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violation of the Monroe doctrine. In the latter the honor of France would not be concerned in defending a dynasty which she had no idea of forcing upon a reluctant nation.

This offer seems to us a perfectly fair one, and we should have thought the United States well advised in accepting it. It is always a judicious course to build a bridge for a retiring enemy; to waive the appearance, in consideration of obtaining the substantial results of a victory. According to the professed belief of Mr. Seward and of all American writers and speakers, nothing is needed for the overthrow of Maximilian except that he should be left alone with his own subjects. Having gained this object, what more can they seek V

An answer must be found in the nature and character of popular governments. Statesmen appreciate a triumph none the less because it is not immediately perceptible to the general observation. But the mass of mankind wish not only to conquer, but to be seen to conquer. So far from wishing to avoid the humiliation of an antagonist, they regard that humiliation as the invaluable proof of their success. If the President had met the Emperor of France, half-way by acknowledging Maximilian, the end in view might have been gained; but it would have been gained without the direct and palpable intervention of the United States. There would have been solid advantage, but no momentary eclat in such a policy; and for that reason it would have been unacceptable to a nation which is desirous to signalize its restoration to unity and power by some marked rebuke to "the effete monarchies of the Old World," which are believed to be perpetually plotting the downfall and destruction of the best of all possible republics.

But there is also another reason for their conduct. The United States are not now content to abide by the Monroe doctrine as it was originally promul

fatcd. They not only object to the intervention of luropoan powers in the domestic concerns of an American state, but they regard the establishing of monarchical institutions in any such state as "injurious and menacing to their own chosen and endeared republican institutions." It is true that in his despatch to Mr. Bigelow Mr. Seward expressly disclaims any intention of making a war of propagandisin throughout the world, or even on the Western continent, in the republican cause. But he does not affect to conceal, nay, he expressly avows, that his main objection to leaving Maximilian's government to be dealt with by the Mexican people lies in the fact that it is not constructed according to the pattern approved in Washington or New York.

Entertaining such views, Mr. Johnson cannot consistently look with indifference upon the struggle between President Juarez and an Austrian archduke. Nor can we shut our eyes to the existence of other motives which render the statesmen and the people of the United States averse to the consolidation of the present Mexican government. They know as well as any one else that the Mexicans are utterly unsuited to republican institutions, and that a very small section of them care for anything that we understand by the word freedom. But they rely on the continuance of a state of chronic anarchy in the country, as the ultimate means of its annexation to the United States; and they are naturally, although selfishly, averse to anything which tends to frustrate their hopes.

seeking, as they do, not merely the evacuation of

Mexico by the French troops, but the downfall of the existing regime, there is certainly an amount of honesty in the refusal to facilitate the retreat of the Emperor Napoleon by anything which looks like a compromise. But he cannot Fail to perceive the real meaning of that refusal. He must be perfectly aware — at all events, every one else is — that in the absence of the recognition asked for, the Mexican empire would have no chance of life, were the people ever so favorable to it. If the government of the United States persists in regarding Juarez as the real and legitimate ruler of the country, they would, of course, not think of preventing any one from going to his assistance. At present the fear of a collision between American citizens and the French troops compels them to maintain an attitude of neutrality. But the moment the tricolor is withdrawn, American sympathizers with the " Mexican Republic" would swarm across the frontier, and neither his native nor his foreign troops would long avail Maximilian against a horde of energetic AngloSaxons, commanded by some of the ablest officers trained in the late civil war. The work of the last three years would be overthrown in as many months, and that not by natives, but by foreigners. The enterprise to which the blood and treasure of France have been so long devoted would be rendered abortive by the powerful, although informal, intervention of another state.

Although Napoleon may be arranging with the Emperor Maximilian " to fix the time for the recall of our troops in order that their return may be effected without compromising the French interests which we went to defend in that distant country," neither sovereign can seriously think that such a step can be taken with safety merely because " the malccontents, dispersed and vanquished, have no chief." If the Mexican empire is to stand, the presence of a French army in the country for some time longer is absolutely requisite. But it is by no means clear that the United States will carry forbearance much further. It is evident that public opinion is becoming more and more excited on the subject, and it is understood that the President is himself no longer disposed to hold the nation in check. Any mail may bring to the Tuileries a categorical demand for the withdrawal of Marshal Bazainc and. his army; and indeed, so far as we can judge from the recent despatches, such a demand is not likely to be much further delayed. If England, instead of France, had been in question, we have no doubt that it would have been made in no very polite terms long before this. There is, however, on the part of the people of the United States, a genuine dislike to a war with France, and upon that fact some persons rely for the ultimate adoption of a moderate and conciliatory policy. But it is unsafe to depend upon a sentimental feeling of this kind when motives and passions so powerful as those which are now at work prompt a people confident in their strength to grasp at a cherished object which seems within easy reach. The Emperor Napoleon will, we have little doubt, be driven to the wall, and the only question that remains is the probability of his turning again. As we have already said, there is a kind and degree of humiliation which he dares not endure, or ask France to share. But we have no doubt that if he finds the United States really determined to push matters to extremity, he will studiously seek, and will probably discover, some means of escaping without actual dishonor from a conflict in which victory would be

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worthless and defeat would be disaster. He knows too well the weakness of his position as an absolute monarch, not to shrink from a war which would inspire his own people, and even his army, with bitter disgust, while it would be supported by America with the patriotic ardor of B free, unanimous, and powerful nation.


Is the Christmas number of Chambers's Journal I read a story of the Lotteries, which brings to my mind a curious personal experience of those old times; for I am an old man myself, and lived in them. Nothing which "Sir Joshua" is made to say in reprobation of the gambling and reckless spirit which the institution of state lotteries engendered among all classes too strongly describes the actual harm they effected. When such enormous prizes as forty thousand pounds were to be got, and the end of the Drawing came near, the town grew almost frantic with excitement. I dare say the business was managed fairly; but it was certainly strange how those enormous prizes did always remain until almost the very last, as though they had been in solid gold, and their very weight had kept them down in the wheel. I cannot cite a single instance of the chief prize being drawn during the first day. In 1 798 the last drawn blank was entitled, by the conditions of the lottery, to twenty thousand pounds; and during the closing-day tickets could scarcely be got at any price, while even the night before they fetched one hundred and twenty guineas. Once only, thirty years before that, were tickets ever sold at less than the original price (thirteen pounds) paid for them to government.

So thoroughly national had the passion for this sort of gambling long since become, that in 1769 it was held by the government to be a very bad sign of disaffection in the American colonists that they, *bo had been used to take no less than one eighth of the whole, declined to purchase any lotterytickets; and their refusal did unquestionably arise !rom their dislike to the mother country. Even pious folks were bitten by this spirit of gambling; and I remember a lady of great respectability and benevolence, whose husband had made her a present of a lottery-ticket, actually causing prayers to be offered up in a church at Holborn for her good luck. h is to be hoped that when the clergyman read out from his pulpit, "The petitions of this congregation are desired for the success of a person engaged in a *w undertaking," — which was the form of words be used, — that he did not know what they were to pray for.

Delivered up, indeed, as people were to this evil ■pint of speculation, they wished to secure them*he's as much as possible from the consequences of heir own folly; nothing, therefore, was more comaTM than to insure a lottery-ticket, and there were > dozen offices of repute and respectability where his could be done. Out of this custom the curious "■rcumstance arose which I have taken up my pen *> tell I dare say that even my younger readers us aware how the public drawing of lotteries was ^ducted; they have probably seen prints of the mat Wheel of Fortune, and of the two Blue-coat ^JJ. one of whom pulled out the numbers, and the *ber. at the other wheel, the corresponding blanks * prizes. I was Blue-coat boy at that time myself, >« although I never was employed in this particufc office,— and a very shameful thing it surely was

to make Youth the pander to this shameful national vice,' — I had an acquaintance of the name of Thornhill who was. He was a nice-looking young fellow enough, but had not much brains, and' what he had were almost turned by the notoriety of his appointment. He thought himself quite a great man because he had been chosen to draw in the lottery, and enjoyed the publicity of the situation immensely. It was no great task to put your hand in a wheel and bring out a number, which it was his part of the matter to do, — though to bring out the prizes, which was the other boy's work, was exciting enough, since it commanded the deepest attention from all present, and evoked sometimes quite a tempest of feeling, — but Thornhill thought otherwise, and magnified both his office and himself. It was said that I envied him, because he had obtained the situation (which had its little perquisites) instead of myself, but I did nothing of the kind; at all events, nobody envied him what came of it. He was returning home one afternoon at the close of his first day's Drawing, when he was accosted by a person of gentlemanly appearance, who informed him that he was a friend of his father's, and mentioned certain circumstances which induced the boy to believe that such was the case. As he also asked him to dinner, and gave him a very good one, I dare say he did not need much persuasion to credit the assertion; but anyhow, they soon got to be friends. Over their wine they began talking of the lottery, upon which poor Thornie, as we used to call him, was very eloquent, I have no doubt, and did not lack encouragement upon the part of his entertainer.

"I suppose," said his host, "they look very sharp after you at that wheel, so that it would be impossible to take two tickets out at a time?"

"Well, it would be difficult, but not impossible; and besides, what would be the good of it?"

"Very true, my boy," said the gentleman. "No improper use could, of course, be made of it; but still I would very much like to see a lottery-ticket that is now in that great wheel, and before it is drawn. I will give you ten pounds if you will put such a one into my hand to-morrow evening, and I solemnly promise you shall have it back within twenty-four hours."

"It would not be stealing?" returned Thornhill, hesitatingly, to whom ten pounds seemed a prize in itself.

"Certainly not," replied the other, "for its absence cannot possibly hurt anybody, and you have only to put it back just as you pulled it out. Who will ever know anything about it except our two selves?"

The next afternoon, having been persuaded by these arguments, and by the ten golden reasons which this liberal gentleman handed over to him, Thornhill pulled out from the wheel two tickets instead of one, and managed, unobserved, to place the second in his sleeve while the clerk was calling out the number of the other. The ticket secreted was 21,481, — as you may read in the Annual Register, for the thing became a public matter afterwards, — and this he presented, according to agreement, to the friend of his father. This occurred on a Wednesday night, and on the ensuing evening he received it back again.

* This was the more singular, as at Oxford and Cambridge — notwithstanding- that the smaller lotteries were entitled " little goes" — the government would not allow any office for the sale of tickets to exist.



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"Now," said his host, "you have not quite earned your money yet; but what I require you to do is not more difficult than what you have already done. I shall be in the gallery to-morrow while the drawing is going on, and when I nod at you, — thus, — but not before, replace this ticket in the wheel, only be sure you do not leave go of it, but draw it forth exactly as if you had just taken it out in the usual • way. That is all that I have to ask, and you shall receive five guineas more foryour trouble."

On the Friday morning Thornhill kept his eye upon his friend in the gallery, and when he gave the sign agreed upon, after the drawing had gone on for an hour or so, out came No. 21,481, which, I believe, was a blank. It really seemed as if no harm could possibly have been done to anybody, or any object gained by the transaction. But for all that, I well remember how wretchedly ill poor Thornie looked throughout the previous day, and how silent he was concerning his own part in the proceedings, about which he was usually very boastful, telling us how the ladies in the gallery had smiled upon him, and bade him bring them luck, and how the Lord Mayor himself had patted his curly head. He knew that he had done something very wrong, even if no mischief should actually come of it, and, as he afterwards confessed, he was racked by the idea that the friend of his family might not return him the ticket, in which case exposure and disgrace were certain; and they came about, although not quite in that way.

Upon the Thursday, when the ticket was not in the wheel, the man who had given the bribe went about to all the offices insuring the ticket against being drawn on the next day; and it was probably only his greediness which betrayed this promising scheme of fraud, and prevented it from being carried out again and again. The fellow had insured in one office no less than six times over, and his pertinacity so excited the suspicions of the office-keepers, that when the ticket was drawn, as I have stated, both Thornhill and himself were arrested, and the former was easily induced to reveal all the circumstances. Neither he nor his tempter was punished judicially, for as it happened, the particular offence had not been contemplated by the law. But I shall never forget poor Tliornie's face when he was publicly expelled from our school, nor the face ot his widowed mother, who had come to intercede with the authorities, in vain, on behalf of her only son.


When the idealist turns his attention to the human senses, — those inlets that admit the various emanations of the outer world to the sensorium, — he gives them but a secondary place in his regard. To him they are not an end, but a means, — vehicles of thought, or rather of the rude materials whence thought is ultimately elaborated. No doubt as one kind of vehicle or one mode of transit may be better than another in forwarding his ideas to that mysterious laboratory of the mind, he may occasionally prefer their passage through and conveyance to that of another. One kind of sensations may come to him better through the eye than through the ear, as Horace tells us; and another may come handier by touch than by smell; but he does not prepare them in the outer world and send them on: he takes them just as they do come, and passes them through an

alembic of his own, to distil his mental essences. An artist of another kind takes his stand in the outer world, and combines his essences for the solace and gratification of the senses themselves. All the various sounds of nature are combined harmoniously to soothe the ear, her colors blend to please the eye; the food that must be taken is so prepared as to give its passing contribution of pleasure to the palate, and among the nicest, keenest, and most delicate of our sensual gratifications must be reckoned those

Xcable feelings impressed upon the olfactories by iferous emanations. As, therefore, all the gifts and bounties of nature in their elemental condition are meant for our good, so each artist in his several sphere who combines and arranges them, so as to bestow and express their best influences upon man, is, to that extent, his benefactor.

A work has just now appeared, written by a practical operator in the department of chemistry that concerns itself in the development, analysis, and combination of the various aromas latent in the animal and vegetable world, a perusal of which will afford as much pleasure to the cultivated mind as any of the essences detailed in it may give to the olfactory sense. It is professedly an illustration of the art of perfumery; but the great body of the work, as indeed the author confesses, is more a history of perfumery from the earliest times to the present day, consisting altogether of twelve chapters: nine of them are taken up in tracing the history of odoriferous compounds through the various nations of the Egyptians, Jews, Asiatics, Greeks, Romans, Orientals, and Moderns. The work, however, more properly divides itself into four grand sections: the first containing a short analysis of the physiology of odors; then the principal feature of the work, their history; thirdly, a short description of the various modes in use for extracting the essences of plants and flowers, and concluding with a summary of the principal fragrant materials used in our manufactures.

Among other beneficial influences arising from the contact of sweet odors upon the nervous system, and thence transmitted to the brain, the writer alleges a mental and even a moral benefit to accrue. To make this assertion good, however, would open up too large a field of metaphysical speculation. One may say, in general, that it is not the mere reception of any of the soothing influences, either of nature or art, that necessarily inspires the feeling of gratitude any more than the act of bestowing alms naturally evokes it in the recipient. It is, perhaps, therefore more strictly a poetical than a spiritual influence the author paints in opening his volume, when he says, beautifully enough: —

"Who has not felt revived and cheered by the balmy fragrance of the luxuriant garden or the flowery meadow? Who has not experienced the delightful sensation caused by inhaling a fresh breeze loaded with the spoils of the flowery tribe, — that sweet south so beautifully described by Shakespeare, as

'Breathing upon a bank of violets,
Stealing and giving odor'?

An indescribable emotion then invades the whole

being: the soul becomes melted in sweet rapture,

and silently offers up the homage of its gratitude to

the Creator for the blessings showered upon us,

whilst the tongue slowly murmurs, with Thomson: —

1 Soft roll your incense, herbs and fruits and flowers,

In mingled clouds to Him, whose sun exalts

Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.'

* By Eugene Rimmel.


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There is, however, less doubt about its power over some of the faculties of the mind, especially the memory, in recalling long past scenes and emotions. "Jean Jaques Rousseau, Zimmerman, and other authors siy that the sense of smell is the sense of imagination. There is no doubt that pleasant perfumes exercise a cheering influence on the mind, and easily become associated with our remembrances. Sounds and scents share alike the property of refreshing the memory and recalling vividly before us the scenes of our past life, an effect which Thomas Moore beautifully illustrates in his Lalla Rookh: —

'The yonng Arab, haunted by the smell
Of her own mountain flowers, as by a spell, —
The sweet Klcaya, and that courteous tree
Which bows to all who seek itsi cauopy,—
Sees, called up round her by these magic scents,
The well, the camels, and her father's tents;
Sighs for the home she left with little pain,
And wishes ev'n its sorrows back again.'

Tennyson expresses the same feeling in his Dream of Fair Women: —

'The smell of violets, hidden in the green,
Poured back into my empty soulnnd frame
The times when I remember to have been
Joyful and free from blame.'"

The art of the perfumer is like that of other arts, U endeavor to copy Nature. "He strives to imitate the fragrance of all flowers which arc rebellious to his skill, and refuse to yield up their essence. Is be not, then, entitled to claim the name of Artist, if be approaches, even faintly, the perfections of his chinning models?"

In effecting a classification of all the various odors in the art of perfumery, a. wonderful example of the power of habit or tracing of a special faculty is given. The late lamented Dr. George Wilson, of Edinburgh, wrote a work on "Color Blindness," proving that many people have eyes bat see not, or only see without being able to distinguish between the various tints and hues by which nature is so richly adorned. Our author, as may W inferred from his motto,* seems to think the same thing as to some of our noses, or if we have that useful organ physically appended, it might to iB the intents and purposes of perfumery have been » well dispensed with. But it is a good thing that Nature ever makes compensation for any such defect in one individual by its superabundance of posseston in another. It is said of Coleridge, the poet, that when passing through the streets of Cologne, te endeavored to reckon up all the different kinds tf smell pervading that town, and found, or 6aid he fcnnd, them to amount to seventy-two in number. Sirely, if he possessed a nasal talent so acute as tis he was more naturally intended for a perfumer tiun a poet. Admitting, however, some poetic li*a« in this enumeration, no doubt a perfumer's we by constant practice must have its perceptions •ottderfully quickened; and as a practical man, our author"* new classification, even though running ewnter to some of the fathers in botany, must be •iraitted to be good authority.

"Linna-us, the father of modern botanical science, foiled them into seven classes, three of which only w,re pleasant odors, — the aromatic, the fragrant, ai the ambrosial; but however good his general •krsons may have been, this classification was far *"» correct, for he placed carnation with laurel h-arei and saffron with jasmine, than which nothing

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can be more dissimilar. Fourcroy divided them into five series, and Do Haller into three. All these were, however, more theoretical than practical; and none classified odors by their resemblance to each other. I have attempted to make a new classification, comprising only pleasant odors, by adopting the principle that, as there are primary colors from which all secondary shades are composed, there are also primary odors with perfect types, and that all other aromas are connected more or less with them."

It was a very common opinion among some of the ancient doctors, as Creton, Hippocrates, and others, that perfumes had a medicinal effect in curing certain diseases, especially those of a nervous kind. Pliny even ascribes therapeutic properties to various aromatic substances. Our modern doctors, on this, as on so many other points, disagree; some maintaining the curative power of certain medicated perfumes, others denying any such influence. Our author denies both sides of the question in the abstract, but rather, if anything, inclines to the opinion that in " moderation," they arc beneficial.

Another popular fallacy he demolishes regarding flowers in a sleeping-room, which many will, no doubt, be pleased to hear.

"It is true that flowers, if left in a sleeping apartment all night, will sometimes cause headache and sickness; but this proceeds, not from the diffusion of their aroma, but from the carbonic acid they evolve during the night. If a perfume extracted from these flowers were left open in the same circumstances, no evil effect would arise from it. All that can be said is, that some delicate people may bo affected by certain odors; but the same person to whom a musky scent would give a headache might derive much relief from a perfume with a citrine basis. Imagination has, besides, a great deal to do with the supposed noxious effects of perfumes. Dr. Cloquet, who may be deemed an authority on this subject, of which he made a special study, says in his able Treatise on Olfaction: "We must not forget that there are many effeminated people to be found in the world who imagine that perfumes are injurious to them, but their example cannot be adduced as a proof of the bad effects of odors. Thus Dr. Thomas Capellini relates the story of a lady who fancied she could not bear the smell of a rose, and fainted on receiving the visit of a friend who carried one, and yet the fatal flower was only artificial.'"

In the historical parts of this work, extending over nine of its longest chapters, there is doubtless much that is far from new. The reader whose classical studies have extended any considerable way into the history of those early nations, must be familiar with most of what is there detailed; but to the nonclassical, and to ladies generally, whose educational readings may not have tended in that direction, the representation there given of ancient manners and customs, interspersed with many pleasing anecdotes well fitted in, and the whole so richly redolent of perfume, must have a peculiar charm. The writer's own account of it is, that it is a piece of mosaic work, and we are bound to add that it is well put together, and the colors harmoniously blent. One sometimes wonders, on reading some parts of it, how its author, who has achieved some fame as an operative perfumer and inventor of new compounds, can have found time to travel away so far from his laboratory collecting so much of the lore of antiquity as adheres to his artistic details. Tho style, too, is

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that of a practised pen, light and perspicuous; and to say it is readable is not enough, it is most intereating. We learn from these descriptive illustrations, confirmed by the records of ancient writers and the numerous implements found intact in the tombs, that perfumes were extensively consumed in Egypt, and applied to three distinct purposes,— offerings to the gods, embalming the dead, and uses in private life.

"It was, however, in their grand religious processions that they made the most luxurious display of perfumes. In one of those, described as having taken place under one of the Ptolemies, marched one hundred and twenty children bearing incense, myrrh, and saffron in golden basins, followed by a number of camels, some carrying three hundred pounds weight of frankincense, and others a similar quantity of crocus, cassia, cinnamon, orris, and other precious aromatics."

The Egyptian belief in the transmigration of souls is thought to be one of the reasons for the very great care they took in embalming the bodies of their dead; that after having concluded their long journey, the souls might find their original envelopes in a. tolerable state of preservation. Looking upon any one of those shrivelled relics stretched out in mournful state in the British Museum, our mind naturally recurs to the lines, —

"And thou hast walked about, — how strange a story! —

In Thebes's streets three thousand years ago, When the Memnonium was in all iU glory,

And time had not begun to overthrow Those temples, palaces, and piles stupendous, Of which the very ruins are tremendous."

But we are here also reminded of the account given to Herodotus regarding the mode and operation by which the mummy was made up. "They first extracted the brains through the nostrils by means of a curved iron probe, and filled the head with drugs. Then making an incision in the side with a sharp Ethiopian stone, they drew out the intestines, and inserted into the cavity powdered myrrh, cassia, and other perfumes, frankincense excepted. After sewing up the body, they kept it in natron for seventy days, and then wrapped it up entirely with bands of fine linen smeared with gum, and laid it in a wooden case made in the shape of a man, which they placed upright against the wall.

"The taste for perfumes and cosmetics went on increasing in Egypt until the time of Cleopatra, when it may be said to have reached its climax. This luxurious queen made a lavish use of aromatics, and it was one of the means of seduction she brought into play at her first interview with Mark Antony on the banks of the Cydnus, which is so beautifully described by Shakespeare."

The Jews, from their long captivity in Egypt, brought back with them into their own country a knowledge of perfumery. Long before that time, however, they had probably discovered the aromatic properties of some of their native gums, and, prompted by that natural instinct to which I have already alluded, they had offered those fragrant treasures on the altars raised to their God. Thus we find Noah, on issuing from the Ark, expressing his gratitude to the Almighty for his wonderful preservation by a sacrifice of burnt-offerings composed of every clean beast and every clean fowl. It is true that Genesis does not mention incense as having formed part of the holocaust; but the very words that follow,—"and the Lord smelled a sweet

savor," — may lead us to assume that such was the case.

The purification of women, as ordained by law, caused also a great consumption of aromatics. It lasted a whole year,—the first six months being accomplished with oil of myrrh, and the rest with other sweet odors. Perfumes were also one of the means of seduction resorted to bv Judith when she went forth to seek Holofernes in his tent, and liberate her people from his oppression. But the most complete description of the various aromatics used by the Jews is to be found in the Song of Solomon, in which the frequent mention of perfumes made in it shows that they must have been well known and appreciated at the Jewish court. The common account given of the death of Sardanapalus is perhaps the most striking instance among the Assyrians of their passion for perfumes. This account is, however, disputed by some historians, but the fact of his passion for cosmetics and perfumes is well enough known; and even the account of Dures and other historians given of the manner of his death, agrees with it. They say that "Arbaces, one of his (jenerals, having gone to visit Sardanapalus, found him painted with vermilion and clad in female garb. He was just in the act of pencilling his eyebrows when Arbaces entered, and the general was so indignant at the effeminacy of the monarch that he stabbed him on the spot. The Persians borrowed from the Modes their taste for perfumes and cosmetics. Such was their predilection for perfumes, that they usually wore on their heads crowns made of myrrh and a sweet-smelling plant called labyrus. In the palaces of monarchs and individuals of rank aromatics were constantly burning in richly-wrought vessels, — a custom of which we find an illustration in the sculptures of Perscpolis."

The greatest admirer ot perfumes among ancient Asiatic monarchs seems to have been Antiochus Epiphanes, or the Illustrious, king of Syria. At all his feasts, games, and processions perfumes held the first place.

"The king was once bathing in the public baths, when some private person, attracted by the fragrant odor which he shed around, accosted him, saying, ' You are a happy man, O king; you smell in a most costly manner.' Antiochus, being much pleased with the remark, replied,'I will give von as much as you can desire of this perfume." The king then ordered a large ewer of thick unguent to be poured over his head, and a multitude of poor people soon collected around him to gather what was spilled. This caused the king infinite amusement, but it made the place so greasy that he slipped and fell on his back in a most undignified manner, which put an end to his merriment."

Among the Greeks, who had that peculiar taste for immortalizing and worshipping everything that was pleasing and grateful to the senses, it is not to be wondered at that they ascribed a divine origin to perfumes. In other cases they invested the attributes of their deities with odoriferous attractions. The apparition of a goddess is never mentioned without speaking of the ambrosial fragrance which she shed around her ; and as they revelled in nectar and ambrosia, — a kind of food unknown to mortals, — so had they also specially reserved for their use some of the most delicious perfumes.

At all the religious festivals of the Greeks we know that aromatics were consumed in large quantities, and no Mahometan paradise can Eiirpaas their elysium. There they were to find a golden aty,

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