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and it is surprising that the Oriental unequal to the regular shock of our weapons of steel are generally much cavalry of the line; and they are un. superior to our own. In the suite of equal to the task of breaking our inthe French General Gardane, sent fantry.” Yet this cavalry, we repeat, ambassador by Napoleon to the court was, by unanimous consent, at the of Teheran, there were many military head of all Asiatic cavalry. As to men, who reported that the best Da- the infantry, until recently in Persia mascus blades were better than the and in Hindostan, it is every where a very best Toledos. But, as these rabble of tumultuary levies in Asiatic could only be purchased from Turkish armies. enemies, the Shah had patronised two Upon many people's minds it will native manufactories, at Ispahan and rest as an unpleasant augury, what Sir in Chorasan, which were in their turn Robert Peel said of our engaging in a as much superior to the Syrian arms war with three hundred and fifty milas those to the Spanish. One officer lions of men. We think Sir Robert put the rival qualities to a test which must have smiled when he used that was decisive ; and M. Jancoigne (who argument.
One of Shakspeare's afterwards published a French report clowns hearing of a man having sufon the Persian armies) says expressly fered or having threatened a mil
_" the swords they use, much superior lion of stripes, says, “a million of to ours in temper, make wide and stripes may come to a great matter." deep wounds, which are generally And certainly three hundred and fifty mortal.” The advantage belongs to millions of cudgelings "would come all Oriental armies which import Per to a great matter,” which would not sian sabres. But what of that? It improve our position, though it might still remains true of all Oriental armies, strengthen the demand for opium. that, even as to weapons, they are But, seriously, of all nations the Chibadly armed; badly as respects the nese is the most sedentary, and the class and selection of the arms, what least available for a locomotive warever may be their quality as manufac- such as we can always make it. The tures. The Persian armies have been fourth part of their three hundred and beaten into some useful reforms by fifty millions, which in a nation wholly the Russians, and trained into others barbarous ought to express the num. by Sir H. Bethune. The armies of ber of males disposable for war, would India have been gradually improved be too many for the purpose by a by the example of the English. With thousand-fold, if they could be apthese exceptions, no Eastern armies plied to the service, or, being applied, can so much as face European troops, were of the martial quality required. where all arms of the service are com But the improgressive and imperfect plete, in almost any disproportion. A civilisation of this nation is precisely few brave mountain clans do not of that kind which most effectually amount to a serious exception. One prevents the abstraction of men from universal error in the composition of their daily industry. Nations cannot Eastern armies, is the vast preponder- starve in order to fight; and the poance of the cavalry. The Persian sition of China, exposed for some gencavalry, taking the quality of men, erations to no potent enemy on her horses, and arms conjointly, thirty frontiers, is precisely such as to preyears ago, was the most splendid in vent her nominal army from being, in Asia ; yet an agent of Napoleon's re a true military sense, seasoned to war, ported thus, on the question of their or, in military phrase, “ aguerrie." serviceableness. 66 this brilliant ca An armed police is the utmost, from valry cannot fight in battle array; mere defect of enemies, that any Chiand then, after describing their excel. nese army can long have been. And lent qualities as individual horsemen, were it even otherwise, had the Chior acting as partisans “for turning nese a large army (like our Indian the flanks of an army, and as skir. establishment) continually exercised mishers," this Frenchman concludes in field duties, and in sharp fighting by thus :_But the perfection of Euro a large family of ambitious neigh. pean tactics would not permit the bours, still the great questions would elite, even of the Persian cavalry, to recur--1, Have they a good INFANTRY? support the impetuosity of heavy dra. 2, Presuming all the advantages of goons, French or English: they are experience and seasoning in the field,
are the men efficiently ARMED? 3, engine we might expect a great and a Have they the magical-almost the permanent result. Eastern princes, spiritual-power of DISCIPLINE to bind when they receive alimony as supthe individuals into unity ? 4, Have pliants from others at a distance, call they an engineering establishment ? it before their own subjects tribute Have they an ARTILLERY?
which they have levied. And when A quarterly journal of eminence they really pay tribute, they call it in our land absolutely attempts to alimony which they have granted. To startle the country, as regards this a certain extent we may wink at such last question, by pointing attention evasions in China. But we must not to the awful fact, that the Chinese any longer allow our ambassadors to had thrown a twelve pound ball be called tribute-bearers, as into the mast of the Volage or the Lords Macartney and Amherst. We Hyacinthe ! Wonderful !—and the must not any longer allow ourselves poor mast has to undergo an operation to be called barbarians. It is doubtin lithotomy, before it can be pro- ful, indeed, as to this last term, what nounced out of danger! Why, Persia is the exact value of the Chinese word herself, whose whole field artillery so rendered. In the use of the Greek consisted of certain dromedaries with word Barbaroi, besides the four stages a swivel mounted on the hump, (zem- through which it is traced by Gibbon, boureks they were called,) which swivel (chap. li. vol. ix., foot-note p. 463.4,) being once fired to the imminent ha it is certain that in each separate stage zard of the cannonier and his neigh- the word admitted of some modifica. bour, the regular manœuvre was for tions, which mitigated the insult, and the dromedary to wheel to the right caused it to be sometimes self-assumed about, and gallop off for a day's as a mere name of distinction, equivamarch to the rear, in order to insure lent to alien or non-Grecian. Some the concern against capture; even such misunderstanding may operate Persia had some capital cannon in her here. But misunderstandings, one arsenals. And how acquired? They and all, we must have cleared up. had been left behind by the Portu. They are perilous with two sorts of guese when they evacuated the island nations- with insolent nations, and of Ormus. And most other Asiatic with dishonest nations. And the very powers have come into an odd assort first rule in dealing with such a nation ment of Christian artillery and other is-Better to be cheated than to be in. old iron, as derelicts of us Europeans. sulted. Why, then, should it astonish us that The first thing is, to look out for China, by robbery or purchase, or in really skilful, but in any case really the way of jettsom and
flotsam, should honest interpreters. Want of skill come into possession of a Christian may be remedied. One or two cirhulk or so with its heavy guns? This cumlocutions, or varying repetitions, argues nothing for her native skill in will always make the meaning clear, engineering. One discharge of a if any doubt arises upon a separate rocket brigade, should our expedition word: and generally things, substanmake a hourrah upon any great city, tial things, are too much interwoven will be a sufficient reply to all such with the points in dispute to allow any alarmists.
large range for mistake. But there It is in no other way than as an is no guarding against the perfidy of a armed body that an English embassy native Chinese, whose cowardice sugcan ever prevail at Pekin. It is in gests to him some evasion of a strong no other character than as an ambas- English idea. We must have a letter sadorial body that an English army
first of all, full and circumstantial, can fail to leave behind a very lasting written to the Emperor; and, because impression of irritation at Pekin, it is said that he feels it a degradation Either form of approach taken sepa to have been addressed of late by a rately would thwart our views; the viceroy, (the Governor-General of purely martial form would terminate India,) this letter must speak directly in hostility; the purely diplomatic from her Majesty the Queen that now would terminate in smoke. But, if is to his Imperial Majesty. This will the two could be dexterously blended, be also the better course for another if the one could be so used as to important reason it will justify a masque the other, from the twofold frank language; it will prevent the
language of kindness and respectful we (like himself) throw off from paconciliation from seeming adulatory; rental care those who, for the sake of it will prevent the language of plain gain, have consented to expatriate dealing from seeming insolent. A themselves into corners where they very great aid would be rendered to hold no one privilege, not so much as the cause, if a short sketch could be air, as water, as fire, but
insolent sent with this letter, describing the sufferance and capricious indulgence ? great leading points in our social po This must be set to rights : an exlity; showing the value which we also planation must be given, difficult to set upon human life, (which otherwise devise, of our long inattention to these the stupid Chinese fancy peculiar to Chinese rights. We must also speak themselves ;) but showing also that plainly on the terms of equality which we value other things still more high we mean to hold in negotiating. This ly, such as equity, human rights and is not quite unprecedented in the East. duties as measured by intention, &c., In Ferishta's Hindostan, as abridged and stating the nature of a represen- by Colonel Dow, will be seen a case tative government; how far it limits where a King of Persia was so offend. the powers of the sovereign, but in ed at the arrogant style of a great what a high degree it provides for the Mogul Sovereign, that he insisted on honour, and dignity, and usefulness of explanations ; which accordingly were the sovereign. Such a sketch would given to this effect :- That if he used prepare the Emperor to understand in vain-glorious titles, they were meant future, that special requests which he only for his own subjects, not at all might make of our Queen, as tests of in disparagement of his brother princes. her sincerity, are liable to refusal from Those are weak people who think such the nature of popular rights, without points of titular honour, of rank, of any failure in respect or in sincerity precedency, to be trifles any where. of good-will.
Cromwell did not think them such : The Chinese understand by this he most wisely refused to treat in time, which formerly they did not, French, though otherwise a trifle, besomething of the truth in relation to cause it would be used as an argument our civil grandeur. This they have that we British had submitted to take learned indirectly, and by a sort of a secondary place, and to receive a logical sorites. Our Indian empire, sort of law from our enemies. The which they see and tremble at, is an first Cæsars did not think them such, exponent to their understandings of who cashiered magistrates for using that England which they cannot see. the Greek language on the tribunal. To know that this mighty colonial But in Asia all external forms are more possession is but a remote dependency important by many degrees. In Euon England; to know that it is so lit- rope the prevalent good sense and the tle essential to the splendour of our. diffusion of truth as to all possible reEnglish crown, as never to have been lations of power, &c., give a perpetual visited by any of the royal family ; to limitation to the gasconades of French know also that the whole vast line of proclamations, French bulletins, &c., communication between India and which makes nugatory their false preEngland has always been kept open tensions. But in all Asiatic despotisms by our ships, and consequently (let no truth is current. Ignorance that French emissaries traduce us as much is total, credulity that is beyond Eu. as they will) that, by a practical test ropean conception, combine to support continually applied, we must always all delusions which are not put down have been “ too many" for our Euro- with a strong hand by us who are the pean enemies, through a long line of most certain to suffer from them. thirteen thousand miles-all this must Among the presents, (which to all convey a gorgeous impression of Bri. Eastern princes, but especially to such tich power to the minds of the Pekin as only play at making war, ought counsellors. What we now want is, chiefly to be articles of warlike use,) to connect this power with our inter none can be so well adapted to dazzle ests in Canton. Contrasting so enor. the Chinese as a train of our field ar. mous a power with the mean submis- tillery, with its entire establishment of sions and the precarious tenure of our horses, &c. This, after doing its apChinese factory, what else can the propriate service to the ambassador's Emperor naturally conclude, than that a retinue" to and from the point of de
barkation, might be left as a present sioner Lin, which have suddenly with the Emperor. As to mere philo- created a crisis. The first of these acts sophical instruments, how could those being the seizure of our opium, (since dazzle a people incapable of using a peaceable surrender, under a virtual them? There lay the error of Napo- condition not fulfilled, is a seizure ;) leon, who made Monge exhibit chemi. the second of these acts being the viocal experiments before the Mamelukes lent, summary, and (as Lin says) everand the Arab Sheiks. Not having the lasting exclusion of the British name very elements of science so as to com from China. There were at any rate, prehend more than that there bad been and already, three general arguments a flash, or an effervescence, or an ex for an interposition of our Goverment, plosion, the solemn blockheads natu pointing to the future ; there is now a rally said — " Aye, this is very well, fourth argument, pointing to the past, but can he do what our magicians can the reprisals called for against special do? Can he make us jump into Abys- and recent outrages. This last reason sinia and back again in an hour ?" we have treated as itself furnishing
But by whatever presents and ex strong matter against our own Govern. planatory letters we court the personal ment; but that does not acquit the favour of the Emperor, the strength of Chinese Government. It is only in col. our impression will rest upon our vi. lusion with the Chinese Commissioner sible demonstration of power contrasto that our own Government has been ed with our extreme forbearance in wrong. To seek indemnities, where using it. That must make a favoure we ourselves created the necessity for able impression. And
And it is obvious those indemnities by submitting to the that we are now arrived at a crisis in wrong, criminates the Government unwhich some powerful impression is in der whose impulse and misrepresentadispensable, in order, not only to make tion we did submit to that wrong: but the further progress which is chal- it does not acquit Lin, under whose lenged by our position in Asia, but to breach of faith that submission has continue our hold on the progress turned out to be an illusory act. . Lin which is made already; not only for is guilty; and our own Government in those objects even, but to meet the a measure the accomplice of Lin. Yet, certain danger to our fellow-subjects self-created as is our present necessity from casual collisions with the Chi- for indemnities, by pursuing that obnese laws. It is obvious enough that ject in connexion with the other great the Chinese commerce, if it were not objects indicated by the constant state ours already, ought to be procured by of our danger from China, the Governtreaty-considering the clamorous in- ment will have its only chance of efstincts which propel us in our great facing past folly, We may forgive Asiatic career. It is obvious that this the absurdity and the fraud by which Chinese commerce, having long been our merchants were decoyed into a ours, will be pursued now at whatever supererogatory surrender of two birds hazard; and that it is the duty of our in the hand by way of obtaining an unGovernment to make that intercourse certain reversion upon one bird in the secure and honourable which it has bush ; this and much besides we may long been out of their power to pre. forgive, and even rejoice in our own vent. Lastly, it is obvious that even losses, as well as the blunders of our if this commerce were extinguished by Government, if they should turn out the violence of the Chinese, we should to be the happy occasion of forcing a still need a treaty and a previous de- stream of light upon our Chinese posimonstration of our power, in order to tion, and winning something more than protect our ships, with their increasing a momentary indemnification for the crews and passengers, from casual col. British factory-winning honour for lisions with a cruel nation.
the name of Britain-winning a secure These arguments for an armed in. settlement planted in law, and selfterference apply to any period of that respect for our establishments in China vast system on which our Asiatic in- for ever taking away from British terests have been for some years ex merchants all temptations to co-operate panding. But they apply at this mo. in legal murder-for ever guaranteeing ment beyond others for a separate our own brothers and sisters from lia.
.-on account of two inju. bility to torture. rious acts on the part of the Commis, We have taken no notice of one fea
ture in our Chinese relations, which of vast ramifications, sometimes called threatens us beyond China. We have the Society of the Triad, diffused been alarmed recently on the matter through every province of maritime of Chiva. There is a monomania in China, and having for its object to this country as regards the Emperor of overthrow the existing Tartar dynasty Russia_because the Poles were con and government, has been noticed by spirators, he must be a tyrant — and English travellers of late years. This every man is suspected of aiming at a may happen to co-operate with our pursnuff-box through the Russian ambas- poses. But we rely upon no obscure sador, who speaks a word of truth on features, whether for hope or for fear. behalf of his Russian Majesty. All We rely upon the condition of Chinathat we shall say therefore is—that the full of insolence, full of error, needing expedition to Chiva can hardly have to be enlightened, and open to our at. any relation to the British movement tacks on every side. A popular Reupon Cabul. It was planned and talked view has pronounced recently an apoof two good years before we crossed theosis of China ; finding out that she the Indus. The Khan of Chiva is the is distinguished for her skill in the arts, common nuisance of central Asia; (but obscure mechanic arts,) and that equally offensive to Russia as a disturber she was so when our ancestors lived in of her commerce in its natural chan- the forests of Germany. True ; and nels, and a common Algerine pirate no fact could better have measured the as regards her peaceful subjects on the difference between us. The Review Caspian. As regards India, if Russia takes a retrospect of 1500 years. All could venture to assault with mere war the world sees how we have used that an empire founded on both the war interval. We British have traversed and the diplomacy of eighty years, how the whole distance from savage life to could she take an effectual departure the summit of civilisation. China, from the Jaxartes, when she cannot starting with such advantages, has yet reach it without the sacrifice of de to learn even the elements of law and spair? Not to mention, that Russia justice, without counting on doubtful cannot spare troops for an Indian cam- advantages. We rely upon this known paign-has not a battalion that is ac and attested state of Chinese society, climatized-cannot wish for an empire which needs a diplomatic interference so distant as to demand a new centre of to make it endurable. We rely upon administration. Now, on the other our past position at Canton, which was hand, if China could become more war. always full of temptations to partner. like, the peril which we vainly look for ship in murder. We rely upon our in. on the Western Himalaya will seri. juries, which are recent. We rely upon ously reach us from the Eastern. our honour, trampled under foot. We
We have taken no notice of a fea- rely upon our interests, which, alike ture in the domestic circumstances of for commerce and for person, are now China, which may happen to favour finally at stake. us. A secret and revolutionary society