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chosen gradually established. The northern regions, abounding





in furs, seemed of greater commercial value than the
country further south; and the Marquis de la Roche, a
nobleman of Brittany, presently obtained a commission
to conquer CANADA, and other adjacent countries “not
possessed by any Christian prince.”
To find men for this enterprise, La Roche was author-
ized, as Robertval had been, to sweep the jails. A col-
ony of forty convicts was established on the miserable
Island of Sables, some of whom remained seven years on
that inhospitable sand-bank, subsisting on fish, and clothed
in seal-skins.
On the death of La Roche, Chauvin, a naval officer,
obtained a similar commission. He formed a connection
with Pontgravé, a merchant of St. Malo, who for years
had been concerned in the fur trade, making profitable
voyages to Tadousac, at the entrance of the Saguenay
into the St. Lawrence. Chauvin died a year or two
after, when M. de Chatte, governor of Dieppe, obtained
a commission as governor of Canada, and, in conjunction
with Pontgravé, formed a company of merchants to carry
on the traffic. The name Canada was originally con-
fined to the district on the south bank of the St. Law-
rence, opposite the mouth of the Saguenay, but was ulti-
mately extended so as to include the whole interior ter-
ritory watered by the St. Lawrence and its tributaries.
A few English vessels visited, meanwhile, the coast of
Virginia, principally in search of sassafras, then becoming
fashionable as a medicinal drug. Hitherto, ships bound
on that voyage had taken a roundabout course by the
West Indies; Bartholomew Gosnold, master of a small
vessel in the employ of Raleigh's assignees, avoided that
unnecessary circuit. Pursuing a more direct course,
in seven weeks he made land, far to the north of Roa-
noke. Turning southward, he discovered, landed on,
and named Cape Cod. Keeping still to the southward
and then to the westward, he passed the islands now
known as Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, but prefer-
red to land on the westernmost of the little group of the
Elizabeth Islands, to one of which he first gave that
name. On a rocky islet in the midst of a pond he built
a fort and store-house, intending to leave a few men to
keep possession. The lading of the ship was soon com-
pleted, principally with sassafras gathered on the island,
to which were added furs purchased on the main land of
the Indians, with whom a friendly intercourse was opened.
When the ship was laden and ready to sail, those who
were to remain lost heart; all embarked, and a prosper-
ous voyage of five weeks carried them to England.
The coasts and islands visited by Gosnold were not re-
markable for fertility; but that navigator, having seen
them in all the fresh verdure of June, gave a very flat-
tering account of his discoveries, and, at the instance of
Hakluyt, some merchants of Bristol sent two vessels, un-
der Martin Pring, to collect sassafras and to pursue the
exploration. Pring entered Penobscot Bay, and, coast-
ing southerly, discovered the harbors of Kennebunk, Aga-
menticus, and Piscataqua, whence he traced the coast
as far south as Martha's Vineyard. One ship was laden
with sassafras, the other with furs and skins purchased
from the natives. The pecuniary results of this voyage
proved very satisfactory to the undertakers.
During these explorations by Gosnold and Pring, Pont-
gravé, in the employ of the French company to which
he belonged, made a new voyage to the St. Lawrence,
having as a companion Samuel Champlain, afterward
for many years governor of Canada. They ascended
as high as Hochalaga; but the Indian village which


1602. May 12.



chosen Cartier had found on that island was no longer in ex



Returning to France, they found De Chatte dead, and
a patent or commission issued to Pierre de Gast, Sieur
de Monts, a Protestant gentleman of the king's bed-cham-
ber, for a vast tract called AcADIE, including the whole of
North America between the fortieth and forty-sixth de-
gree of north latitude, from a point, that is, south of New
York, as far northerly as Cape Breton. A monopoly of
the fur trade within these vast limits was also secured.
Four ships were soon fitted out by a company which De
Monts formed; one under Pontgravé, to drive away in-
terloping traders; another, to purchase furs in the St.
Lawrence; and two others, commanded by De Monts in
person, attended by Champlain and Poutrincourt, to se-
lect a site and to establish a colony. These two vessels
touched first at La Häve, a short distance south of the
present town of Halifax, a harbor already known and
frequented by the French fur traders. Following the
shore to the southward, they doubled Cape Sable, and,
tracing the coast to the northeast, they discovered and
entered a beautiful harbor, surrounded by hills, and bor-
dered by fertile meadows. Poutrincourt begged and ob-
tained of De Monts a grant of this harbor, which he called
Port Royal, now Annapolis. While De Monts followed
the coast to the northeast to find an imaginary copper
mine, Champlain, in search of a fit spot for settlement,
explored the Bay of Fundy, discovered and named the
River St. John's, entered Passamaquoddy Bay, and, as-
cending to the mouth of its tributary, the Schoodic, se-
lected there for settlement a small island, which he called
St. Croix, a name presently given to the river itself.
He was joined by De Monts, the colony was landed, and
a fort was built. But the site was ill chosen. Confined

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to a small island, the settlers suffered much during the winter for wood, water, and provisions, and half the number died. De Monts set sail in the spring in search of a better situation. He looked into the Penobscot, which Pring had discovered two years before, entered the Kennebec, Casco Bay, and the Saco ; and, following the track of Pring, examined the coast as far south as Cape Cod, which he called Malabarre. He landed on the cape, and had some thought of removing his colony thither, but was discouraged by the hostility of the na

tives. Additional settlers having arrived from France,

he presently transferred his settlement from St.Croix to Port Royal. But even that situation was not wholly satisfactory, and Poutrincourt undertook, the next summer, a further exploration of the shores of Cape Cod. The natives, however, were still hostile; some of the French were slain; and it appeared dangerous to attempt the occupation of that coast. The complaints of the French fishermen and fur traders had procured, meanwhile, the recall of De Monts's commission; and, during the following winter, even Port Royal was deserted. The commerce with India, so long coveted, had at length been commenced by the English and Dutch, whose East India Companies, presently so famous, had just been incorporated. The hopes of a short western passage to India were not yet abandoned. Captain Weymouth, dispatched in search of such a passage by the Earl of Arundel, an enterprising nobleman of that day, had again entered and examined Penobscot Bay, within a few months after De Monts's visit. He carried with him to England five of the natives. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, governor of Plymouth, was beginning to feel a strong interest in American colonization. He took from Weymouth three of these Indians, whom he kept about him, and afterward




1600. 1602.


chorn employed, with some others who came into his hands, as

1603. 1604.

1606. April 10.

pilots and interpreters in his American enterprises.
The recent accession of James I. to the English throne,
and the peace which he negotiated with Spain, having
put an end to privateering expeditions against the Span-
ish settlements, the attention of English merchants,
navigators, and adventurers was now directed to more
peaceful enterprises, Commerce and colonization took
the place of piracy and plunder. Sir Walter Raleigh
was in the Tower, attainted of high treason for his at-
tempt to substitute Arabella Stuart instead of James I.
as Elizabeth's successor. His patent being forfeit by his
attainder, James I. granted a new charter, by which the
American coast, between the thirty-fourth and the forty-
fifth degree of north latitude—from Cape Fear to Pas-
samaquoddy Bay—was set apart to be colonized by two
rival companies, one composed chiefly of London adven-
turers, the other of residents in the west of England,
especially at Plymouth and Bristol, at that time the
chief seats of the west country trade. Liverpool, as
yet, was an inconsiderable village, and the north of En-
gland a pastoral country. -
The advancement of the Divine glory, “by bringing
the Indians and savages resident in those parts to human
civility and a settled and quiet government,” was alleged
as the principal motive of James's grant. The under-
takers, however, looked chiefly to a gainful commerce
and profitable returns. -
By the provisions of the charter, the London Company,
whose settlement was to be distinguished as the First
Colony of Virginia, might plant any where between thir-
ty-four and forty-one degrees of north latitude, or between
Cape Fear and the east end of Long Island. The Plym-
outh Company, whose settlement was to be called the

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