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To this we might add what Talbot says, in the First Part of King Henry the Sixth, iv. 2, to the Captains of the French forces before Bordeaux :

“You tempt the fury of my three attendants,

Lean Famine, quartering Steel, and climbing Fire." In illustration of the passage from Henry the Fifth Steevens quotes what Holinshed makes that King to have said to the people of Roan (or Rouen):-"He declared that the Goddess of Battle, called Bellona, had three handmaidens ever of necessity attending upon her, as Blood, Fire, and Famine.” And at that from Henry the Sixth Malone gives the following extract from Hall's Chronicle: "The Goddess of War, called Bellona, ... hath these three handmaids ever of necessity attending on her; Blood, Fire, and Famine; which three damosels be of that force and strength that every one of them alone is able and sufficient to torment and afflict a proud prince; and they all joined together are of puissance to destroy the most populous country and most richest region of the world."

It might, perhaps, be questioned whether the words, “ And let slip the dogs of war” ought not to be considered as also part of the exclamation of Cæsar's spirit.

363. That this foul deed, etc.-So that.

363. With carrion men.-Vid. 177.—The stage direction in the original edition is Enter Octavio’s Ser


363. You serve Octavius Cæsar.-So called throughout both this Play and that of Antony and Cleopatra. He was properly now Cæsar Octavianus.

366. The stage direction, Seeing the Body, is modern.

367. For mine eyes. This, which is clearly right, is the reading of the Second Folio. The First has “Passion I see is catching from mine eyes.

367. Tell him what hath chanced.-Vid. 69.

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369. No Rome of safety.--Vid. 56.

369. Till I have borne this corpse.-Corpse (or corse) here is a modern conjectural substitution for the course of the First and Second Folios and the coarse of the Third and Fourth.

369. The cruel issue of these bloody men.—The result or end which they have brought about.

369. According to the which.—This archaism occurs occasionally in Shakespeare, as it does also in the common translation of the Scriptures :-“Every tree in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed” (Gen. 1. 29).

369. Lend me your hand. We should now rather say a hand. The stage direction that follows is in the original edition, “ Exeunt. Enter Brutus and goes into the Pulpit, and Cassius with the Plebeians.

SCENE II.-The same.

The Forum.

Enter Brutus and CASSIUS, and a throng of CITIZENS.
370. Cit. We will be satisfied; let us be satisfied.
371. Bru. Then follow me, and give me audience, friends.-

Cassius, go you into the other street,
And part the numbers.“
Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here;
Those that will follow Cassius, go with him;
And public reasons shall be rendered
Of Cæsar's death.

1 Cit. I will hear Brutus speak.
373. 2 Cit. I will hear Cassius; and compare their reasons,
When severally we hear them rendered.

[Exit Cassius, with some of the CITIZENS.

BRUTUS goes into the Rostrum. 374. 3 Cit. The noble Brutus is ascended : Silence ! 375. Bru. Be patient till the last.

Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause; and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honour; and have respect to mine honour, that you may believe: censure me in your wisdom; and awake your senses, that you may the better judge. If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Cæsar's, to him I say, that Brutus' love to Cæsar was no less than his. If, then,

that friend demand, why Brutus rose against Cæsar, this is my answer;-Not that I loved Cæsar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves, than that Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen? As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. There is tears, for his love; joy, for his fortune; honour, for his valour; and death, for his ambition. Who is here so base, that would be a bondman! If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile, that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I



a reply. 376. Cit. None, Brutus, none.

[ Several speaking at once. 377. Bru. Then none have I offended. I have done no more to

Cæsar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled in the Capitol : his glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced, for which he suffered death.

Enter ANTONY and others, with CÆSAR’s Body. Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the commonwealth; as which of you shall not ? With this I depart; That, as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need

Cit. Live, Brutus, live! live!
1 Cit. Bring him with triumph home unto his house.
2 Cit. Give him a statue with his ancestors.

3 Cit. Let him be Cæsar.
382. 4 Cit. Cæsar's better parts
Shall now be crowned in Brutus.

1 Cit. We'll bring him to his house with shouts and clamours.
Bru. My countrymen,-
2 Cit. Peace; silence! Brutus speaks.

1 Cit. Peace, ho !
387. Bru. Good countrymen, let me depart alone,

And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:
Do grace to Cæsar's corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Cæsar's glories; which Mark Antony,
By our permission, is allowed to make.
I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.

Erit. 1 Cit. Stay, ho! and .et us hear Mark Antony.


3 Cit. Let him go up into the public chair; We'll hear him :-Noble Antony, go up. 390. Ant. For Brutus' sake, I am beholden to you.

4 Cit. What does he say of Brutus ?

3 Cit. He says, for Brutus' sake, He finds himself beholden to us all.

4 Cit. 'Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here,

1 Cit. This Cæsar was a tyrant.
395. 3 Cit. Nay, that's certain :
We are blest that Rome is rid of him.

2 Cit. Peace, let us hear what Antony can say.
Ant. You gentle Romans,

Cit. Peace, ho! let us hear him. 399. Ant. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears ;

I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones :
So let it be with Cæsar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you, Cæsar was ambitious :
If it were so, it was a grievous fault;
And grievously hath Cæsar answered it.
Here, under leave of Brutus, and the rest
(For Brutus is an honourable man ;
So are they all, all honourable men),
Come I to speak in Cæsar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says, he was ambitious ;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill :
Did this in Cæsar seem ambitious ?
When that the poor have cried, Cæsar hath wept :
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff.
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious ;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see, that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition ?
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious ;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
\You all did love him once, not without cause ;

What cause withholds you, then, to mourn for him :
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason !-Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Cæsar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.

1 Cit. Methinks, there is much reason in his sayings.

2 Cit. If thou consider rightly of the matter, Cæsar has had great wrong.

3 Cit. Has he not, master ? I fear, there will a worse come in his place. 403. 4 Cit. Marked ye his words ! He would not take the crown;

Therefore, 'tis certain he was not ambitious.
404. 1 Cit. If it be found so, some will dear abide it.

2 Cit. Poor soul ! his eyes are red as fire with weeping.
3 Cit. There's not a nobler man in Rome than Antony.

4 Cit. Now mark him, he begins again to speak. 408. Ant. But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might

Have stood against the world : now lies he there,
And none so poor to do him reverence.
Oh masters ! if I were disposed to stir
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.
But here's a parchment, with the seal of Cæsar;
I found it in his closet; 'tis his will:
Let but the commons hear this testament
(Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read),
And they would go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds,
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy,
Unto their issue.

4 Cit. We'll hear the will: Read it, Mark Antony.
Cit. The will, the will: we will hear Cæsar's will.

Ant. Have patience, gentle friends; I must not read it;
It is not meet you know how Cæsar loved you.
You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;
And, being men, hearing the will of Cæsar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad.

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