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chapTER was to be increased if necessary, and the troops were — to be divided into a northern and southern army by the 1676. line of York River. The superior officers were to be appointed by the governor; but Bacon took care to supply himself with a stock of blank commissions, signed with the governor's name. The company officers were to be nominated by the soldiers, but their selection was limited to the militia officers of their respective counties. The counties were to supply their respective quotas, with draft cattle, arms, ammunition, and provisions, “at least one pound of biscuit-bread and one half pound of good dried beef, bacon, or cheese for a day,” and were to pay them wages at the rates already established for the troops in garrison at the heads of the rivers. A part of those garrisons were still retained; the rest were dispensed with, and the men taken into the line of the new army. Servants might enlist as substitutes, “providing the master be consenting and the servant willing,” the master to have the pay and the servant the plunder. All Indians were to be esteemed enemies “who have or shall forsake their usual and accustomed dwelling towns,” or who “receive or entertain in their towns, cabins, or forts any Indians our present enemies, or who shall hereafter become our enemies, or any strange Indians who do not properly belong to their towns.” Those who desire to remain at peace are “to deliver up, kill, or destroy” all such strange Indians; or, if not strong enough for that, to give notice of their coming to the nearest militia offcer or justice of the peace. All Indians, taken in war are to be held and accounted slaves during life. This, the first legislative attempt to reduce the native Indians of Virginia to slavery, may

help, perhaps, to explain the eagerness of the colonists for offensive warfare.

Deserted Indian lands were not to be granted out to chosen

particular persons, but were vested in the several coun

ties, to be by them applied toward defraying the charge 1676.

of the war. o - *
That “all color and pretense for reviving the late mis-
chievous Indian trade might be taken away,” all com-
missions for Indian traffic, even those under the act of
the last session, were annulled. But it still remained
lawful to employ the Indians in fishing, and to deal with
them in fish, canoes, bowls, mats, or baskets, making pay-
ment in corn only ; nor were friendly Indians to be de-
barred fishing and hunting “within their own limits and
bounds, using bows and arrows only.”
The member for Stafford, who sat on the committee
by which these Indian bills were matured, has left us a
graphic account of an interview between that commit-
tee and an Indian chieftainess. “Our committee being
sat, the Queen of Pamunkey, descended from Opechan-
canough, a former emperor of Virginia, was introduced,
who entered the chamber with a comportment graceful
to admiration, bringing on her right-hand an English
interpreter, and on her left her son, a stripling twenty
years of age. She had round her head a plat of black
and white wanpum, three inches broad, in imitation
of a crown, and was clothed in a mantle of dressed
deer-skins, with the hair outward, and the edge cut
round six inches deep, which made strings resembling
twisted fringe from the shoulders to the feet. With
grave, court-like gestures, and a majestic air in her face,
she walked up our long room to the lower end of the ta-
ble, where, after a few entreaties, she sat down, the in-
terpreter and her son standing by her on either side.
Our chairman asked her what men she would lend us
for guides in the wilderness, and to assist us against our

chosen enemy Indians? She spake to the interpreter to inform — her what the chairman said, though we believed she un1676. derstood him, and then bade the interpreter ask her son, to whom the English tongue was familiar, and who was reputed the son of an English colonel. Yet neither would he speak to, nor seem to understand, the chairman, but, as the interpreter told us, referred all to his mother. Being again urged, after a little musing, with an earnest, passionate countenance, as if tears were ready to gush out, and a fervent sort of expression, she made an harangue of about a quarter of an hour, often interlacing, with a high, shrill voice and vehement passion, these words: ‘Talapotamoi dead!' Colonel Hill, being next me, shook his head. I asked him what was the matter. He told me all she said was too true, to our shame. That his father was general in that battle where, diverse years before, Talapotamoi, her husband, had led a hundred of his Indians in help to the English against our former enemy Indians, and was there slain with most of his men, for which no compensation at all had been to that day rendered to her, wherewith she now upbraided us.” “Her discourse ending, and our morose chairman not advancing one cold word toward assuaging the anger and grief her speech and demeanor manifested, nor taking any notice of all she had said, neither considering that we then were, in our great exigency, suppliants to her for a favor of the same kind as the former, for which we did not deny the having been so ingrate, he rudely pushed again the same question—What Indians will you now contribute 3 Of this disregard she signified her resentment by a disdainful aspect, and, turning her head half aside, sat mute, till the same question being pressed a third time, without returning her face to the board, she answered, with a low, slighting voice, in her own language, “Six P Being further importuned, sitting a chosen little while sullen without a word between, she said “Twelve!’ though she then had a hundred and fifty 1676. Indian men in her town. And so she rose and walked gravely away, as not pleased with her treatment.” The vigorous prosecution of the Indian war provided for, the Assembly turned its attention to internal reforms. Fees and public offices were regulated, and provision made against abuses of official authority. The right of voting for burgesses, and the election of the parish vestries, were restored to the freemen. The exemption from taxes hitherto enjoyed by the families of ministers and counselors was taken away. In making the county levy, the commissioners were to be joined by delegates from the parishes. All “ordinaries, ale-houses, and tippling-houses” were suppressed, except “in Jamestown, and at each side of York River at the two great ferries.” The ordinaries at these latter places might “sell and utter man's meat, horse meat, beer and cider, but no other strong drink whatsoever;” and any person, “except as aforesaid, presuming to sell any sort of drink or liquor by retail, under any color, pretense, delusion, or subtle evasion whatsoever, to be drunk or spent in his or their house or houses, or upon his or their plantation or plantations,” was liable to a fine of one hundred pounds of tobacco, payable to the informer. Edward Hill and John Stith, “great instruments in stirring up the late differences,” by reason of “the illegal and unjust burdensome taxes,” by the “art, skill, and cunning” of the said Hill and Stith, and for “their private ends and gain,” imposed upon the inhabitants of Charles City county, were specially disqualified to hold any office in any parish of that county. The legislation of this remarkable Assembly, known collectively as Bacon's laws,

chapTER concludes with an act of general and total pardon and ob


July 29.

Aug. 3.

livion of all treasons, felonies, contempts, crimes, and misdemeanors done or counseled since the first day of March last past, to the four and twentieth day of June, except breaches of the act against trade with the Indians. The Assembly dissolved, the general appointed by it undertook an expedition against the Pamunkeys, whom, according to the governor's partisans, he frightened from their lands, and made hostile, if they were so. While Bacon was thus employed, Berkeley was encouraged by a loyal petition from Gloucester county, got up by Philip Ludwell, one of the council, to proceed thither, and to issue a new proclamation, again denouncing Bacon as a rebel. But the projects of the governor were counterworked by the activity of Drummond and Lawrence. Bacon, in reply, put forth a declaration, in which he arraigned the governor, justified himself, and called a convention of delegates from the several counties to meet at Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg. This convention, attended by many of the principal men of the colony, agreed upon an oath to be imposed on the inhabitants, and an “engagement” to be signed by them, promising to support Bacon even against troops from England till the matters in dispute could be referred to the king. As even the loyal inhabitants of Gloucester seemed cold to his cause, Berkeley presently retired to Accomac, on the eastern shore, accompanied by Beverley, Ludwell, and a few others. This withdrawal was treated as an abdication of office, and Bacon, with four members of the council, issued writs for electing a new Assembly. Bacon's party had been joined by Giles Bland, the collector of the customs, “a gentleman newly arrived from England to possess the estate of his deceased uncle, late of the council.” Bland seized the ship of one Lori

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