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be possible, let the picture give out of the Elgin Marbles ; let the light the rule, and its horizontal line direct. come from behind the figures, and the Take the fine Claudes in the National horsemen seem chasing their own shaGallery ; let each be in its own room, dows ; let the light come from the opregulate the light, and let them be posite direction, and how the speed is hung with the eye of the spectator increased by the shadows thrown beseated (for there is something in that hind them! They are different things: quiet continuous position) upon the let the light be above them—then behorizon; and what magic would there neath them—what variety! and as be in the sunset !-all the lines would every form is in itself beautiful, and verge to their proper perspective_the as the complication of forms is throughillusion would be complete. You may out beautiful, so by varying the power be sure that Claude so looked at his of viewing them, you multiply beaupictures on his easel ; and we scarcely ties to the eye, which, though they do him justice, in hanging them as existed, and must exist, in the art, those wonderful marine pieces are now were lost to the spectator who had hung. We have often been struck but the power of one light. The with the insignificant appearance of endless variety of position in which pictures, whose beauty and value were statues may be viewed, renders atten. previously well known, when we have tion to lights in statue-galleries even seen them raised in the auctioneer's more important than in picture-galstand ; and have been surprised that leries. The painter, in a great desome better contrivance for exhibiting gree, determines his own light and them had not been adopted. Pictures, shade, and one character of it; the like other beauties, should " stoop to sculptor no less attends to light and conquer.” It may be said that these shade in attending to the roundness, hints may be well thrown out when the massiveness, and largeness, or the the pictures are first collected, and contrary, of the parts; but in so doing the gallery then to be built, but of is unlimited, and thus in making little practical use before any collec one makes many statues—the painter tion is formed. There is some truth makes but one picture. in this, but of less force than might The University having determined at first be imagined. It would not to erect picture and statue galleries, be very difficult to calculate the differ. the next consideration is—how are they ent dimensions of pictures likely to to be filled, and to what purpose if form a collection; and single rooms they are filled ? We will assume that may accordingly be arranged of every the University see the advantages of variety of size-afterwards, adaptation connecting the arts with literature. could not be very difficult. That The advantages are indeed many. such arrangements would require But as the advantages must be sup. great architectural skill we are quite posed to arise from the really fine aware; but“ Ne sutor ultra crepidam," things these galleries are to hold, we we are not architects. Nearly all should wish to know what works the these observations will apply likewise University at present possess, avail. to a statue-gallery. We have never yet able, and what means of acquiring seen one perfectly satisfactory: nei- others. We are not aware that the ther the Apollo Belvidere, nor the Ve University have any of much merit in nus de Medicis are well lodged. Some possession, nor even that the colleges, seem to think statues are to be put in could they contribute what they have, niches, as if walls had eyes, and could could supply largely. To purchase, admire : but a statue should be seen would, we fear, require larger funds all round ; indeed, if possible, it should than could be raised. Something may be so movable as to be raised or be acquired, in the course of time, by lowered; it should be capable of being liberal bequests, and perhaps this is viewed in every possible position, the only source to be much relied then would one statue be made, as it upon. There can be no doubt but were, so many pictures. To fix a that the probability of ultimately posstatue, so that you may walk round sessing a fine gallery, will greatly it, will not be enough, unless you depend upon the interest first excited have the power of varying the lights, upon the subject; and to create this so that they should come from any interest a very inexpensive beginning direction. Take that beautiful frieze may suffice. Let à portion of the

building be set apart for prints and has generally above one hundred percasts--they are easily obtained, and sons in his class. The professorship will serve well the purpose of general of Experimental Philosophy is worth lectures upon art. And this leads di about one hundred and thirty pounds rectly to the use to which such galle a-year—the course of lectures is well ries may be applied. There should attended. This professor, and some be at least one professorship of paint others, not all, receive a sum of one ing and sculpture in the University. or two pounds from each person atLectures ought to be publicly given. tending. The practice of receiving a We are aware that there is here a fee is seemingly optional, and not great difficulty. From what funds founded upon any principle. If the can such a professorship be main professorship of Painting were two tained ? Why may we not look to hundred pounds per annum, it might the generosity of wealthy men, edu. be thought proper that no fee should cated at Oxford, who are likewise be required; but if less, it might be lovers of art, for a liberal donation for desirable. If, then, one hundred this purpose ? Let us consider what pounds would endow a professorship amount would be necessary-we want of painting and sculpture, (for we not large funds. The professorship suppose we must at present take them would confer honour, and would be together,) and if two hundred pounds an object of high ambition. It would would be a handsome endowment, we mainly exalt the rank and dignity of would not think so ill of the lovers art; but it would impose important and patrons of art and of literature duties, much devotion of time and abi. as to suppose, that such an endowlities, and therefore, like other pro ment as the largest might not be easily fessorships, should have something of raised if the thing were properly taken honour substantial besides the name up. Many may not wish to come attached to it. What, then, would be forward, under an impression that the a competent endowment? To reply University are adverse to such an to that question we should ascertain endowment, thinking that, were it not the duties. We would have no term so, a professorship of the kind would pass without lectures. The professor have been established long ago: but should have rooms, perhaps, for prac the public should know that the case tical illustrations ; it would therefore is quite otherwise. It should be known be desirable that he should have a that all, or very nearly all the funds residence in the building. With this of the University are appropriated extended beneficent view, the endow- to their several purposes, and that the ment should be liberal.

But let us

University, as trustee, has only to distake it at its lowest—supposing that tribute them. The University has no additional lectures may be assisted by means of founding a readership... A gratuities from attendants. Suppose few years ago, some members, wishing the duties attached to the endowment to promote the study of mathematics, to be limited to one course of lectures exerted themselves to obtain subscripin the year ; in that case, one hundred tions in order to found exhibitions for pounds per annum might be sufficient. that purpose ; and recently (last year) The last instituted professorship was the University restored some funds that of Political Economy, by H. which had been applied to other purDrummond, Esq., with one hundred poses for the endowment of a profespounds a-year; the duties being, to sorship of Logic. Even these funds the deliver a definite number of lectures University has obtained by a tax upon in the year, and to publish certain of their own members. It is, therefore, them. It is holden only for five years. from inability, and not from disincliThe professorship of Moral Philosophy nation on the part of the University, is founded also with the same endown that such a professorship has not been ment; and that of Anglo-Saxon Lite established. Let this be well knownrature with somewhat more. The some leading persons in or out of the professorship of Ancient History, in. 'University take an active interest in stituted by Camden, is worth only the matter, and we entertain little one hundred and twenty pounds a fear. Such an endowment would do year—there is none, perhaps, more great honour. There are many indiefficient; the professor delivers a viduals to whom the amount would course at least twice in the year, and be no object were subscriptions re

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sorted to, surely the sum would be A friend to whom we have proposed easily raised; or why should it be the plan, states as a first difficulty, hopeless to obtain a grant for the that « no endowment would be suffi. purpose, by petition to Parliament cient to keep away from London a through the University member? painter of first-rate eminence: for There are no politics in this, and one though we might meet with an ac. would hope there would be but little complished amateur, whose talents and opposition. This is not the first time reputation might secure ample credit that we have urged this upon the pub- to such an appointment; yet we should lic notice; and we cannot now resist ordinarily, perhaps, have to look to a the temptation, offered by the inten- professional artist, who, however extion of the University immediately to cellent in his own department, might build galleries, again to excite the be wanting in literary attainments to public attention to the subject. give effect, or even secure attention, to Should we have to encounter the jea. a course of lectures. Much, indeed, lousy of the Royal Academy? We could be done, were a first-rate person think not. The ' liberal arts" should merely to deliver once a.year, in the engender a generous wish for ex. University of Oxford, a series of lectension—for diffusion of the best prin- tures, having his usual residence still ciples of taste. There is no place so fit in London.'

We cannot in any way as our Universities for their establish- agree with our able friend. For ment. The advantages are too nu though we are satisfied that he merous to mention. Besides the im. very much underrates the literary mediate connexion of the arts with attainments of artists, for the proof literature, especially with the Greek, of whose attainments we need but of which they are the very soul—for refer to the lectures of Reynolds, all Greek poetry is picture, vivid, dis- Fuseli, Barry, and Phillips, we very tinct, and particular—besides the re much doubt if it would be desirable lish, and taste, and elucidation, which to look for professors to the quarter literature and the arts would lend to he recommends. It may seem very each other, and thereby render the strange, but it has been very often obgrace of education perfect, we do served by those most conversant with think that the endowment of a pro the arts, that professional painters are fessorship, with galleries and facilities not the best judges of works of art. of giving effective lectures, would be There may be many reasons given the means of rescuing many from idle. for this: perhaps the truest is, that art ness, and its usual acconipaniments has an unlimited scope ; the artist a dissipation and ruinous expenditure. limited scope. He chooses but one It would engender a taste where none field in which to spend his days-to existed, and by making one study at which to devote all his time and geleast agreeable, lead to a habit of nius. To this particular walk he is study and of thought, and to a desire, partial-his whole thought is directed through taste, of intellectual improve- to one practice. If high finish, labo. ment. It would be the means of pro- rious execution be his taste, he will viding, not a mere light and passing but badly understand the dash and vipleasure, but a passion for life. We gour of another school. We should have ourselves induced some young not value the criticism of a Denner men, upon entering on life, to take up upon Michael Angelo. The eye of a painting as an amusement, and they Wynantz would be but ill tutored for have expressed unbounded gratifica the wild and more general beauties of tion from the pursuit. It is one that Salvator Rosa. Nay, not even a makes the dullest days—the days that Claude, perhaps, would be quite qualiare heavy to the

listless idler-days of fied to see the beauties of a grander busy delight. But it is not our pur- and more free pencil. Artists there pose to eulogize the art; there is little are, without doubt, so gifted by nature need. We would only most earnestly and study with such an exquisite recommend the endowment of profes- sense, that they are in all perceptions sorships at both our Universities. A few of taste superior to the rest of manwords might be said upon the choice kind, and are without the necessity of of professors ; and here we expect divesting their minds of their own that many (perhaps the general opin. practice, and have an immediate perjon) will not agree with our view, ception of all beauties within the range

of art. But the gift is rare--much learn. Most practise too much, bemore so than may be generally ima fore they have acquired any sure pringined.

We should almost go the ciples-before they have qualified the length of saying, that professional art imagination and the judgment to di. ists should not be selected. If they rect the hand. Hence the mere imi. were, it would be but a transfer of lec tation of more obvious nature, or flashy tures from the Academy to the Uni. unmeaning effects, is in our own school versity. A professor of this class too often substituted for design and would not be sufficiently free from his poetical conception. Professorships own academical connexion and bias. once established, there would be no The University would require one lack of teachers of the practical par who could point out existing errors, of the art, to initiate the students in and deviations from the true principles the craft and mystery of mixing colof taste, and more particularly, one ours, and of using the pencil ; though versed in general criticism and litera. we do not see why it should be taken ture of the most poetical class. He for granted that a professor such as we should have had the advantages of an have described should not likewise academical education, and be a Master have sufficient knowledge to give much of Arts of one of the Universities. It practical instruction. We have known may be said that still a practical many unprofessional gentlemen perknowledge would be desirable. Cer- fectly qualified-many, as the term is, tainly it would, to a certain extent; but amateurs, who, by scholarship and we by no means think it necessary. knowledge of and devotion to the arts, Take away all the technicality of the are competent to lecture, and indeed art from the discourses of Sir Joshua fulfil all the duties that may be reasonReynolds, and they would still con ably required, and whose fitness, we tain principles of taste which would verily believe, would be acknowledged improve the general scholar, though by the best professional artists. We he never contemplated the handling leave the subject, being unwilling to a pencil. It is a great thing to learn go to greater length than may serve to see and to feel the beauties of na the purpose, to the best of our power, ture, taking nature here in its largest of directing the public attention to signification. Without any technical the subject-more particularly the atknowledge whatever, the otherwise tention of the patrons of art in general well-educated man is already half an -as we think a field is open to them, artist. And we will venture to affirm, both of raising art to its proper station that an artist who aims at rising in and dignity, and of elevating the his profession by studies confined to minds of our academical students of the technical and practical part of it, supplying a worthy pursuit where one is greatly mistaken-it is the mind is most needed, and of rescuing them that should direct the hand. It is the from idleness, dissipation, and the mind that should be cultivated, en woeful consequences too often felt larged, and purified-schooled to dis- through life. "If this opportunity be card all that is low, mean, and trifling, not seized in any other quarter, we and to be above all vulgar entice- earnestly entreat the influential memments. Practice may then be well di- hers of the Universities to take themrected, and the mechanical labourselves such measures as may publicly will be, comparatively speaking, of bring forward the advantages to be easy acquirement, comparatively easy attained by the endowment of professtill, “ nulla dies sine lineâ.There sorships of painting and sculpture in are few artists that in their prac those ancient seats of learning. tice have not as much to unlearn as to

2 A

NO, CCXCIII, VOL, XLVII.

WAR WITH CHINA, AND THE OPIUM QUESTION.

never

exem

What great events from little unknown and undreamt of, whilst the causes spring," was

old nomenclature is consigned to plified in a broader light, or on a the musty records of the things that grander scale, in the history of the were ; but in all this “ wreck of matworld, than at this moment. The ter and crash of worlds," the Chimightiest as the most ancient of em. nese empire alone has stood firm, impires, has yoked its destinies with a movable, permanent, for thousands of fiscal question and a pretence of mo- years-scarcely ruffled by dynastic rals, and the fate or fortunes of three changes, giving the law even to hundred millions of people, concen its Mantchew Emperors, who wisely trated under one and the same rule, merged the claims of conquest in those have become vitally entangled with an of adoption, and sank their own paissue of money damage, of which tionality in that of the vast country, somewhere about three hundred mil. pure, homogeneous, unmixed, and lions sterling is the amount recited in uncontaminated alone of all the the declaration, apart the costs of earth in its people and lineage. Let judgment, execution, and example. us take classic Asia, as delineated The grandeur of the sum may seem of by D'Anville or any other geograitself almost a stake large enough to pher; and we shall find, on comparison warrant the strife of empires; but with the more recent maps of that magnificent as the scale in which con quarter of thë globe by other geograceived, never was public robbery per- phers, that scarcely has a single place petrated under circumstances attend. or territory retained its denominaant of fraud, falsehood, cowardice, and tion excepting China: and not of treachery, more revolting. For China, Asia alone may this be said. Where therefore, the die is cast--for exter are the powerful red tribes, which once nal war develops internal revolution. figured with local habitation and a The seeds of revolution, once sown, name on the maps of North America ? may germinate but too rapidly; and the Where the gallant Saracens, who susfabric of an empire, of proportions so tained the renown of the Caliphate unwieldy and almost unmanageable of Haroun el Rashid, who carried already, may stagger under the first conquest, chivalry, and civilisation shock from without, until finally, in from Asia to Africa, and from Africa years not far distant, after a succession to Spain? In the modern atlas we of external assaults and convulsions search for them in vain ; whilst within, which must surely follow upon China alone remains the stereotyped the first patent exhibition of the over impression of every map, and the engrown weakness by which they are during monument of every age. She invited, it dissolves into a thousand alone substantially connects all the detached portions, parceled out among varicus and ever-varying phases of ravenous competitors for the spoil, at the past with the present, from all tracted from afar, like vultures by the time unchanging, as still unchanged instinct of prey, to the carrion carcass herself, amidst change and revolution of the once mighty, but fallen. During all around her. But the day may come the progress of ages, numberless are when the empire boasting its thou. the nations which have appeared, which sands of years shall reach the term of have flamed out their meteor course, its immortality-when, invulnerable and then have been effaced so fully as on all points but one, like the Gre. not to “ leave a wreck behind" of all cian, on that point a formidable and their greatness, save as a dream of outraged power shall press and inflict history. Invincible conquerors have the first wound a wound which, once swept over the earth, and the revolu open, will become the standing sore tions of empires have almost kept pace for future mark by one or other foe with those on its own axis ; once in or rival, until a final break-up of the each thousand years the great map of system be accomplished. The cackthe world has had to be refaced, and ling of geese once saved an empire; geography reconstructed with names, the incident, almost as trivial, of and nations, and demarcations before opium-smoking or eating, instead of

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