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more governed by the verb than it is in the phrase " to live a year,” or than the qualifying adverb is so governed in the phrase "to run fast.” If Cassius had said that his life was run its compass halfway, we should have had a combination of all the three senses.

The following are examples of this form of construction from other plays :“Is our whole dissembly appeared ?”

(Dogberry, in Much Ado about Noth., iv. 2); “Prince John is this morning secretly stolen away.”

Sexton, Ibid.); “His lordship is walked forth into the orchard."

(Porter, in Second Part of Henry IV., i. 1); “He said mine eyes were black, and my hair black, And, now I am remembered, scorned at me.

(Phebe, in As You Like It, iii. 5); “You being then, if you be remembered, cracking the stones.”

(Clown, in Meas. for Meas. ii. 1); “I telling you then, if you be remembered.”—(Ibid.);

“ But, if you

be remembered, “I did not bid you mar it to the time.”

(Petrucio, in Tam. of Shrew, iv. 3); "If your majesty is remembered of it.”

(Fluellen, in Henry V., iv. 7);
“Now, by my troth, if I had been remembered,
I could have given my uncle's grace a flout."

(York, in Rich. III., . 4); “Be you remembered, Marcus, she's gone, she's fled.”

(Titus, in Titus Andronicus, iv. 3). 375. Romans, countrymen, and lovers.--Vid. 260.

375. Have respect to mine honour.—That is, merely, look to (not look up to). We still employ such words as respect and regard in different senses according to circumstances. I look with regard, or with respect, upon

this man, or upon that institution. With regard, or with respect, to another man or institution I have nothing to say but what is condemnatory, or nothing to say at all.

upon me.


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375. Censure me.-That is, merely, pass judgment

Vid. 329. 375. Any dear friend of Cæsar's, to him I say. It is “to them I say” in the second Folio.

375. Not that I loved Cæsar less.-Less than he (the " dear friend”) loved Cæsar.

375. But that I loved Rome more.—More than he (the “ dear friend of Cæsar') loved Rome.

375. Had you rather.- Vid. note on Had as lief in 54.

375. To live all freemen. - It is commonly printed ‘free men,” in two words. But the writer cannot have intended that such prominence should be given to the term men, the notion conveyed by which is equally contained in slaves ; for which, indeed, we might have had bondmen, with no difference of effect. If it ought to be * free men” here, it should be “ Who is here so base that would be a bond man?” a few lines farther on. In the original edition it is “freemen.” 375. There is tears,



modern editions this is changed into “There are." But the tears, joy, etc., are regarded as making one thing. Instead of "There is," it might have been “ This is," or That is.”

376. The stage direction is mode

377. The question of his death.—The word question is here used in a somewhat peculiar sense. It seems to mean the statement of the reasons. In a note on the expression in Hamlet, ü. 2, “Little eyases, that cry out on the top of question,” Steevens gives it as his opinion that question“ in this place, as in many others, signifies conversation, dialogue." And he quotes in corroboration Antonio's remark, in The Merchant of Venice, iv. 1, "I pray you, think you question with the Jew.” But in that passage the meaning of the word is merely the ordinary one, you debate, argue, hold controversy, with. The following may perhaps be adduced as an instance of the use of the word in a somewhat larger sense, involving

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little or nothing of the notion of a doubt or dispute :“ Thou shalt accompany us to the place, where we will, not appearing what we are, have some question with the shepherd;" Winter's Tale, iv. 1.

377. Nor his offences enforced. - Dwelt upon and pressed, or more than simply stated. In the same sense in Coriolanus, ii. 3, the tribune Sicinius exhorts the populace touching Marcius :-“Enforce his pride, And his old hate unto you.”

377. As which of you shall not?- We find which in our oldest English in the forms hwile, hwylc, and hwelc, forms which have been supposed to arise out of the combination of the relative hwa with lic (like), the annexation being designed to give greater generalization or indefiniteness of meaning to the pronoun. At all events, the word is used with reference to nouns of all genders, as is also its representative the whilk, or quhilk, of the old Scottish dialect, and as the English which too formerly was even when an ordinary relative (as we have it in the time-honoured formula “ Our Father which art in heaven”), and still is both whenever it is interrogative and likewise when the antecedent to which it is relative is either suppressed or joined with it in the same concord and government. Thus, we say of persons as well as of things, “ Which was it ?” and “I do not know which of them it was," as Brutus, addressing his fellow-citizens, has here Which of you ;” and it is even allowable to say “Louis XVI., which king it was in whose reign-or, in the reign of which king it was—that the French Revolution broke out.”—It is one of the many curiosities of Dr Webster's English Dictionary that he refuses to admit which to have anything to do with the ancient hwile, and suggests that it may be rather the same word with quick !

The stage direction in the original edition is, Enter Mark Antony, with Cæsar's body."

377. My best lover.-- Vid. 260.

382. Shall now be crowned in Brutus.—The now is not in the old texts, but was supplied by Pope, and has been retained by Malone and Boswell, as well as by Steevens. It may not be the true word, but that some word is wanting is certain. The dialogue here is evidently intended to be metrical, and “Shall be crowned in Brutus” is not a possible commencement of a verse. Mr Collier also in his regulated text retains the now, although it does not appear

to have the sanction of his MS. annotator. 387. Do grace to Cæsar's corpse. We have lost this idiom, though we still say “to do honour to.”

390. I am beholden to you. Both here and also in 392 the first three Folios have all beholding, which may possibly have been the way in which Shakespeare wrote the word (as it is that in which it was often written in his day), but may nevertheless be rectified on the same principle as other similar improprieties with which all modern editors have taken that liberty. Yet beholding is, I believe, always Bacon's word; as in his Tenth Essay: -“The stage is more beholding to love than the life of

Even in Clarendon, reporting the words of Queen Henrietta to himself, we have : “Her old confessor, Father Philips, . . . always told her, that, as she ought to continue firm and constant to her own religion, so she was to live well towards the Protestants who deserved well from her, and to whom she was beholding" (Hist., Book xiii.). The initial syllable of the word is of more interest than its termination.

The complete disappearance from the modern form of the English language of the verbal prefix ge is a remarkable fact, and one which has not attracted the notice which it deserves. This augment may be said to have been the favourite and most distinguishing peculiarity of the language in the period preceding the Norman Conquest. In the inflection of the verb it was not merely, as in modern German, the sign of the past participle

passive, but might be prefixed to any other part; and the words of all kinds which commenced with it, and in which it was not inflexional, amounted to several thousands. Yet now there is no native English word having ge for its initial syllable in existence; nor, indeed, has there been for many centuries : there are not only no such words in Chaucer, whose age (the fourteenth century) is reckoned the commencement of the period of what is denominated Middle English; there are none even in Robert de Brunne, and very few, if any, in Robert of Gloucester, who belong to the thirteenth century, or to the age of what is commonly designated Early English. The inflexional ge is found at a comparatively late date only in the reduced or softened form of y, and even so scarcely after the middle of the sixteenth century (which may

be taken as the date of the commencement of Modern English) except in a few antique words preserved or revived by Spenser. If two or three such words as yclad and yclept are to be found in Shakespeare, they are introduced with a view to a burlesque or grotesque effect, as they might be by a writer of the present day. They did not belong to the language of his age any more than they did to that of Thomson, who in the last century has sprinkled his Castle of Indolence with words of this description the better to keep up his imitation of Spenser. As for the "star-ypointing pyramid” attributed to Milton (in his lines on Shakespeare), it is in all probability a mistake of his modern editors : “ypointedmight have been credible, but "ypointing" scarcely is. The true reading probably is "starry-pointing." It has commonly been assumed that, with such rare and insignificant exceptions (if exceptions they are to be considered), the old prefix ge has entirely passed away or been ejected from the language in its present state, -that it has dropped off, like a decayed member, without anything being substituted in its place. But the fact is not so. It is certain,

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