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the supposed injuries by Rending a present to the offender, and never seeing him afterwards. These presents sometimes consisted of an expensive chemical product or preparation. He had a heroic remedy for illness, which was a journey to Edinburgh and back by the mail-coach; and a cold, taken on one of these expeditions, terminated in inflammation of the lungs, of which he died in the year 1805. Of his last moments we received the following account from his executor, then treasurer of Barnard's Inn. By Woulfe's desire, his laundress shut up his chambers and left him, but returned at midnight, when Woulfe was still alive; next morning, however, she found him dead! his countenance was calm and serene, and apparently he had not moved from the position in his chair in which she had last left him.
Twenty years after Woulfe's death, in 1825, there was living at the village of Lilley, between Luton and Hitchin, one Kellerman, an "alchemist," who was believed by some of his neighbors to have discovered the Philosopher's Stone and the Universal Solvent. Here he had lived for twenty-three years, during fourteen of which he had pursued his alchemical researches with unremitting ardor, keeping eight assistants for superintending his crucibles, two at a time relieving each other every six hours; and he assured a visitor that he had exposed some preparations to intense heat for many months at a time, but that all except one crucible had burnt, and that, Kellerman said, contained the true " blacker than black," or " the powder of projection for producing gold." One of his assistants, however, protested that no gold had ever been found, and that no mercury had ever been fixed; adding that Kellerman could not have concealed it from his assistants, who frequently witnessed his severe disappointment at the result of his most elaborate experiments
Kellerman's room was a realization of Teniers's alchemist; the floor was strewed with retorts, crucibles, alembics, jars, and bottles of various forms, intermingled with old books. He had been assured by some persons of kindred pursuits in London that they had made gold. He had studied the works of the ancient alchemists, and believed that he had discovered the key which they had kept secret, adding that he had pursued their system under the influence of new lights; and after suffering numerous disappointments, owing to the ambiguity with which they describe their processes, he had at length happily succeeded; had made gold, and could make as much more as he pleased, even to the extent of paying off" the National Debt in the coin of the realm. Kellerman grew eloquent upon the merits of the old alchemists, but ridiculed the blunders and impertinent assumptions of modern chemists. He quoted Roger and Francis Bacon; Paracelsus, Boyle, and Boerhaave, and Woulfe (of Barnard's Inn) to rectify his pursuits. He alleged the Philosopher's Stone to be a mere phrase to deceive the vulgar; but he fully credited the silly story of Dee's finding the Elixir of Glastonbury, by which means Kelly for a long time lived in princely splendor. Here we must leave our village alchemist.
Of late years there have been many revivals of alchemical pursuits. In 1850 there was printed in London a volume of considerable extent, entitled, "A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Mystery," — the work of a lady, by whom it has been suppressed; we have seen it described as "a learned and valuable book."
By this circumstance we are reminded that some
five-and-thirty years since it came to our knowledge that a man of wealth and position in the City of London, an adept in alchemy, was held in ttrrarea by an unprincipled person, who extorted from him considerable sums of money under threats of expwure, which would have affected his mercantile interests.
Nevertheless, alchemy has, in the present day, in prophetic advocates, who predict what may be considered a return to its strangest belief. A Guttingen professor says, in the A finales de OAumV, M. 100, that in the nineteenth century the transmutation of metals will be generally known and practised. Every chemist and every artist will make gold; kitchen utensils will be of silver and even gold, which will contribute more than anything else* to prolong life, poisoned at present by the oxide of copper, lead, and iron which we dailv swallow with our food. Before all this takes place we shalt doubtless, have many additions to our Modem Eccentrics.
A GERMAN ATHLETIC FESTIVAL
The great characteristic of the Germans, as i people, is their nationality. The love of the Fatherland is the ruling emotion which in everything nerves and inspires Germans to fresh endeavors: and this trait we find in them wherever they are, whether members of a small fraternity in a foreign land, or of a great nation in their own country. A German never forgets that he is a German, and tli* those of his nation, with whom he is thrown in contact, are his brethren. And it is in great measure, I think, this feeling which leads Germans to t*ul>lish and maintain associations of all kinds; associations for the cultivation of music, of gymnastic?, and various other pursuits ; associations whose menbcrs are ever ready to obey the call of the parent association in the Fatherland, and to assemble frTM all parts of the world to do honor to one of the fetes held by the parent society. An instance a this occurred last year, at the time of the Singers' Festival at Dresden, when upwards of thirty thousand Germans flocked from America, Australia, uai other distant lands, to attend a festival which lasted but three days, many of them leaving German; again as soon as the fete was over.
I was never more struck with German enthnsasm than when, in the course of last long vacation, I was fortunate enough to be present at two German Turn Fests, or Athletic Festivals, the one at Damstadt, the other at Freiburg. I think it may interest some of your readers, who are now looking Howard to the third anniversary of our greatest English athletic meeting, to read even a brief aceooo! of what they can do, and are doing, in a similar way on the other side of the Channel, though miici that I would gladly relate cannot be condensed Ibuj the space of so short a notice.
These Festivals do not appear to be regular'.'' held at the same towns, nor on any fixed days; I*1 they take place annually, and are celebrated in turn at most of the principal towns in Germany. L these occasions about four acres of ground are specially enclosed, and gymnastic apparatus, of vain more hereafter, are erected temporarily for *' though there are always two or three gymnasium in every German town, yet these would be quite inadequate to provide accommodation for ln« r* numbers who, as competitors or spectators, frequa" these popular gatherings.
It is worthy of note that any idea of gain or profit s quite foreign to these gatherings; the expense incurred in preparing the ground is very great, and the prizes are merely nominal, every one contending out of pure love for the honor and glory of these contests. In many cases, the victors are only crowned; in none are their rewards of any substantial value. The ground was circular, and surrounded by gayly decorated booths and tents, which provided lor the refreshment of the wearied spectator or competitor, for I need not remark that the Germans do nothing without beer. Round the circumference of an inner circle were arranged eight sets of apparatus, each set consisting of two fixed parallel bare, about four feet out of the ground; a movable horizontal bar, and apparatus for high jumping, and that curious-looking machine — familiar to every German, but comparatively strange to most English athletes— called the "horse," which consists of a padded body about four feet long, raised on four adjusting legs, with two ribs, a foot apart, running transversely across the body of the horse, each six inches from the centre. In the middle of the ground were erected poles and ropes for climbing, trapezes and ladders, among which were scattered rough blocks of unhewn stone, weights, and dumbbells.
The festivals always commence on the Sunday, when those of the competitors who have already arrived it the town, march in procession to the largest available building, where they partake of a midday meal, and afterwards are addressed by one of the leading men of the fete.
The Sunday afternoon is spent in practising for the coming struggle; for it is not until the Monday that the actual contests commence. By that time many more competitors and spectators have arrived, the town wears its holiday garb, the streets are thronged with crowds of holiday-makers, among *hom the neat gray dress of the competitors is everywhere distinguishable. The ground itself is early beset by those who are anxious to secure the best places for witnessing the various contests.
The proceedings commence by dividing the competitors into squads, or companies, of about twenty or thirty members, each squad being then placed trader the command of three officially-appointed judges, who lead them away to that particular competition which they are directed or choose first to attempt The programme included running high jump, running broad jump, putting the weight, exercises on the bars and horse, and foot-racing. I cannot do better than take you, as I went myself, from we exercise to the other, and tell you in which they **med to equal, surpass, or fall short of our standard. But here I must note a feature peculiar to these competitions, that every competitor who is desirous ot obtaining a prize must reach a certain standard in every exercise, so many points being allowed for each, according to merit, and the winners of the greatest number of points in the aggregate being declared victors. This system I believe might with advantage be introduced into England, *bere individual excellence is much more highly t'alued and rewarded than general proficiency. Here a man must be Cesar aul niliil in every contet he undertakes; for the moderate performer in i great many contests is quite unrecognized.
r first, then, we looked on at the running high jump, foe competitors jumped from a sloping board two *rt square, and raised about two inches in front. This board had not much spring in it; but still it
presented incomparable advantages over the turf from which we learn to spring. The style of jumping was decidedly bad; they all went at it too fast, and were very weak about the legs, having great difficulty in clearing the rope cleanly. They all jumped fairly well up to four feet ten inches; but few cleared the five feet. The best man in each company cleared about five feet two and a half inches, which may be considered equal to five feet from the grass itself. There were very few " naturally" good jumpers; all used more or less effort; and what struck me very much was, that they all jumped exactly in the same style. This I afterwards attributed to the fact that Germans always learn to jump or run, &c, in classes, several being taught by the same master; and as every exercise is performed by rule, the same rules prevail universally, and lead to uniformity in style.
The best broad jumpers covered about seventeen feet and six inches, though very few sixteen feet fairly; there was a great want of that power about the hips and thighs so essential to excellence in this exercise, nor did they lift themselves enough at the commencement of the jump. In fact, I saw few, if any, who could get well over fourteen feet of water, with a three feet hurdle on the take-off side of it.
From the broad-jumping we adjourned to putting the stone; and were surprised to find that they put a rough piece of stone, fresh from the quarry, which seemed to me to be much more unwieldy than the shot of weight with which we practise. Among the heavier men were some very fine putters, equal to any I have ever seen; they put a stone which, from a rough guess, must have been over nineteen pounds, from thirty-five to thirty-eight feet; but the winners in this class were, as a rule, large, powerful men, and not small men of great muscular development, as we not unfrequently see in competitions of the kind in England.
The gymnastic feats on the bars and horse formed the next event; and we followed the squad we had watched all the day, and with whom we were now quite friendly, — having drained cups of wine together, and conversed as to the prospects of the success of each competitor. In these gymnastic feats the judges first set a qualification exercise; one of their number — in this case a well-knit, Englishlooking man — performing it with great grace and ease. This exercise was designed to test strength as well as activity, and all the competitors followed in turn, each doing his best, but one failed out of thirty. They all seemed thoroughly at home in these exercises; and the only distinction between their feats was the degree of neatness and ease with which they were executed. After qualifying in this manner, each competitor was at liberty to perform two exercises of his own choosing, and were marked by the judges according to their respective merits. It was very astonishing to me to see so many men, of all weights and ages, adepts of this kind of exercises, which were remarkable as displaying great strength in the muscles of the back and arms. In these feats they would have as far surpassed any set of Englishmen of equal numbers, as Englishmen would have excelled them in the running and jumping competitions. By far the greater number of those who competed could perform easily feats which none but the most practised in England could achieve without great efforts.
The foot-racing, I must confess, much disappointed me; they ran two at a time, ninety-three yards out and ninety-three yards home, turning round two posts three yards apart. They showed no style, and, in but very few instances, any pace. The best time I saw done by any out of two hundred competitors was twenty-four and a half seconds for the one hundred and eighty-six yards; and many were twenty-eight or twenty-nine seconds. They had none of the "springy" or elastic action of a good sprint runner, but a short, slouching style of going, such as one sees in a man quite out of condition after he has run three hundred yards.
Gladly, when the long series of foot-races were over, we turned to the horse (Pferd), and watched with interest the feats thereon performed. The contest was carried on on the same principles as those described before at the bars; and the feats themselves consisted chiefly of some difficult vaulting feats, and twisting the body between, round, and over the hands, which firmly grasped the projecting ribs. My companions and I attempted several, but found them very difficult, though they evidently required more knack than strength.
At the close of this contest we were compelled to leave, so that we did not witness the ceremony of crowning the victors.
Throughout the whole of these games I was astonished at seeing so very few uniformly well-developed men; in many cases there was a wonderful development of particular muscles, but in very few the symmetry arising from active exercise in youth. But throughout there was the German spirit of enthusiasm and fellow-feeling, infusing such life into the whole proceedings as one never sees among Bothers than Germans, — a spirit quite different from the clamorous partisanship which the impulsive English nature adopts, but a more quiet, peculiar method of taking the whole as part of the duty of every German. The whole nation, men, women, and children, seem to be alike imbued with the love of the exercises, and all seem to know one another perfectly, owing to that national fellow-feeling which, as I have said, so strongly pervades all they undertake. I think it is this feeling which we want a little more in England, — the feeling which makes one say, " Well done, old fellow!" to the man who beats you; and the movements now being made in all parts of England to make these gatherings general will doubtless tend greatly to this, as well as other good objects. Much I learned, and much, I believe, we might all learn, from an athletic meeting in Germany, although we are so apt to think Germans indolent and lazy.
Little Mary Anerley, sitting on the stile,
smile? Somebody has been with you, — somebody, I
know, Left that sunset on your cheek, left you smiling so!
Gentle Mary Anerley, waiting by the wall, Waiting in the chestnut-walk, where the snow?
Somebody is coming there, —somebody, I 'm sure, Knows your eyes are full of love, knows your ban
Happy Mary Anerley, looking o so fair,
There's a ring upon your hand, and there's nmtk
in your hair I
Somebody is with you now, — somebody, I see,
Quiet Mary Forester, sitting by the shore,
Arthur J. Mussr.
JOHN BOHUN MARTIN,
Keeping his word, the promised Roman kept
MR BANCROFT AS THE "YOUNG COLUMBIAN."
America does great tilings, but is too apt to say small and silly ones. This is certainly, we fear, the case with the great oration of Mr. Bancroft before the House of Representatives on the birthday of the late President, — and it is the more to be regretted because Mr. Lincoln, of all American statesmen, showed the most power of maintaining the dignity and reserve of his country, by reticence of feeling, and luminous impartiality of thought.
There was something singularly fatuous in celebrating the birth of so simply great and so humorously wise a man as Mr. Lincoln by bombastic panegyrics on the greatness of America, and thrilling invectives against the iniquity of England and France. It is, we know, nearly the unforgivable sin in America to maintain that any part of Mr. Dickens's caricature is founded in truth; and we are well aware that our able and instructive New York correspondent will convict us of showing ignorance so gross in what we are about to say, that Mr. Thompson, pointing to our bewilderment, may obtain it fresh chance of carrying his point with the University of Cambridge, getting the recent vote rescinded, and a professorship of American history, literature, and institutions founded out of hand. Still, even with this deep moral conviction of our doom before oar eyes, we cannot help saying that Mr. Bancroft has apparently proved Mr. Dickens's "Young Colnmbian " to be a real and not a fictitious person. Was it not he who was engaged in an imaginary struggle with the British lion, very much like that in which Mr. Bancroft engaged heart and soul before the House of Representatives and the Senate — the Senatus popvdusque Americanus — of Washington? u Bring forth that lion," said the Young Columbian; '' I dare that lion, I taunt that lion ; I tell that lion, that Freedom's hand once twisted in his mane he lies a corpse before me, and the eagles of the great Republic laugh ha! ha!" Mr. Bancroft was almost as impassioned. He indeed divided his metaphors, and kept the wild laughter of nature for the rebellious Southerners, and the "corse" for the British Constitution. Of the Slaveowners he said that they maintained that "' the slavery of the black man is good in itself, — he shall serve the white man forever. And nature — which better understood the quality of fleeting interest and passion — laughed, as it caught the echo 'man' and 'forever.'" Did Mr. Bancroft's audience laugh when they caught the echo 'man' and 'forever'? We fear that Mr. Bancroft understood his audience too well. But
then why do American politicians like rant so very silly as this? When Mr. Roebuck — the Cassius Clay of England, as he has been called — speaks of England driving every American flag from the sea forever, the House of Commons does laugh as it catches the echo of these tremendous words, and Mr. Roebuck is aware that he is esteemed a goose.
But let us see the equally impressive language which Mr. Bancroft uses of our dead Constitution. After he has fairly got "the mighty winds blowing from every quarter to fan the flame of the sacred and unquenchable fire" of liberty, — a very curious meteorological phenomenon, by the way, by the side of which the spiral hurricanes of the tropics seem devoid of all interest, — Mr. Bancroft artfully introduces England looking coldly on at this curious convergence of the winds. "There was a kingdom," he says, with a grand indefiniteness, " whose people had in an eminent degree attained to freedom of industry and the security of person and property," but a people whose " grasping ambition had dotted the world with military ports, kept watch over our boundaries on the Northeast, at the Bermudas, in the West Indies, held the gates of the Pacific, of the Southern and the Indian Ocean, hovered on our Northwest at Vancouver, held the whole of the newest continent, and the entrance to the old Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and garrisoned forts all the way from Madras to China. That aristocracy" [which we conclude is the English] "had gazed with terror on the growth of a commonwealth where freeholds existed by the million, and religion was not in bondage to the state, and now they could not repress their joy at its perils." Then Lord Russell, as Foreign Secretary, had spoken of the "late Union," and this gives our " Young Columbian " his opportunity for his grand burst of invective: "But it is written,' Let the dead bury the dead.' They may not bury the living. Let the dead bury their dead. Let a Bill of Reform remove the worn-out government of a class, and infuse new life into the British Constitution by confiding rightful power to the people. It was no doubt well that Mr. Bancroft pointed out the impropriety of the dead burying the living, as the difficult and recondite character of the suggestion itself might otherwise have prevented the gross impropriety involved in that procedure from being clearly seen. "While the vitality of America," as Mr. Bancroft observes, "is indestructible," the indecency of burying her would have been frightful, and it is well that the eloquent orator has warned us in time. A country which "had for its allies the river Mississippi, which would not be divided, or the range of mountains which carried the stronghold of the free through Western Virginia and Kentucky and Tennessee to the highlands of Alabama," and which "invoked the still higher power of immortal justice," would certainly have tested the utmost energies of any dead nation to bury it. — so that we might have been warned off the task by considerations at least as urgent as the moral impropriety of attempting it.
Now this sort of nonsense would have been worthy of no attention, however transient, if it had been uttered at a common meeting on a common occasion. If Mr. Bancroft had spoken in Faueuil Hall, or Tammany. Hall, or any other of the great party meeting-places, we should have thought just as little and just as much about it as we should of a lunatic speech from Mr. Roebuck to his constituents at Sheffield, or an oration from Mr. Bercsford Hope on the glories of slavery. But when an orator is selected by public or by official choice, and speaks in the presence of Congress and the representatives of foreign nations on a great state occasion, the first qualities that we look for are dignity and reticence, and the. power of suppressing idle irritation; and if he does not possess these qualities, some of the discredit attaching to his folly and his weakness is necessarily inflicted on the officials who chose and the public who applauded him.
We do not deny, — indeed we have often maintained, and shall often have to maintain again, — that England gave grave cause for offence to a great, friendly people, by the needless and wilful injustice of her prejudice with regard to a quarrel, in which, by all our antecedents and principles, we were bound to have taken the other side. We were heartily ashamed of the public tone of England then, and we are not going to apologize for it now. We believe that no American could, have spoken of Mr. Lincoln's noble career, and the many and grave difficulties which he had to encounter, without a feeling of quiet but grave displeasure at the temper of the dominant class in England which caused him so many of those difficulties. But on public and official occasions, and in the presence of those who, while they have no power to reply, still represent the nation assailed, grave displeasure, if expressed at all, should be expressed negatively, by weighty and impressive allusion. A man who feels he has grave cause of offence against another may, if he meets him at another's table, ignore his acquaintance, or recognize it by the coldest of bows, — but what should we think of his dignity and self-respect if he began a regular assault upon him in the presence of others, and a pompous enumeration of his grievances V
The Americans are puzzled why we are so unjust to them. Cannot Mr. Bancroft teach them the true cause? The true reason is, that in England few are aware of the significance of the silent qualities of Americans, — their indomitable energy and tenacity, their kindliness of temper, their love of freedom, their profoundly patriotic feeling. But many hear their noisy folly, and interpret its significance at something far above what it deserves. How is it possible to read such an oration as Mr. Bancroft's,— the selected orator of a state ceremony, — and not feel something like scorn? What would not Mr. Gladstone have said on any similar occasion as the spokesman of the English nation! What did he not say on one far less important only yesterday week, when pressed to declare whether we had applied to the government of the United States to suppress the Fenian preparations in that country? TV as his
not language self-restrained, dignified, weighty, and calculated to fill his audience with self-restraint and dignity also'! Did he not tell us how poor and Ubworthy a figure England would make, if she went whining to the United States about their not doiu; for her what she had been, in her own case, © liable if not reluctant to do for them?
As to the comparative public conduct of England and the United States as nations, there am of course be very different opinions. It is natural and right that an American should believe that hie an nation has far excelled ours, and even the most prejudiced of Englishmen may concede that we hair made blunders, and been guilty of injustice which an American could not overlook. But as to tit comparative public language adopted by the two countries, it is impossible to feel any doubt Mr. Seward himself, while wise in action, has been boxful and vulgar upon paper. And now here is tl* official spokesman of a great occasion actually decoying, as it were, the ambassadors of foreign countries to come and hear themselves denounced »illi all the insulting gesticulation of a rhetorician making points for the galleries. Nor is this sort of thioj exceptional in the United States. There jrabtc men's mode of expressing themselves seems to \k habitually so* wanting in dignity and reticence, that it was long before the world began to believe that people who could talk so big were capable of the greatness in action which they have since shown.
Mr. Bancroft is supposed to stand to the United States in something of the same relation in which Mr. Hallam once stood to England. And what would English society have thought of such an attack on a public occasion by Mr. Hallam, on the foreign countries whose ministers had been invited expressly to hear him speak of the achievements of a great English statesman? If Mr. Thompson's proposal to found a lectureship of American history at Cambridge had not been already rejected. lhi; folly on the part of one of the men who had been spoken of as possible nominees for the lectureship would probably have put a final end to the chance of the proposal. If the graver historians of America can shriek criticism of this sort on foreign countries when they are supposed to be teaching the history of their own, foreigners will scarcely be likely to profit much by their lessons. Cambridge undi-rgraduates might not improbably indeed attend the lectures of 41 A Young Columbian" in suHk-ieot masses. It would be great fun to them to hear bin challenging the British lion to come forth at owe to the contest: "Here," said the Young Columbia". "on this native altar, — here," said tlie Young Columbian, idealizing the dining-table, " on ancertnl ashes, cemented with the blood poured forth like water on our native plains of Chickabiddy Lite" But the instruction derived from such lectures would be infinitesimal, and the "larks" to which thff would give rise would distract the authorities.
How is it that Americans, with all their wonderful qualities, — qualities in which, as we quite admit, they often far surpass their English cousins,— cannot see the necessity of bridling their tongues a little, if only in order to give weight to wliatthi'f do say? How could any one hear Mr. Bancroft! rubbish, and not feel rather more than before that American talk is a little of the nature of wind; Sir Frederick Bruce, with notice, to some estfiA of the assault to be made on him, quietly and wise- ly, we think, attended and pat out the nonsense, and we wish he had not thought it necessary, M we ""*