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with emerald ramparts, ivory pavement, and cinnamon gates. Around the walls flowed a river of perfumer one hundred cubits in width, and deep enough to swim in. From this river rose an odorous mist, which enveloped the whole place and shed a refreshing and fragrant dew. There were to be besides in this fortunate city three hundred and sixty-five fountains of honey and five hundred of the sweetest essence. A portion of this heavenly fragrance was also sometimes dispensed on earth to some protege, a a mark of great favor. "Thus when Penelope prepares to receive her suitors, Eurynome advises her to dispel her grief and diffuse 'the grace of miction over her cheeks'; but the virtuous matron refused. Pallas, however, visits her during her Amber?, and sheds over her some wonderful perfume, which was probably called in those times 'the Venus bouquet.'" "Phaon, the Lesbian pilot, having once conveyed in his vessel to Cyprus a mysterious passenger, whom he discovers to be Venus, receives from the goddess, as a parting gift, a divine essence, which changes his coarse face into the most beautiful features. Poor Sappho, who sees him after his transformation, becomes smitten with his charms; but finding her love unrequited, is driven to seek a watery grave." This miracle, says our author, beats all the vaunted achievements of modern perfumery, even including the "patent enamelling" process, which if applied to gentlemen, would not, I am afraid, attract many Sapphos. Perfumers' shops in Greece were the resort of loungers, as modern cafes are in the South of Europe. "Even the tattered cynic, Diogenes, did not disdain to enter them now and then, leaving his tub at the door; but with a praiseworthy spirit of economy, he always applied the ointments he bought to his feet; for, as he justly observed to the young sparks, who mocked him for his eccentricity, 'When you anoint your head with perfume it flies away into the air, and the birds only get the benefit of it; whilst I rub it only on my ijwcr limbs it envelopes my whole body, and gratefellv ascends to my nose.'"

\Yhat young Grecian belle, whose radiant beauty might be marred by some disfiguring spot or speckle, fonW fail to believe in the curative power of sweet odors on hearing of an effect like this on one of her countrywomen ?" Milto, a fair young maiden, the ■laughter of an humble artisan, was In the habit of depositing every morning garlands of fresh flowers ia the temple of Venus, her poverty preventing her from indulging in richer offerings. Her splendid l>anry was once nearly destroyed by a tumor which INT on her chin; but she saw in a dream the godfei, who told her to apply to it some of the roses from her altar. She did so, and recovered her (Harms so completely that she eventually sat on the Persian throne as the favorite wife of Cyrus."

the ladies of the present day would no doubt r«be] against any such arbitrary edict as would compel them to wear their garments in one particular aanoer, or according to a certain legal cut. More iHstrary than the law of fashion, however, it could M be; and were the former to override the latter "Betimes in this respect, as in the case of those aormous amplitudes now so prevalent in female wire, it may be a question whether it would not be * the better. Such was the case, at least, at •kh/ens. "The cares and duties of the toilette were leased of such importance, that a tribunal was instated to decide on all matters of dress. And B *oman whose peplon or mantle was not of correct fit, or whose head-dress was neglected, was liable

to a fine which varied according to the offence, and sometimes reached the high sum of a thousand drachmas."

The Romans, in the art of perfumery, as in almost every other art but that of war, were the copyists of the Greeks. It was long, indeed, before the effeminating and luxurious fashions of the latter made progress among them, and when they did, it was more in the decline of their power than in their rising greatness. Nevertheless, among the upper classes and the refined, their use was largely resorted to. In their baths and dining chambers the richest and most costly perfumes were abundant. Three kinds were principally used, — solid unguents, liquid unguents, and powdered perfumes. One of those most in favor with the Romans was saffron; they had not only their apartments and banqueting-halls strewed with this plant, but they also composed with it unguents and essences, which were highly prized. "Some of the latter were often made to flow in small streams at their entertainments, or to descend in odorous dews over the public from the velarium forming the roof of the amphitheatre." In addition to their liquid essences and unguents, they also made use of an immense variety of cosmetics for improving and preserving the complexion. These, according to Pliny, who describes their preparation, were certain kinds of pastes or poultices, that were kept on the face all night, and part of the day; some, indeed, only removed them for the purpose of going out, alluded to by Juvenal, in one of his Satires, where he says, "A Roman husband seldom sees his wife's face at home, but when she sallies forth." Another device, besides poulticing, was tried by Poppa?a, the wife of Nero, " who used to bathe in asses' milk every day, and when she was exiled from Rome, obtained permission to take with her fifty asses to enable her to continue her favorite ablutions."

Our author devotes some pages of his work at the end of each chapter, on the lit mi an and Greek periods, to detailing the different modes of dressing the hair then prevalent, which may possibly have an interest to some, but seems rather apart from the general object of his work. It does not appear, however, amidst all their elaborations for that purpose, that they had reached our climax in hairdressing by machinery.

Among the Orientals, in all times of their history, a taste for perfumes has prevailed, and at the present day all classes seek to gratify it to their utmost according to their means. "It is cultivated among ladies, who, caring little or nothing for mental acquirements, and debarred from the pleasures of society, are driven to resort to such sensual enjoyments as their secluded life will afford. They love to be in an atmosphere redolent with fragrant odors, that keep them in a state of dreamy languor, which is for them the nearest approach to happiness. Many are the cosmetics brought into use to enhance their charms, and numerous are the slaves who lend their assistance to perform that important task, some correcting with B whitening paste the over-warm tint of the skin, some replacing with an artificial bloom the faded roses of the complexion." A deduction is here made by Mr. Rimmel, which is perhaps rather ambiguous, and certainly seems to be opposed to most common notions of beautifying the person by artificial means. After describing the "red-tipped fingers" and "darkened eyelids" of these fair creatures, he says : "And it may fairly be I presumed that the constant cares which they bestow

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upon themselves have the effect of increasing and preserving their beauty." We had thought that all such face adornments spoiled the natural complexion, and it is perhaps hardly what the author means, for an extract is given from the traveller Sonnini, that more alludes to the benefits of "bathing" and "cleanliness," which are doubtless good beauty preservers, than to any other superficial device. The answer given by Beau Brummel to the person who asked him what perfume he used for his linen, showed a good appreciation of Nature's own cosmetics, in the general make-up of his appointments, — "Country air and country washing," said the Beau. These Oriental dames, or any other ladies desirous of arresting the ravages of time, and preserving their charms, would also perhaps find this as good a recipe for that purpose as any other artificial cosmetic. "Good airing " was indeed an especial requisite in many things with Brummel. He never went out in the morning until the day was well aired.

It is it very common but true analogy that is so often drawn between the infancy of man and the infancy of a nation. In both, the faculties are undirected and uncxpanded; in the former from their own natural imperfection, and in the latter from the want of suitable objects for their development. The olfactories of children are not nice in their discrimination, and those of any untutored people show equally fantastic preferences, and would perhaps select some of the most rancid smells to the finest productions in the perfumer's laboratory. Such was the case in the early stages of our own history in this country. "The Druids knew, however, and highly prized, the numerous aromatic plants indigenous to the soil. Druidesscs crowned their brows with verbena, and composed with fragrant herbs mysterious balms which cured the heroes' wounds, and enhanced the charms of the fair." The Roman conquest introduced the graceful costumes and elaborate cosmetics of Italy, and the provinces soon rivalled the metropolis in elegance and refinement. Barbarism, however, again supervened, and "perfumes did not come into general use in England until the reign of Elizabeth. In the fifteenth year of her reign, the Earl of Oxford tame from Italy, and brought with him gloves, sweet bags, a perfumed leather jerkin, and other pleasant things, and that year the Queen had a pair of perfumed gloves. She took such pleasure in these gloves, that she was pictured with them upon her hands, and for many years afterwards it was called the Earl of Oxford's perfume. On another occasion, when visiting the University of Cambridge, she was presented with a pair of perfumed gloves, and was so delighted with them that she put them on at once. She also usually carried with her a pomander, which was a ball composed of ambergris, benzoin, and other perfumes, and with the gift of a "faire gyrdle of pomander," which was a series of pomanders strung together and worn round the neck. These pomanders were supposed to be preservatives from infection.

The manufacture for extracting the aroma of flowers and plants is carried on chiefly in the South of France, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Algeria, India, — in fact, wherever the climate gives to flowers and plants that intensity of odor necessary for a profitable extraction.

The proposal to cultivate flowers in England for perfumery purposes has ever been found impracticable. "However beautiful in form and color they |

may be, they do not possess the intensity of odor required for extraction, and the greater part of those used in France for perfumery would only grow here in hot-houses. The only flower which could be had in abundance would be the rose, but the smell of it is faint compared with that of the Southern rose; and the rose-water made in this country can never equal the French in strength. If we add to this the shortness of the flowering season, and the high price of land and labor, we may arrive at the conclusion that such a speculation would be as bad as that of attempting to make wine from English

fapes. The only perfumery ingredients in which ugland really excels are lavender and peppermint; but that is owing to the very cause which would militate against the success of other flowers in this country, for our moist and moderate climate gives those two plants the mildness of fragrance for which they are prized, whilst in France and other warm countries they grow strong and rank."

The four processes in use for extracting the aroma from fragrant substances are, distillation, expression, maceration, and absorption. Grasse, Cannes, and Nice, all in the South of France, are the principal towns where the maceration and absorption processes are carried on, and above a hundred houses are engaged in these operations, and in the distillation of essential oils, giving employment during the flower season to ten thousand people. The manufacture of scents, soaps, cosmetics, and other toilet requisites is carried on chiefly in London and Paris, which may be called the head-quarters of perfumery, and the emporium for all other parts of the world. The products of Germany, Russia, Spain, and the United States are mostly counterparts of the London and Paris manufacturers.

The principal manufactures of toilet-soap are in London, where there are about sixty into which female labor has been introduced for nearly twenty years. The English toilet-soaps are the very best that are made. The French come next, and those of Germany are the worst.

In concluding his chapter on the commerce of perfumes, Mr. Rimmel offers a few words of advice to ladies on the choice of their perfumes and cosmetics, which, coming from so competent an authority, cannot but be thankfully received. "The selection of a perfume is entirely a matter of taste; and I should no more presume to dictate to a lady which scent she should choose than I would to an epicure what wine he is to drink; yet I may say to the nervous, use simple extracts of flowers, which can never hurt you, in preference to compounds which generally contain musk and other ingredients likely to affect the head. Above all, avoid strong, coarse perfumes, and remember, that if a woman's temper may be told from her handwriting, her good taste and good breeding may as easily be ascertained by the perfume she uses. Whilst a lady charms us with the delicate ethereal fragrance she shed/ around her, aspiring vulgarity will as surely betray itself by a mouchoir redolent of common perfumes.

"Hair preparations are like medicines, and must be varied according to the consumer. For some, pomatum is preferable; for others, oil; whilst some again require neither, and should use hair-washes or lotions. A mixture of lime-jui«e and glycerine has lately been introduced, and has met with great success, for it clears the hair from pellicles, the usual cause of premature baldness. For all these things, however, personal experience in the best guide

"Soap is an article of large consumption, and

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some people cannot afford to pay much for it; yet I would say avoid very cheap soaps, which irritate the skin, owing to the excess of alkali which they contain. Good soaps are now. manufactured at a Tory moderate price by the principal London perfumers, and ought to satisfy the most economical. White, yellow, and brown are the best colors to select.

"Tooth-powders are preferable to tooth-pastes. The latter may be pleasanter to use; but the former are certainly more beneficial.

"Lotions for the complexion require, of all other cosmetics, to be carefully prepared. Some are composed with mineral poisons, which render them dangerous to use, although they may be effectual in coring certain skin diseases. There ought to be always a distinction made between those intended for healthy skins and those that are to be used for cutaneous imperfections; besides, the latter may be easily removed without having recourse to any violent remedies.

'• Paints for the face I cannot conscientiously recommend. Rouge is innocuous in itself, being made of cochineal and safflower; but whites are often made of deadly poisons, such as cost poor Zelgar his life a few months since. The best white ought to be made of mother-of-pearl; but it is not often so prepared. To professional people, who cannot dispense with these, I must only recommend great care in their selection; but to others I would say cold water, fresh air, and exercise are the best recipes for health and beauty, for no borrowed charms can equal those of

'A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted.'

"The materials of perfumery may be divided, according to their nature, into twelve series, — animal, floral, herbal, andropogon, citrine, spicy, ligneous, radical, seminal, balmy or resinous, fruity, and artificial.

"The animal series comprises only three substances,— musk, civet, and ambergris. Musk is a secretion found in a pocket or pod under the belly of the musk-deer, a ruminant which inhabits the higher mountain ranges of China, Thibet, and Ton

Suin: the male alone yields the celebrated perfume, le best coming from Tonquin. The odor of musk is also to be found, though in a less degree, in the musk-ox, the musk-rat, and musk-duck. A musky fragrance likewise occurs in some vegetables, as the well-known yellow-flowered musk-plant, but its intensity is not sufficient for extraction.

u Civet is the glandular secretion of an animal of the feline tribe, found in Africa and India.

u Ambergris is now ascertained to be generated by the large-headed spermaceti whale, and is the result of a diseased state of the animal, which either throws up the morbific substance, or dies of the malady and is eaten up by other fishes. In either case it becomes loose, and is picked up floating on the sea or worked ashore.

"The floral series includes all flowers available for perfumery purposes, — hitherto limited to eight, — jasmine, rose, orange, tuberose, cassia, violet, jonquil, and narcissus. Of all these the rose is queen, — the queen of flowers, — but to the perfumer deriving its principal charm from the delicious 'fragrance with which Nature has endowed it. He •Uains from it an essential oil, a distilled water, a

Cfamed oil, and a pomade. Even its withered vea are rendered available to form the ground of atcbet powder, for they retain their scent for a con Julerable time.

"The violet is one of the most charming odors in nature. It is a scent which pleases all, even the most delicate and nervous; and it is no wonder that it should be in such universal request.

"Lavender was extensively used by the Romans in their baths, whence its name, from lavare, 'to wash.' It is a nice clean scent and an old and deserving favorite. The best lavender is grown at Mitcham in Surrey, and at Hitehen in Hertfordshire. Mr. James Bridges, the largest English distiller of lavender and peppermint, has three gigautio stills in operation at Mitcham, each able to contain about one thousand gallons."

The " Book of Perfumes" is a work that owes its existence to the Society of Arts and the Grcnit Exhibition. Mr. Riinmel was called upon by the former to prepare a paper on the Art of Perfumery, its History and Commercial Development; and to qualify himself for the task, he says he had to devour a huge pile of big books, in order to see how the ancients ministered to the gratification of the olfactory senses. Then two years later, being called upon by the jury at the Exhibition to draw up the official report of the perfumery class, he thus gained so complete an insight into the world of sweet smells that he was induced to publish in the " Englishwoman's Magazine" the series of articles on the subject. Hence the nucleus of the work.

AUTHORS' RIGHTS AND GAINS IN
FRANCE.

The contrast between the sums paid for Milton's "Paradise Lost " and Byron's " Clulde Harold," or any other great modern work, is a standing source of popular astonishment; though, when taken in connection with the other great changes which the world has seen, there is really nothing exceptional about the case. The same has happened in i ranee, which also goes to prove that the change is the result of a general progression, and not of accident. Certain facts of this kind have been published of late, and have attracted attention.

For instance, we are told that in the seventeenth century Chapelain received 3,000 francs for his first and second editions of "La Pucelle," and that great indignation was then expressed that certain popular authors should receive such large sums, while poor writers were compelled to write verses by the bushel to get a crust. It is said that in Chap- lain's time verses were paid for at the rate of four francs a hundred for long, and two francs a hundred for shorts, — not a grand rate certainly; but then, be it remembered, the poor writer could live for a week on four francs; and his verses were, to tell the truth, frequently quite as poor as himself.

Boileau is said to have sold "Le Lutrin" for GOO francs; Racine to have reoeived only 200 for the manuscripts of " Andromaque "; Diderot 600 for his " Pens&es Philosophiques," while Letourneur got only 400 francs for his translation of Young's " Night Thoughts," which made the publisher's fortune, and Rousseau got 6,000 francs for the manuscript of "Emile," really a large sum for the period; but Delille received only 400 francs for his translation of the Georgics. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre sold his first work, the " Voyage a l'Do de France," for 1,000 francs, about the same time that Goldsmith got half as much again for one of the best romances ever penned in any country.

Coming down to more recent days, it appears that the Coitslitulionnel newspaper paid Eugene

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Sue 100,000 francs for the "Juif Errant," in ten volumes, and the Debate 160,000 francs for the "Mysteres de Paris "; and it was thought marvellous that Dumas, Sue, and others should obtain a shilling a line for their contributions to the feuilletons of the journals. The other day a new system of payment was hit upon, Alexandre Dumas receiving two centimes per letter for his " San Felice," {mblished in La Presse, or about sevenpence a ine. Fre'deric Soulie\ for the "Memoires du Diable," which made his reputation, received 50,000 francs.

George Sand wrote her first novel, in conjunction with etulcs Sandcau, and the two received 400 francs between them for their work; "Indiana," by the lady alone, was sold for 1,000 francs; now, the Revue des Deux Mondes pays her 500 francs a sheet for her contributions. In 1823*Victor Hugo's romance of " Hans d'Islande" gained him only 300 francs; "Les Misdrables" has already produced him more than a thousand times that sum. It is said that the publisher of the "Memoires de ThtSrdsa" has made about 20,000 francs by that very popular and refined production!

The position of a popular dramatic author in France is regal; his rights, established in 1653, bear magnificent fruit. Scribe left a fortune of 4,000,000 francs, having commenced by making just £5 by his first work. At the Grand Opera a sum of 500 francs is divided nightly between the composer and librettist; at the Opera Comique the author receives one eighth and a half of the gross receipts for a piece of three acts, one sixth and a half for two, and one sixth for one act; at the Francais he receives fifteen per cent of the proceeds when his piece occupies the whole evening, and so on in proportion; the Odebn allots twelve per cent in like manner. The principal minor theatres give ten per cent, and at the Chatelet, which makes the largest receipts, the author's portion has often amounted to 1,000 francs a night; the little theatres in the outskirts of Paris pay 12, 22, and 30 francs each evening for pieces of one, two, or three acts, respectively; lastly, the provincial theatres are divided into five classes, the first paying 40 or 50 francs, and the last 3 or 4 frames per night.

There are in Paris, at the present moment, four operas, two imperial theatres, seven vaudeville and genre theatres, twelve minor houses of all kinds, three equestrian theatres, and six or seven small theatres in the banlieue, making in all thirty-five, so that dramatic authors have a wide field, and they do not neglect its cultivation. Authors of reputation obtain premiums in addition to the above droits (Pauteur; and, moreover, often make a considerable sum by the sale of the manuscript to a publisher.

Alexandre Dumas is said to have received 11,000 francs for his "Mariage sous Louis XV." in premiums alone; and each piece of M. Sardon is said to produce him on an average, all included, about 80,000 francs. Some fairy pieces have produced sums almost as fabulous as their plots; "Rothomago" is said to have yielded its author nearly 100,000 francs, and the " Pied de Mouton " more than that amount. Corneille received 4,000 francs for " At- tila" and "Berenice," and was thought to have discovered a mine of wealth.

It is quite evident that it is not want of patronage that prevents the French dramatists of the present time from rivalling Racine, Corneille, Mo liere, and Beaumarchais; but they doubtless know

the measure of their patrons' tastes, and are too cautious to break the golden thread that binds them, and fly, like Pegasus, to the region of the Gods.

CLUB-LIFE IN LONDON.

Of the several books of gossip about London that Mr. Timbs has lately been shaping ont of notes collected by him during many previous years, this certainly is the best.. The first volume contains notices of a hundred London clubs and their most famous members. The second volume contains more miscellaneous gossip about London coffeehouses and London taverns.

Mr. Timbs begins by controverting Mr. Carlyle's speculation that the word club is a relic, "in a singularly dwindled condition," of the Vow or Gelubde of the chivalrous societies common six or seven hundred years ago. The Templars, Hospitallers, and others never called their orders clubs; and the noun is evidently derived from the old verb " to club"; that is, to join in partnership for anything. The word club in its social sense coincides in its spelling onlv by an accident with the quite different word club that means a bludgeon or a cudgel. The two words are of different origin, the social idea of clubbing, applied to the division of an expense among several persons, — as when Steele wrote in the Tader, " we were resolved to club for a coach," — is from the Anglo-Saxon cleqfan, to cleave or divide. It was applied in that sense to social meetings at which men clubbed together their several shares to produce some common result. The Pall-Mall club conveys in its name simply the fact of joint contribution by its members to maintain an institution common to them all. "We now use the word club for a sodality in a tavern," said Aubrey, about 1659; and the Rota, meeting at the Turk's Head, in New Palace yard, seems to have been almost the first society that called itself a club. The pleasant meetings at the Mermaid Tavern and the Devil, near Temple Bar, of Ben Jonson's days, were not known as clubs till long after their foundation.

The name began with the political clubs like the Rota, founded in 1659. It immediately had a crowd of imitators and rivals, designed to give expression to all sorts of political views, as well as to provide pleasant occupation for their various members. "Man is said to be a sociable animal," wrote Addison, " and as an instance of it we may observe that we take all occasions and pretences of forming ourselves into those little nocturnal assemblies which are commonly known by the name of clubs. When a set of men find themselves agree in any particular, though never so trivial, they establish themselves into a kind of fraternity and meet onoe or twice a week, upon the account of such a fantastic resemblance."

The fanciful clubs described in the Spectator were hardly beyond the truth. There was the Beefsteak Club, and the October Club, where, said Swift, "above a hundred Parliament men who drink October beer meet to consult affairs and drive things on to extremes against the Whigs"; the Saturday Club, of which Swift was a member, although he grumbled at the number of its members and the weakness of its wit, and the Brothers' Club, of

* Club-Life In London; with Anecdotes of the Clubs, Coffee Houses, and Taverns of the Metropolis, during the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. By Johs Tuns, F.S.A. In Two Volumes.

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which he himself was the founder. "We take in none," he said, " but men of wit or men of interest; and if we go on as we began, no other club in this town will be worth talking of." The Brothers' was broken up in 1714, to be followed by the Scriblerus Club, also founded by Swift, with Oxford and St. John, Arbuthnot, Pope, and Gay for members. The Calves Head Club was established " in ridicule of the memory of Charles the First"; and the King's Head Club was organized for the support of Charles the Second's government. These, and others like them, were violent enough; but very much worse were such clubs as the Mohocks, described in the Spectator, and the Hell-fire, with the Duke of Wharton for its high-priest of debauchery and profancness. Very much worthier was the Kit Kat Club, of which Mr. Timbs gives an aefount, differing much from that recently included in Mr. Knight's " Shadows of the Old Booksellers."

The Royal Society Club is the oldest now in existence. It originated with Dr. Halley, who "used to come on a Tuesday from Greenwich, the Royal Observatory, to Child's Coftee-House, where literary people met for conversation." The talk lasted so long that they were often troubled where to get their dinner. At last they arranged, according to the old letter-writer quoted by Mr. Timbs, "to go to a house in Dean's court, between an alehouse and a tavcm, where there was a great draught of porter. It was kept by one Reynell. It was agreed that one of the company should go and buy fish in Newgate street, having first informed himself how many meant to stay ana dine. The ordinary and liquor usually came to half a crown, and the dinner only consisted of fish and pudding. Dr. Halley never ate anything but fish, for he had no teeth." That was in 1781. Before long Reynell took the King's Arms, in St. Paul's Churchyard. Dr. Halley and his friends went with him, "and they began to have a little meat." On Halley's death his friends removed to the Mitre, in Fleet Street, and there, in

1743, established the Club of Royal Philosophers. Fifty years later the name was changed to the Royal Society Club, and as such, in various houses, it has flourished to this day.

The oldest clubs of Pall Mall and its neighborhood were founded soon after. Arthur's and White's, originally coffee-houses, became famous as clubs about the middle of the eighteenth century. Boodle's was founded about 1773, and Brookes'sin 1778. All were great gaming-places, and famous as the resort of Fox and Sheridan, Selwyn, Garrick, and others of that time, about whom Mr. Timbs collects a batch of curious anecdotes

There was heavier gambling at White's than at Brookes's.

"At White's, the least difference of opinion invariably ended in a bet, and a book for entering the particulars of all bets was always laid upon the table; one of these, with entries of a date as early as

1744, Mr. Cunningham tells us, had been preserved. A book for entering bets is still laid on the table.

"In these betting-books are to be found bets on births, deaths, and marriages; the length of a life, or the duration of a ministry; the placeman's prospect of a coronet; on the shock of an earthquake; or the last scandal at Ranelagh, or Madame Comelys's. A man dropped down at the door of White's; he was carried into the house. Was he dead or not? The odds were immediately given and taken for and against It was proposed "to bleed him. Those who

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the use of a lancet would affect the fairness of the bet.

"Walpole gives some of these narratives as good stories 'made on White's.' A parson coming into the Club on the morning of the earthquake of 1750, and hearing bets laid whether the shock was caused by an earthquake or the blowing-up of powder-mills, went away in horror, protesting they were such an impious set, that he believed if the last trump were to sound. they would bet puppet-show against Judgment Gilly Williams writes to Selwyn, 1764, 'Lord Digbv is very soon to be married to Miss Fielding.' Thousands might have been won in this house (White's), on his Lordship not knowing that such a being existed.

"' One of the youth at White's,' writes Walpole to Mann, July 10, 1744, 'has committed a murder, and intends to repeat it. He betted £ 1,500 that a man could live twelve hours under water; hired a desperate fellow, sunk him in a ship, by way of experiment, and both ship and man have not appeared since. Another man and ship are to be tried for their lives, instead of Mr. Blake, the assassin.'"

One of the earliest clubs of the modern or tertiary period is " The Athenamm." It was started in 1824 at a meeting in the rooms of the Royal Society, Sir Humphrey Davy, Sir Walter Scott, Chantrey, and Sir Thomas Lawrence being among those present, and Professor Faraday acting as secretary. It was then agreed to establish the club as "The Society." Its name was afterwards changed to "The Athenaeum," and in 1830 it was lodged in the building it now occupies, a building designed by Decimus Burton according to Greek architecture, with a frieze exactly copied from the Pahathenaic procession in the frieze of the Parthenon, and with Baily's figure of Minerva over its Doric entrance portico.

The Reform Club, it need hardly be said, was established by the Liberal members of Parliament, who were working together in 1830 - 32 for the carrving of the Reform Bill. It was lodged in Great 6eorge Street and in Gwydyr House, Whitehall, until the end of 1837, when its present home was built from the design of Barry.

The Carlton, founded by the Duke of Wellington in 1831, had in 1886 a new house built for it in Pall Mall from the designs of Sydney Smirkc, who rebuilt it in 1854 on a more sumptuous scale as a copy of Sansovino's Library of St. Mark at Venice. A combination of Sansovino's Library of St. Mark and his Palazzo Cornaro was designed by Messrs. Parnell and Smith for the Army and Navy Club house, opened in 1851. Upon these and all such matters Mr. Timbs faithfully gives the information to be looked for in a book like his.

About all the later clubs, coming down to the Whittington, started in 1846, with Douglas Jerrold for its first president, Mr. Timbs has abundance of facts and anecdotes. He then turns back two hundred years to talk of the old coffee-houses and taverns. The oldest taverns were very old indeed. The Anglo-Saxons had their wine-houses and guesthouses, and the same places were carried on as taverns, from the time of the Norman conquest. Chaucer tells how the 'prentices of his time "loved better the tavern than the shop," and to this day the indentures of all city apprentices stipulate that they shall not " haunt taverns." Shakespeare's account of the Boar's Head, in Eastchcap, is true for the taverns of his own time, though hardly for the

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