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Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges . 361 | Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges 531

Pio's No No

Punch

364 Labor

The Working Man 632

Buried Alive.

London Review 365 Mrs. Beauchamp's Little Plans

London Society

533

Kalavarda

Victoria Magazine 366 A French Lion, by Edmond About L'Opinion Nationale 541

In the Dark.

The Working Man 370 How Kate discovered America.

London Society

642

Modern Portrait Painting

Contemporary Rev. 373 | A Freak on the Violin

All the Year Round . 546

Stage Impromptus .

Chambers's Journal 377 Our First Venture in Real Estate.

Once a Week. 550

Concerning Stories.

The Reader . . . 380 Going Ashore

Chambers's Journal. 553

A Lesson in German

Messager Littéraire 381 Concerning an Egg

The Spectator.

655

Petroleum and Oil-Fields

Geological Mag. 384 Good Advice.

Saturday Revier. 657

A Brief Biography.

Anti-Teapot Review 386 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges

559

Atoms

All the Year Round 387 May Sonnets.

Chambers's Journal. 660

Foreign Notes

Our Erchanges 390 Waiting for the Wagon, by the “ Lambeth

Old Letters

Chambers's Journal. 392 Casual”

London Society

561

Might and Magnitude.

All the Year Round 393 Our Friends' Friends,

Chambers's Journal, 563

A Private Inquiry .

Chambers's Journal 395 Father Giles of Ballymoy, by A. Trollope

The Argosy

567

The Exhibition of Fish

The Spectator. 399 | English Captives in Africa .

The Times.

573

A Day in Bad Company.

Once a Week. . 400 "Old Murder"

All the Year Round, 574

Ballooning

Journal pour Tous 403 Women's Friendships

Saturday Review 582

Horse-Racing in India

AU the Year Round 405 Whittier in Brazil

Diario do Rio de Janeiro 584

England's National Drink

The London Review 409 Foreign Notes

Our Erchanges

585

In the Mont Cenis Tunnel

Fortnightly Review . 410 The Vision of Sheik Hamil

The Argosy

587

The Wreck of the "Mysore”

The Leisure Hour 415 Lazarus, Lotus-Eating

All the Year Round. 589

The Auckland Teles

The London Review 417 M, Ernest Renan

L'Evénement

592

Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges . 419 Scarlet Recollections

St. James's Mag.

595

A Common Child

420 The Great Singers of the Last Century. Shilling Magazine 601

Misery-Mongers

Author of' John Halifax " 421 The One-Legged Lieutenant

Bentley's Miscellany 607

The Doctor's Daughter

All the Year Round , 424 Odd People

Temple Bar

613

Friedrich Rückert

Revue Moderne 427 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges

615

Blanche

Once a Week

431 Sea Dreams

Dublin Univ. Mag. 616

Poets Laureate
London Review 437 Princess Daschkaw

Once a Week

617

Uncle Ingot

Chambers's Journal. 439 A Story of No Man's Land

Fraser's Magazine . 621

A Taste for Glass Houses

The Athenaum 441 The Ex-Queen of the French

Macmillan's Mag. 631

Concerning Lions
Chambers's Journal. 443 The Pleasures of Middle Age

Saturday Review .

Poor Soldiering .

All the Year Round. 444 M. Crapaud on his Travels .

Le Moniteur Universel 635

Foreigo Notes

Our Exchanges 447 Croquet

London Fun

636

Prévost Paradol

Le Solcil

449 | A Legend of Provence

The Day of Rest. 637

A Ride on Skins down the Ravi

The Leisure Hour 454 A Ride by Mar Saba to the Dead Sea Bentley's Miscellany 639

An Awkward Dilemma

Shilling Magazine 456 | George Peabody

The Working Man 642

Vines and Wines

Dublin Univ. Mag. 460 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges 643

The Barrister's Wig

The Argosy

483 A Landscape.

Shilling Magazine 644

Mach Ado about Nothing

London Society 466 Little Peg O'Shaughnessy

All the Year Round. 645

The Oldest Relic in the World.

Gentleman's Mag. . 478 A Chapter on Stockings

Chambers's Journal. 655

Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges 474 Major Hervey's Wedding

Once a Week

658

In London, March, 1866, by Robert Bu-

Thoreau

Fraser's Magazine 662

chanan.

The Argosy

476 The Steward's Story

Sirpenny Magazino , 664

Too Late, by Jean Ingelow.

476 A Little Masio

Victoria Magazine 668

Trichiniasis

Once a Week 477 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges :

670

Turning the Tables

Revue Française. 479 The June Dream

London Society 672

Donkey-Riding on Parnassus

Saturday Review

485 The Cigar Ship .

Chambers's Journal. 673

Superior Information.

Cornhill Magazine 487 Hair-Dyeing.

The Spectator.

675

Past Celebrities,

Colburn's New Monthly 489 Cinderella

Cornhill Magazine , 677

Peggy Melville's 'Triumph

Good Words

492 Life in Venice

London Reviero

686

The Toilery of the Sea

Saturday Reciero 500 The Moléson

London Society

688

Waiters

London Review . 502 | French Novels

Saturday Review 693

Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges 503 Oliver Oakland

Chambers's Journal. 695

Destiny

Shilling Magazine 504 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges. 699

The First Blow against Cholera

The Eraminer 505 The Tragedy in the Palazzo Bardello, by
An Adventure in the Great Pyramid, by

Amelia B. Edwards

The Argosy

F P. Cobbe

Once a Week

507 Balzac in Undress.

Dublin Univ. Mag.. 708

M. Guizot.

L'Evénement. 509 The Princess Caraboo.

Temple Bar

712

Mr. Thompson's Umbrella .

All the Year Round. 510 Superstition, by Charles Kingsley Fraser's Magazine

713

Personal Reminiscences of Beau Brummel Chambers's Journal, 614 M. Victorien Sardou, by M. Féval Figaro

719

Demi-Monde Literature

Saturday Reviero. 520 No. 9999

All the Year Round. 722

Sir Ralph's Heriot.

Cassell's Family Paper 521 Foreign Notes

Our Exchanges

726

Touching Tigers

All the Year Round . 623 The Motto

London Society

728

How Fisb-hooks are Made

The Working Man 528 The Coming in of the “ Mermaiden," by

The Education of Women

London Revier 529 Jean Ingelow, .

The Argosy.

728

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ON PRECIOUS STONES.

a famine price, and up to the termination of the civil

war in America they were gradually becoming more Possibly the commercial value of color was never valuable in that country. exemplified in a stronger manner than in the mat- The diamond, like most other jewels, is found ter of precious stones. Indeed, jewels often depend generally in granitic gneiss, and in torrents of rivers upon their tint only for their names and value; the distributed over the whole world ; but they are same identically composed precious stone being mainly to be found in tropical countries. It would either an amethyst or a piece of rock crystal, an ori- seem that where the sun shines with the greatest ental topaz or a ruby, by the addition or absence splendor, where the vegetable and the animal creaof a small portion of mineral pigment of different tion put on their most gorgeous colors, there also in hue. Thus, a piece of rock crystal is comparatively the depths of the earth the vivid lustre of this gem valueless, whilst an emerald is one of the most cost- shines the brightest, and assumes the largest proporly of jewels; a ruby again is even more valuable tions. The mines underground bloom as gorgeously than the diamond, whilst the topaz is of very in- as the flowers above. The diamond, as we all know, ferior value. Even the faintest flush of color often is composed of pure carbon crystallized, and is the gives a value to the diamond which is far beyond its hardest known substance. Indeed, this quality, worth when pure, - an instance this of the value upon which much of its value depends, has in of adulteration. Mr. Harry Emanuel, whose work many instances been the cause of its destruction, on precious stones has afforded us the material for the old rude test of its genuineness being to place this article, illustrates this fact by stating that a it upon an anvil, and to strike it forcibly with a diamond, the worth of which uncolored would have hammer

, the idea being that, if pure, it would rather been (from its weight, four and three quarter grains) break the hammer or bury itself in the anvil, than only £22, was lately sold for £300, in consequence split. Of course many valuable diamonds have of possessing a vivid green tint.

been destroyed by this ignorant trial in times past. Although the diamond is not really the most val. The diamond is by no means always colorless. It uable of jewels, yet as it is supposed to have prece- is sometimes yellow, red, pink, brown, green, black, dence of all other gems, we shall speak of it first. and opalescent; the admixture of color depending Possibly, however, its commercial value is most con- in some cases upon a metallic oxide. The Indian stant of all jewels, as it is the subject of investment diamond appears to be the most prized in the marto a greater extent than any other. In times of ket. Newton, from its great power of refracting commotion kings or princes and the wealthy — gen- and dispersing light, when compared with glass, erally subject to suffer from sweeping changes - came to the conclusion that it was combustible; a look upon diamonds as their best friends ; their scientific forecast, which Lavoisier verified by burnpassports, in fact, to the attention of the foreigner. ing it in oxygen, and obtaining as a result carbonie What pemmican is to meat precious stones are to acid. Although our analysis of this gem is perfect, value. They are the concentrated essence of wealth, all efforts have failed to construct it; indeed, chemis- a king's ransom in the compass of a marble. Na- try is wholly at fault to produce artificially any of tions, civilized and only semi-civilized, believe in the precious gems, with the exception of the ruby, this currency; it is a circular note that the bearer small specimens of which have actually been pronever need fear will be dishonored in whatever quar- duced in the laboratory. The diamond is split easily

ter of the globe he may happen to be. Diamonds with the grain; but it is upon the tact and judgment i and other precious stones, however, like gold, are with which it is cut and polished that much of its

liable to fluctuate in value according to the laws of value depends. The English were at one time fasupply and demand, like the meanest article of com- mous as gem-cutters; but the art is now wholly merce. A revolution brings forth these “ flowers of lost among us, and most of the fine gems are now the mineral kingdom," as they have been poetically intrusted to Dutch Jews. The gem is cut upon a termed; at first a number of them are thrown upon wheel smeared with diamond dust, the only mathe market, and they decline in value in conse- terial that effectually touches it, - and it is polished quence. An example of this occurred in the revo- in the same manner, a steel disk being employed for Intion of 1848. In all cases where civil commotions the purpose, smeared with fine powder, and revolvare of long continuance, however, and causes of fear ing at a great speed by means of steam power. At are prolonged, they gradually rise again in value the present time the most fashionable form is the until they reach exorbitant prices. In the great double cut, which presents a great number of facets, revolution of 1789, for instance, diamonds rose to rendering the flash of the gem very brilliant. The table cut, such as we find in old diamonds, is much stole it. It is certain, however, that it was purless sparkling, as it has a very much less number of loined from the Garde Meuble in 1792, but was refacets, and a great expansion of table or flat upper stored in a very mysterious manner. It was aftersurface. The Indian diamond-cutters leave as much wards set in the pommel of the sword of the of the gem as possible when cutting; an instance of Emperor Napoleon I. The Florentinc diamond, this was seen in the Great Exhibition of 1851, where now in the possession of the Emperor of Austria, is the Koh-i-Noor was exhibited, in which the cutting said to have been one of three lost at the battle of followed apparently the original outline of the stone. Granson by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Our readers will remember how much this gem dis- It was found by a Swiss soldier, and sold by him for appointed their expectations, as it looked like a one forin. It afterwards came into the possession mere lump of glass. Its weight was then 186 carats. of Pope Julius II., who presented it to the Emperor In the intervals between this and the last Exhibition of Austria. The Sancy diamond's history is still it was, after much consultation, given into the hands more curious. It was actually taken from the body of M. Coster, ot' Amsterdam, who recut it with such of the Duke of Burgundy, and found its way in 1489 skill that, although it lost in the process 80 carats, to Baron de Sancy, who sent it as a present to the it yet appeared quite as large, and was transferred King of Portugal. The servant by whom it was at once into a blaze of light. When diamonds are being conveyed was attacked by robbers, when he found difficult to split, without fear of great loss, swallowed the stone, and after his death it was found they are sometimes sawn with fine wires fitted into in his body. James the Second afterwards posa saw-bow, and anointed with diamond powder sessed it, and he sold it to Louis XIV. It disapand olive oil. Rose-cut diamonds are now coming peared in the French Revolution, but turned up much into fashion, as they are very brilliant in ap- again, which the renowned blue diamond, by the pearance at a very small expense of stone. It is by, never did, and was purchased by Napoleon I.

, really wonderful the delicacy with which these gems who again sold it to Prince Demidoff. The Nassak are cut, considering the smallness of their size; as diamond, of 78g, carats, was taken by the Marquis many as fifteen hundred having been known to of Hastings at the Conquest of the Deccan. The weigh only one carat.

Ilope diamond is of a sapphire blue, and since the The larger diamonds, from their great value, have great French diamond was lost it is considered all some extraordinary history. As a rule, like the the most unique gem of its kind in existence. In stormy petrel, their appearance in the market in the Russian treasury there is a brilliant red diamond numbers is an indication of a storm. Their porta- of 10 carats, and at Dresden there is a green diability makes them the companion of royal fugitives, mond of 484 carats, that once belonged to Augustus and more than one brilliant of value has witnessed the Strong. The value of diamonds has considerbloody and tragical scenes. The Koh-i-Noor, for ably increased of late years, and as the wealth of instance, has changed hands in many of the convul- the country goes on augmenting it is likely to insions that occurred in India before our advent. It crease still further. Brilliants go on increasing in was seized at the conquest of Delhi by Ala ed Din, value as they increase in size in an extraordinary deand subsequently came into the possession of the gree. Thus, a brilliant of one carat is worth £18; Sultan Baber, the Great Mogul, in 1526; it con- of two carats, £65; of three carats, £125; of four tinued in the possession of this line of princes until carats, £220; of ten carats, £320. Beyond this Aurungzebe intrusted it to a European to reset it. weight they become fancy articles, and, of course, This he did, but so unskilfully that it was reduced fancy prices are demanded for them. from 793 carats to 186 carats, — the size, in fact, it The most valuable of all jewels, however, is the appeared in our Great Exhibition of 1851.

The ruby.

This precious stone depends upon its color, Emperor refused to pay the workman for the de- as we have said before, for its value. The ruby, struction of his jewel, and we think it speaks well sapphire, and oriental topaz are composed of identifor Aurungzebe, as Indian emperors went, that he cally the same materials; the red sapphire is a ruby, did not take off his head at once. It afterwards the blue ruby a sapphire, the yellow ruhy a topaz. fell into the hands of the great conqueror Nadir They are all termed Corundums, an Indian name. Shah, was passed on in his line, and finally

The ruby is the next hardest thing in nature after into our possession at the capture of Lahore, and the diamond. The finest rubies are found in the was presented to her Majesty by our troops, with kingdom of Ava, and in Siam; they are also found whose family it will remain, we suppose, until some in Ceylon and in many parts of Europe. future conqueror seizes it to set in the crown of The King of Burmah takes one of his titles from some empire yet to arise in the new world. The it, that of Lord of the Rubies." In Burinah they Cumberland diamond, of the value of £10,000, was are a royal monopoly, and none of any value are presented to the Duke of Cumberland by the City allowed by law to leave the kingdom. The finding of London after he had rescued the burghers from of a fine ruby is made a state event, and a procesthe Stuart dynasty at Culloden. We fancy the City sion of grandees, with soldiers and elephants, are would have kept their money had they foreseen that sent out to meet it. The color varies from pale rose it would ultimately pass to the treasury of the King to deep red, but the tint that is most highly valued of Hanover. The Orloff diamond, set in the scep- is that of the “pigeon's blood." tre of the Czar of Russia, weighs 1944 carats, and Of old, many magical properties were assigned to possesses a most romantic history. It is said to have the ruby. It was considered an amulet against poiformed one of the eyes of an idol in a Brahmin tem- son, plaguie, evil thoughts, and wicked spirits, and ple, and to have been set in the peacock throne of its possession, as a consequence, kept the wearer in Nadir Shah. It was stolen by a Frenchman, and health. When he was in danger it was supposed to ultimately fell into the possession of the Empress darken, and to become bright again only on the Catherine II. The Regent, or Pitt diamond, was so passing away of peril. One of the largest rubies in called from having been purchased by the Duke of Europe is a French crown jewel, once adorning the Orleans, Regent of France, of Pitt, the Governor order of the Golden Fleece. Her Majesty exhibited of Fort St. George. Scandal said that the governor two stones said to be rubies in the Exhibition of

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1862, but Mr. Emanuel asserts that they are noth-| there is a mass of white topaz that for many years ing more than spinels, a spurious kind of ruby, of was used as a door-weight by a marine store-dealer. little value. The King of Burmah is said to have In London a very fine stone can at the present time one in his possession of the size of a pigeon's egg. be bought for a few shillings. A true “pigeon's-blood” tinted ruby of one carat is The emerald and the beryl have the same chemworth from £14 to £20; of two carats, from £ 70 to ical composition, and differ only in color. The £80; of carats, from £400 to £450, which finest colored emeralds are found in New Granada, latter value is more than double that of a diamond in limestone rock. It is also found in Salzburg, and of the same weight. As we have before said, small in Siberia. The Spaniards, it is asserted, came into rubies have been made by chemists artificially, but possession of many hundred weight of emeralds never gems of any size. Now as small rubies are when they conquered Peru; hence their value fell plentiful in nature, it is very doubtful whether it will in the Middle Ages. Orientals, especially the Mopay to make them even upon a manufacturing scale. hammedans, we should say, set great store upon the

The sapphire, although composed of identically emerald, believing that it imparts courage to the the same elements, with the exception of the color- owner, that it is an infallible preservative of chasing matter, is of far less value than the ruby. The tity, and that the safety of women in childbirth is color often varies much in the same stone, some por- insured by it. Like many other gems, the antions of the gem being very nearly black, whilst the cients ascribed many medicinal properties to it other is of a light blue. The clever lapidary can when ground down. The emerald is but rarely correct this by cutting away all the black part, ex- found perfect, and when perfect, it ranks next in cepting a small spot reserved for the cutlet, or small value to the ruby. Perfect gems are worth from fine flattened point underneath. When looked at £20 to £40 the carat; but they do not, like the through the table, or broad upper surface of the diamond or ruby, advance in price with the size. gem, this point of dark blue gives by refraction a There are many large emeralds in Europe. There beautiful azure lustre to the jewel. "The ancients is one in the Austrian treasury weighing 2,000 carused to call all blue stones sapphires, just as they ats, and the Duke of Devonshire possesses ofte called all red ones either rubies or carbuncles. weighing nine ounces. The value of the beryl or The sapphire is invested by earlier writers with aquamarine is trifling... An enormous beryl was rare virtues, of course. It was said to be such an found in America, weighing five tons! They must enemy to poison, that, if put into a glass with a spi- have everything in that country bigger than everyder or other venomous reptile, it would kill it; and body else. It is used in Birmingham for imitation a great many other virtues were attributed to it we jewelry. The garnet, again, has many varieties, need scarcely mention. The value of this gem does and is scattered over the whole globe; when cut not, like that of the diamond or the ruby, increase tablewise and “tallow-topped,” as it is termed, or with its size, although smaller sizes it is even convex and smooth at the top, and flat at the botdearer than those brilliants, one of one carat of pure tom, it is termed a carbuncle. color being worth £20. These gems are liable to be There are a large number of what may be termed imitated so closely as to deceive the best jewellers. valuable, rather than precious, stones, which belong Mr. Emanuel tells us, for instance, that "a noble to the quartz system. Among these are amethyst, lady in this country formerly possessed one which cairngorm, onyx, sardonyx, cornelian, chalcedony, is, perhaps, the finest known. The lady, however, agate, jasper, blood-stone, rock crystal. Rock sold it during her lifetime, and replaced it by an crystal has been used in the arts from the most reimitation so skilfully made as to deceive even the mote times. It is found in large crystals sometimes, jeweller who valued it for probate duty, and it was and is scattered all over the world. There is a estimated at the sum of £10,000, and the legacy specimen in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris measurduty was paid on it by the legatee, who was doubt- ing three feet in diameter, and weighing 800 pounds. less chagrined when he discovered the deception." It is used by opticians for the lenses of spectacles, We have no doubt whatever that many other noble and in India it is hollowed into cups and goblets of ladies have from . impecuniosity” substituted sham amazing thinness and beauty. The Chinese, the for real jewels with the like impunity; such is the Japanese, and the Egyptians also use it for ornafaith we put in station, that even glass — seen mental purposes. Like most precious stones, it is through the sublime medium which surrounds a very cold, and the Japanese make balls of it to cool Duchess - shines like an emerald of the purest the hands! In old goldsmith's work crystal is often water. Both the oriental amethyst and the oriental introduced, and as it was considered that it would emerald, which are varieties of corundum, are very turn color if poison came near it, cups and goblets rare; the green variety, or oriental emerald, indeed, of it were often used by the great who went in fear is so curious that Mr. Emanuel, with all his vast ex- of death in this shape. Of course it was supposed perience, says that he has only seen it once in his to possess magical virtues, and we have all read of lifetime.

Dr. Dees's famous crystal globe. Even in the presThe cat's eye jewel we are told is becoming fash- ent day a well-known London physician, a believer ionable, being considered in India — and, what is in spiritualism, pretended to discover secrets by the more strange, even in Europe — lucky: We wonder use of a ball of crystal. The onyx and sardonyx at nothing in the shape of superstition; and can have long been used for cameos, and the value of quite understand that a gem of this kind only lately the material is vastly enhanced by the art that is was purchased by a nobleman for £1,000. The to- sometimes employed upon them. Some of the paz is now little sought after. The colorless ones ancient cameos are very valuable. The art of enare termed Nova Mina, or slave diamonds; those of graving upon these stones has latterly vastly imlight blue are termed Brazilian sapphires; those of proved: a taste has sprung up for fine cameos, and a grcenish hue are termed aquamarine ; and the some very creditable engravings have been made. Brazilian ruby is the artificially-obtained pink or We should not be surprised, now that fashion runs rose-colored topaz. It is often obtained in large in this direction, if a long-neglected art were to be

In one of the cases in the British Museum successfully revived.

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The iridescent wondrous-tinted opal, we are told, time occupied a large number of men, but now is nothing but quartz and water. There are several the diving-bell is employed, and their occupation kinds of opals, the chief of which are the precious or is gone. Independently of the labor of diving to “poble” opal used by jewellers, the fire or reddish the bottom of the sea, and remaining there suffiopal, the common opal, and the Mexican opal. ciently long to gather a hundred oysters from the When the different tints in an opal are distributed bottom, where the pressure of the water is so great evenly over its surface, it is known in the trade as that the divers often came up with blood issuing Harlequin. This is a rude way of designating the from their noses and ears, there was great danger exquisite blending of hues which make this jewel so from sharks. Indeed, in such fear were the divers beautiful. The iridescence is owing to minute lines from these enemies, that they would not dive unless on the surface of the gem, which decomposes the the shark charmers were present and mumbling light, just in the same manner as they do in mother their incantations whilst they were at work. The o'-pearl. Steel buttons used to be engraved with pearl was anciently considered a preservative of very minute lines to produce the same effect. The virtue, although Cleopatra certainly did not disflashes of color in this precious stone are always solve hers with that intent. Although the pearl most marked in a warm day, the knowledge that will dissolve in a strong acid, it is needless to say heat enhances the brilliancy of the stone always that vinegar is far too weak to produce such an leads the dealer to hold it in his hand for some effect. It is a pity to be obliged to demolish such time before showing it to his customer. Mr. Eman- a pretty story, but the truth must be told. The uel, referring to the fact that the Mexican opal loses oriental pearl is just as much prized now as in its beauty when exposed to water, — from the fact, ancient tímes

. The charming harmony it has with we suppose, that the water fills up the fine lines in a delicate skin has always made the necklace of it, and prevents the decomposition of the reflected this material so much valued. It used to be one light into its primitive elements, says that Sir of the boasts of the famous Lady Hester Stanhope, Walter Scott having in “ Anne of Geierstein" as- that water could run beneath her instep without cribed this fact to supernatural agency, the stone wetting the sole of her foot, and that her pearl came to be considered unlucky, and they conse- necklace could not at a little distance be detected quently went out of fashion ! We are willing upon her neck. Among the famous pearls existing enough to believe in the folly of fashion, and in the at the present day is one belonging to the Shah amount of superstition afloat, especially in the up- of Persia, valued at £60,000. Her Majesty was per circles, but we think the fall in the value of presented with a fine necklace by the East India opals can scarcely be ascribed to such a cause as Company, and the one possessed by the Empress this. They are now again in fashion, however, and of the French is famous. In Europe the pearl is are likely to continue so; for in addition to the sin- not considered to be perfect unless it is of pure gular beauty of the gem, they are, we are told, the white, slightly transparent, and either perfectly only precious stones which defy imitation. Fine round or drop-shaped. In China and India, howopals are very valuable; as much as £1,000 has ever, they are preferred of a bright yellow color. been given for a large stone for a ring or brooch. In North America and the West Indies the pearls The ancients prized them very highly; and Pliny have a pink color; and the Panama pearls have a relates that Nonnius, a Roman Senator, was sent metallic lustre something like the hue of quicksilver. into exile by Marcus Antonius, because he would Black-lead colored pearls are much prized by some not part with an opal of the size of a filbert, and persons. We are told that pearls cannot be imivalued at £170,000, which the latter coveted. The tated with success ; but those who remember the finest known opal is in the Museum at Vienna, said case of pearls in the Great Exhibition of 1862, to be worth £30,000. There is also a very fino one will remember that real pearl necklaces were examong the French Crown Jewels.

hibited side by side with imitation pearls, and the The opal reminds us somewhat of the pearl, a best judges were deceived. Those who possess fine gem - if we may term a simple excrescence by pearls should remember that they are liable to be that name which has always been held in high discolored by contact with acids and gas, and noxestimation by mankind. The finest pearls come ious vapors of all kinds. This is the reason that from the pearl-fisheries at Ceylon. They are found the chandeliers in Her Majesty's theatre were supin the shell of a large species of oyster; and it is plied with wax candles, and that in all the balls believed, with much show of reason, that they are of the aristocracy gas is never to be seen, ladies' nothing more than some foreign body which finds beauty, as well as their pearls, not being improved its way into the shell, and which the fish covers by its powerful light. with a secretion similar to that with which it lines There are numbers of valuable stones and substanits shell. A pearl, when sawn through, shows that ces which are not so rare as to come under the dethis secretion has been deposited in layers, one upon nomination of precious. Thus, lapis lazuli is found in another, round some central body, just in the same such masses as to be used in the adornment of furnimanner in which layers of phosphates are deposited ture. This stone used to be far more valuable than in the human kidney round some foreign body, and at present, as the finer tints were ground to make the resulting in the calculus or stone.

costly color ultramarine. But chemists have found The Chinese, with their singular ingenuity, have out the means of producing this color artificially at taken advantage of this method of action on the a very small cost. Malachite, again, is used for part of the oyster, and have for ages been in the vases, &c., by the Russians. The doors of this mahabit of inserting small objects inside its shell, in terial in the Exhibition of 1851 will be remembered order to insure their being covered with this pearly for their brilliant green color. Jade, again, seems secretion. Small idols are thus coated, but the to be in especial favor in Japan; some fine samples secretion is not the true pearl secretion, but a of this stone are to be seen in the Exhibition at similar substance to the mother-o'-pearl. Besides South Kensington. Amber used to be fashionable, the Ceylon fisheries, there are some in the Persian but it is now wholly gone out, except for mouth

ilf and in Borneo. The pearl-fisheries at one pieces to pipes. It is still used in oriental countries

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