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mean that the sense is plain; "the apparent sense is," that the sense seems to be.

194. The unaccustomed terror.-Unaccustomed is unusual; we now commonly employ it for unused to. Terror has here the active sense, as fear has in 190.

194. And the persuasion of his augurers. - Augurer, formed from the verb, is Shakespeare's usual word, instead of the Latin augur, which is commonly employed, and which he too, however, sometimes has. So again in 236.

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195. That unicorns, etc.-" Unicorns," says Steevens, are said to have been taken by one who, running behind a tree, eluded the violent push the animal was making at him, so that his horn spent its force on the trunk, and stuck fast, detaining the beast till he was dispatched by the hunter." He quotes in illustration Spenser's description (F. Q. ii. 5) :—

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"Like as a lion whose imperial power

A proud rebellious unicorn defies,

To avoid the rash assault and wrathful stour
Of his fierce foe him to a tree applies;

And, when him running in full course he spies,
He slips aside; the whiles the furious beast
His precious horn, sought of his enemies,
Strikes in the stock, ne thence can be releast,

But to the mighty victor yields a bounteous feast."

Bears," adds Steevens, " are reported to have been surprised by means of a mirror, which they would gaze on, affording their pursuers an opportunity of taking a surer aim. This circumstance, I think, is mentioned by Claudian. Elephants were seduced into pitfalls, lightly covered with hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to tempt them was exposed. See Pliny's Natural History, Book viii." Reference might also be made to a speech of Timon to Apemantus in Timon of Athens, iv. 3, "If thou wert the lion," etc., which is too long to be quoted. The

import of the For, with which Decius introduces his statement, is not seen till we come to his "But when I tell him," etc., which, therefore, ought not, as is commonly done, to be separated from what precedes by so strong a point as the colon,—the substitute of the modern editors for the full stop of the original edition.

195. He says, he does; being then most flattered.—The ing of being counts for nothing in the prosody. For the ed of flattered, see the note on 246.

197. By the eighth hour.-It is the eight hour in the first three Folios. The author, however, probably wrote eighth:

199. Doth bear Cæsar hard.-Vid. 105. In the Second Folio the hard in this passage is changed into hatred. But the meaning is manifestly different from what that would give, even if to bear one hatred were English at all.

200. Go along by him.-Pope, who is followed by the other editors before Malone, changed by into to. But to go along by a person was in Shakespeare's age to take one's way where he was. So afterwards in 620, "The enemy, marching along by them" (that is, through the country of the people between this and Philippi).

200. I'll fashion him.-I will shape his mind to our purposes.

201. The morning comes upon us.— -It may just be noted that all the old copies have "upon's." And probably such an elision would not have been thought inelegant at any time in the seventeenth century.

202. Let not our looks put on our purposes.-Put on such expression as would betray our purposes. Compare the exhortation of the strong-minded wife of Macbeth to her husband (Macbeth, i. 5):

"To beguile the time,

Look like the time: bear welcome in your eye,

Your hand, your tongue; look like the innocent flower,
But be the serpent under it."

But the sentiment takes its boldest form from the lips of Macbeth himself in the first fervour of his weakness exalted into determined wickedness (i. 7) :—

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'Away, and mock the time with fairest show:

False face must hide what the false heart doth know."

202. Formal constancy.-Constancy in outward form, or aspect; the appearance, at any rate, of perfect freedom from anxiety and the weight of our great design. The original stage direction is; "Exeunt. Manet Brutus.'

202. The heavy honey-dew of slumber.—This is the correction by Mr Collier's MS. annotator of the old reading "the honey-heavy dew." I cannot doubt that it gives us what Shakespeare wrote. "The compound," as Mr Collier remarks, "unquestionably is not honey-heavy, but honey-dew, a well-known glutinous deposit upon the leaves of trees, etc.; the compositor was guilty of a transposition." We have a trace, it might be added, of some confusion or indistinctness in the manuscript, perhaps occasioned by an interlineation, and of the perplexity of the compositor, in the strange manner in which in the First Folio the dew also, as well as the heavy, is attached by a hyphen; thus, "the honey-heavy-Dew."

202. Thou hast no figures, etc.-Pictures created by imagination or apprehension. So, in The Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. 2, Mrs Page, to Mrs Ford's "Shall we tell our husbands how we have served him (Falstaff)?" replies, "Yes, by all means; if it be but to scrape the figures out of your husband's brains."

205. You've ungently.-All the Folios have Y'have ; which, however, was perhaps not pronounced differently from the modern elision adopted in the present text. As that elision is still common, it seems unnecessary to substitute the full You have, as most of the recent editors have done.

205. Stole from my bed.—Vid. 46.

205. I urged you further.-This is the reading of the old copies. Mr Collier, as elsewhere, has farther.

205. Which sometime hath his hour.—That is, its hour. Vid. 54.

205. Wafture of your hand.-Wafter is the form of the word in all the Folios.

205. Fearing to strengthen that impatience.-For the prosody of such lines see the note on 246.

205. An effect of humour. - Humour is the peculiar mood, or caprice, of the moment; a state of mind opposed or exceptional to the general disposition and character.

205. As it hath much prevailed on your condition.Condition is the general temper or state of mind. We still say ill-conditioned, for ill-tempered. Thus, in The Merchant of Venice, i. 2, Portia makes the supposition that her suitor the black Prince of Morocco, although his complexion be that of a devil, may have "the condition of a saint." Note how vividly the strong feeling from which Portia speaks is expressed by her repetition of the much—“ could it work so much As it hath much prevailed."

205.-Dear my lord.-So, in Romeo and Juliet, iii. 5, Juliet implores her mother, " O, sweet my mother, cast me not away!" For the principle upon which this form of expression is to be explained, see the note on 89. Though now disused in English, it corresponds exactly to the French Cher Monsieur. The personal pronoun in such phrases has become absorbed in the noun to which it is prefixed, and its proper or separate import is not thought of. A remarkable instance, in another form of construction, of how completely the pronoun in such established modes of speech was formerly apt to be overlooked, or treated as non-significant, occurs in our common version of the Bible, where in 1 Kings, xviii. 7, we have, “And, as Obadiah was in the way, behold, Elijah met him: and he knew him, and fell on his face, and said, Art thou that my lord Elijah ?" Still more extraordinary is what we

have in Troilus and Cressida, v. 2, where (Ulysses having also addressed Troilus, "Nay, good my lord, go off") Cressida exclaims to herself,—

"Ah! poor our sex! this fault in us I find,

The error of our eye directs our mind."

209. Is it physical?—Medicinal.

209. Of the dank morning.-The Second Folio changes dank into dark. Mr Collier retains dank; but it is not stated that the restoration is made by his manuscript an


209. To add unto his sickness.—His is misprinted hit in the First Folio. So in Macbeth, i. 5, we have, in the same original text, "the effect and hit," apparently for "the effect and it" (the purpose), although the misprint, if it be one, is repeated in the Second Folio, and is, as far as we can gather from Mr Collier, left uncorrected by his MS. annotator. It is even defended as probably the true reading by Tieck. It cannot, at any rate, be received as merely a different way of spelling it, deliberately adopted in this instance and nowhere else throughout the volume: such a view of the matter is the very Quixotism of the belief in the immaculate purity of the old text.

209. You have some sick offence. Some pain, or grief, that makes you sick.

209. By the right and virtue of my place. By the right that belongs to, and (as we now say) in virtue of (that is by the power or natural prerogative of) my place (as your wife). The radical meaning of the term virtue, connected with vis, and perhaps also with vireo, and with vir, is force (which word itself, indeed, with its Latin progenitor fortis, may possibly be from the same root). The old spelling of the English word, and that which it has here in the First Folio, is vertue, as we still have it in the French vertu.

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