nares) and at any hand (that is, in any case), which are now obsolete. In The Comedy of Errors, ii. 1, at hand, used by his mistress Adriana in the common sense, furnishes matter for the word-catching wit of Dromio of Ephesus after he has been beaten, as he thinks, by his master :-Adr. Say, is your tardy master now at hand? Dro. E. Nay, he's at two hands with me, and that my two ears can witness.” In King John, v. 2, however, we have “like a lion fostered up at hand,” that is, as we should now say, by hand. In another similar phrase, we may remark, at has now taken the place of the in or into of a former age. We now say To march at the head of, and also To place at the head of, and we use in the head and into the head in quite other senses ; but here is the way in which Clarendon expresses himself:—“They said ... that there should be an army of thirty thousand men immediately transported into England with the Prince of Wales in the head of them(Hist., Book x.); “ The King was only expected to be nearer England, how disguised soever, that he might quickly put himself into the head of the army, that would be ready to receive him” (Id., Book xiv.) ; “ These cashiered officers ... found so much encouragement, that, at a time appointed, they put themselves into the heads of their regiments, and

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marched with them into the field” (Id., Book xvi.) ; * That Lord [Fairfax] had called together some of his old disbanded officers and soldiers, and many principal men of the country, and marched in the head of them into York” (Ibid.); “Upon that very day they (the Parliament] received a petition, which they had fomented, presented ... by a man notorious in those times, . Praise-God Barebone, in the head of a crowd of sectaries (Ibid.); “He [the Chancellor] informed him [Admiral Montague] of Sir George Booth’s being possessed of Chester, and in the head of an army(Ibid.).

508. They fall their crests.--This use of fall, as an active verb, is not common in Shakespeare; but it may be found in writers of considerably later date.

508. Sink in the trial.-One may suspect that it should be shrink.

509. Instead of the stage direction March withinat the end of this speech, the original text has “ Low March within ” in the middle of 508. And instead of

Enter Cassius and Soldiers," it is there Enter Cassius and his powers."

513, 514, 515.—The Within prefixed to these three speeches is the insertion of the modern editors. In the First Folio the three repetitions of the “Stand” are on so many distinct lines, but all as if they formed part of the speech of Brutus. Mr Collier has at 515 the Stage Direction, “ One after the other, and fainter."

519. Cassius, be content.—That is, be continent; contain, or restrain, yourself.

519. Speak your griefs softly.-Vid. 129 and 436.

519. Nothing but love from us.--From each of us to the other.

519. Enlarge your griefs.-State them with all fulness of eloquent exposition; as we still say Enlarge upon.Vid. 129 and 436. Clarendon uses the verb to enlarge differently both from Shakespeare and from the modern language; thus :-"As soon as his lordship (the Earl of Manchester] had finished his oration, which was received with marvellous acclamations, Mr Pym enlarged himself, in a speech then printed, upon the several parts of the King's answer" (Hist., Book vi.).

521. Lucius, do you the like ; etc.—The original text is

Lucillius, do you the like, and let no man

Come to our tent, till we have done our Conference.
Let Lucius and Titinius guard our doore.”

To cure the prosody in the first line, Steevens and other modern editors strike out the you. It is strange that no one should have been struck with the absurdity of such an association as Lucius and Titinius for the guarding of the door-an officer of rank and a servant boy, the boy, too, being named first. The function of Lucius was to carry messages. As Cassius sends his servant Pindarus with a message to his division of the force, Brutus sends his servant Lucius with a similar message to his division. Nothing can be clearer than that Lucilius in the first line is a misprint for Lucius, and Lucius in the third a misprint for Lucilius. Or the error may have been in the copy; and the insertion of the Let was probably an attempt of the printer, or editor, to save the prosody of that line, as the omission of the you is of the modern editors to save that of the other. The present restoration sets everything to rights. At the close of the conference we have Brutus, in 580, again addressing himself to Lucilius and Titinius, who had evidently kept together all the time it lasted. Lucius (who in the original text is commonly called the Boy) and Titinius are nowhere mentioned together. In the heading of Scene III., indeed, the modern editors have again " Lucius and

Titinius at some distance ;” but this is their own manufacture. All that we have in the old copies is, “ Manet Brutus and Cassius." See also 571.

SCENB III.- Within the Tent of BRUTUS. LUCILIUS and

TITINIUS at some distance from it.


522. Cas. That you have wronged me doth appear in this :

You have condemned and noted Lucius Pella
For taking bribes here of the Sardians ;
Wherein my letters, praying on his side,
Because I knew the man, were slighted off.

Bru. You wronged yourself, to write in such a case. 524. Cas. In such a time as this, it is not meet

That every nice offence should bear his comment. 525. Bru. Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself

Are much condemned to have an itching palm,
To sell and mart your offices for gold
To undeservers.

Cas. I an itching palm?
You know, that you are Brutus that speaks this,

Or, by the gods, this speech were else your last.
527. Bru. The name of Cassius honours this corruption,
And chastisement doth therefore hide his head.

Cas. Chastisement !
529. Bru. Remember March, the ides of March remember!

Did not great Julius bleed for justice sake?
What villain touched his body, that did stab,
And not for justice? What, shall one of us,
That struck the foremost man of all this world,
But for supporting robbers, shall we now
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes ?
And sell the mighty space of our large honours
For so much trash as may be grasped thus ?
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon,

Than such a Roman.
530. Cas. Brutus, bay not me;

I'll not endure it: you forget yourself,
To hedge me in: I am a soldier, I,
Older in practice, abler than yourself
To make conditions..

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