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chapTER red out unarmed. “The Indians were seen in small par


* 1676. March.

ties lurking throughout the land.” The Indian traders,
accused of having supplied the Indians with guns and
ammunition, became objects of great popular detestation.
The governor, who enjoyed a certain per centage on the
Indian traffic, for which he had the sole right of granting
licenses, shared, also, a part of this unpopularity, increas-
ed, there is reason to believe, by his energetic condem-
nation of the treachery practiced on the Susquehannas,
and his disposition to shield the peaceful Indians from the
indiscriminating rage of the colonists.
Sir Henry Chicheley had arrived in Virginia a year or
two before, with a commission as deputy governor. He
set out at the head of a volunteer expedition to attack
the Indians, but was speedily recalled. The Assembly
met, and taking into “sad, and serious consideration”
the “sundry murders, surprises, and many depredations”
lately committed, they declared war against all Indians
“who are notoriously known, or shall be discovered to
have committed the murders, surprises, or depredations
aforesaid, their fautors, aiders, and abettors,” and against
all other “suspected Indians” who refused to deliver
sufficient hostages, or to aid and assist in the pursuit,
discovery, and destruction of the hostile.
As this was to be a war “with an enemy whose re-
tirements are not easily discovered, so that a flying
army may not be so useful at present,” the Assembly
ordered the enlistment of five hundred men, a quarter
part horsemen, “to be drawn out of the midland and
most secure parts of the country,” “to be entered into
standing pay, and placed at the heads of the rivers and
other places fronting on the enemy.” For the better
discovery of the enemy's approaches, the horsemen were
to range constantly between the garrisons, so as to meet

each other, if possible. The foot “were to be in action chool,

at the discretion of the commander for securing the ad

jacent plantations.” Each garrison was to be allowed 1676.

four Indians as guides. Commissioners were appointed in each county to impress the necessary men, horses, boats, and provisions, and additional commissioners “to use Indians in the war, and to require and receive hostages from them.” Each post was to have a “chirurgeon,” and a “convenient quantity of medicines, salves, &c., to the value of five pounds sterling for every hundred men.” Provisions were to be furnished at the rate of five bushels of shelled corn, and fifty pounds of pork or eighty of beef, for each man, for each term of four months. Horsemen were to be paid at the rate of two thousand pounds of tobacco a year, “and cask,” reckoned at eight per cent. additional. Footmen were to have fifteen hundred pounds per year; corporals and drummers, one hundred and fifty pounds per month; sergeants, two hundred and fifty pounds per month; ensigns, three hundred pounds; lieutenants, four hundred pounds; captains, six hundred pounds per month, “and cask.” Horses killed or dying in the service were to be paid for. “Due consideration by the Grand Assembly” was also promised of the “indigent families of such as happen to be slain, and of the persons and families of those who shall be maimed or disabled in this war.” The remaining forces in the frontier counties were to be enrolled, and might be led to the relief of any fort attacked, but no of. fensive operations were to be undertaken without special leave of the governor—a prohibition which the result of the late expedition against the Susquehannas might well justify. Friendly Indians were to have “three watch-coats” for every prisoner taken, and one for every head brought in.

chapter. The “articles of war,” made a part of this act, are _ sufficiently stringent. Any soldier, “drunk or sober,” 1676, who shall “blaspheme the name of God,” or “deride or contemn God's word or sacraments,” is to “run the gauntlet through a hundred men, or thereabouts,” and if the offense be repeated, to be “bored through the tongue with a hot iron.” Death is to be the punishment of doing any hurt to an officer, or lifting arms against him; of drawing sword to do mischief after watch is set; of making a false alarm in the camp; of shooting off a musket in the night-time; of being found asleep or drunk on the watch; of desertion; “running from his colors;” or giving intelligence to the enemy. Swearing and drunkenness, on the third offense, are to

be punished by “riding the wooden horse for an hour,
with a musket tied to each foot,” and by “asking for-
giveness at the next meeting for prayer and preaching.”
Public prayers are to be duly read in the field every
morning and evening. The act winds up by directing
that the last Fridays in April and May be set apart as
“ days of public fasting and humiliation,” humbly to
implore “the divine assistance and blessing upon our en-
deavors in this war.” -
And “whereas the country's preparations for war in
likelihood may cause a more than ordinary expense of
provisions,” by another act the exportation of corn is
prohibited. " A third act makes it death to sell powder
and shot to the Indians. The late traders are wholly
excluded from any further Indian traffic. Sensible, how-
ever, “that such friendly Indians as are among us in
peace, if they be not supplied with watch-coats, hoes and
axes to tend their corn and fence their ground, must of
necessity perish of famine or live on rapine,” to prevent
this evil, the Assembly authorize a trade by “some sober

persons, not exceeding five,” in each county, to be nom- chapter inated by the county courts. xv. In the present excited state of the public mind, this 1676. scheme of defense was not satisfactory. The governor was accused of leaning toward the Indians; the forts were denounced as a useless burden; and offensive operations were loudly demanded. This discontented party included “many gentlemen of good condition,” “persons of the greatest quality in the province.” - Bacon, to whom the governor had refused a commission to beat up for volunteers against the Indians, was particularly forward. He gave out that, on news of any further depredations, he should march against the Indians, commission or no commission. An attack upon his own plantation, near the falls of James River, afforded him speedy occasion to carry his threats into effect. Provoked at this disregard of his authority, the governor put forth a proclamation, depriving Bacon of his April seat in the council, and denouncing as rebels all his company who should not return within a limited day. “Those of estates” obeyed; but Bacon, and fifty-seven others, proceeded onward till their provisions were near spent. Approaching a fort of friendly Indians, they asked provisions, offering payment. The Indians promised fairly, but put them off till the third day, by which time their stores were completely exhausted. Finding themselves in danger of starvation, and suspecting that the Indians had been instigated to their procrastinations by private messages from the governor, Bacon's men waded, shoulder deep, through a stream that covered the fort, entreating victuals, and tendering pay. A shot from the bank they had left presently killed one of their number. Apprehending an attack in the rear, “they fired the palisadoes, stormed and burned the fort and cabins,

chapTER and, with the loss of three English, slew one hundred


June 7.

and fifty Indians.” . Such was Bacon's own account of
this exploit.
The governor had marched in pursuit of Bacon, but
was soon stopped short by disturbances in the lower
counties, instigated by Drummond and Lawrence, res-
idents at Jamestown. “The people drew together by
beat of drum, declaring against forts as an intolerable
pressure, and of no use;” nor was it found possible to
appease these tumults except by dissolving the old As-
sembly and calling a new one.
Bacon was elected a burgess for the county of Hen-
rico; but, as he approached Jamestown in a sloop with
thirty armed followers, he was intercepted by an armed
ship. Shots being fired at him, he fled up the river,
but was presently arrested by the sheriff of Jamestown,
and carried prisoner before the governor, with some twen-
ty of his followers. -
Neither “the ill temper of the new Assembly, which
was much infected with Bacon's principles,” nor the
discontents still prevailing out of doors, would admit of
harsh measures; nor does it appear, indeed, that at this
moment the governor was inclined to severity. By
the intervention of the culprit's uncle and his other
friends, a reconciliation was speedily arranged. In con-
sideration of a pardon which the governor had prom-
ised, four days after the meeting of the Assembly, Ba-
con, placed at the bar, confessed, on his knees, “his late
unlawful, mutinous, and rebellious practices;” begged
pardon therefor; desired the council and burgesses to
mediate for him; and proffered his whole estate in Vir-
ginia as security for his good behavior. An act was
also passed for putting in force the laws of England for
the suppression of riots, and tumults, of which, as the

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