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site party carried the day, and the seceders were sus- cion

tained in the course they had taken. A very warm

controversy was kept up for the next fourteen years, till 1671.

increasing dangers from abroad brought the two churches
again into harmony.
The Quakers, as yet, had abated nothing of their en-
thusiastic zeal, of which the colonists had a new specimen,
that greatly tried their patience, in two young married
women, who walked naked through the streets of New-
bury and Salem, in emulation of the prophet Ezekiel, as
a sign of the nakedness of the land. They were whipped
from town to town out of the colony, under the law against
vagabond Quakers; the young husband of one of them
following the cart to which his wife was tied, and from
time to time interposing his hat between her naked and
bleeding back and the lash of the executioner. George
Fox, founder and apostle of the sect, in his missionary
travels through the English colonies, came as far as Rhode
Island, but, more discreet than some of his disciples, he
did not venture into Connecticut or Massachusetts.
The New England theocracy as against Quakerism
found an unexpected champion in Roger Williams, who
denied the pretensions of the Quakers to spiritual en-
lightenment, and challenged. Fox himself to a disputa-
tion. Before this challenge arrived Fox was gone; but
it was accepted on his behalf by three of his chief disci-
ples at Newport, with whom Williams held a three days'
disputation. He came the day before, in his own boat,
thirty miles from Providence, himself, now upward of
seventy years of age, acting as oarsman. “God gra-
ciously assisted me,” he writes, “in rowing all day
with my old bones, so that I got to Newport toward the
midnight before the morning appointed.” Williams,
alone, had three vociferous champions against him.

1672.

July.

Aug. 9, 10, 11.

chapter. There was no moderator, and no one was allowed to inxi.

1672.

1675.

1672.

terfere. The debate was tumultuous, and at the end of the first day the challenger was heartily sick of it. He carried it through, however, for three days, and then adjourned for a fourth day at Providence. We have an account of this disputation in “George Fox digged out of his Burroughs,” the only one of Williams's writings permitted to be published in New England. It did not make its appearance, however, till four years after the dispute. Fox published, in reply, “A New England Firebrand quenched.” Neither of these treatises was at all remarkable for tenderness of speech or chariness of epithet. In spite of Williams's arguments, the Quaker sect increased so much in Rhode Island, that Coddington, now a Quaker, was presently elected governor. Meanwhile the growing commerce of Boston began to attract the notice and envy of the jealous English merchants. Though the houses were generally wooden, and the streets narrow and crooked, “with little decency and no uniformity,” that town, by far the largest and most commercial in the colonies, already had a population of seven or eight thousand; among them, some merchants of considerable capital and active enterprise. New England trading vessels frequented the Southern colonies, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina, Antigua, and Barbadoes, which they supplied to a great extent with European goods, taking in return tobacco, sugar, rum, and other tropical products, which they sold in Spain, Italy, and Holland, along with their own staples of fish and staves, thus evading the navigation acts, and interfering with that monopoly of colonial trade which the English merchants aimed to secure. Hence a new act of Parliament, imposing on the transit of “enumerated articles” from colony to colony the same duties payable on the introduction of those articles into England. For the chAPTER

collection of these duties, the same act authorized the
establishment of custom-houses in the colonies, under
the superintendence of the English Commissioners of the
Customs. Such was the origin of royal custom-houses
in America, and of commercial duties levied there by au-
thority of Parliament and in the name of the king.
As these inter-colonial duties were to be levied at the
ports of shipment, and as the “enumerated articles,” to-
bacco, sugar, rum, &c., were the produce exclusively of
the Southern colonies, there was yet no occasion for royal
custom-house officers in New England. Some slight
duties on imports, levied by the colonial authorities, were
too inconsiderable to prove any impediment to trade.
A second Dutch war produced but transient alarm.
The Massachusetts authorities, in fact, took advantage
of it to give a new extension to their territory. A new
survey of the Merrimac had been made, by which the
northern boundary of Massachusetts was carried two
leagues further north, being fixed at 43° 49' 12" of north

1672.

1671.

latitude. According to the calculations of the surveyors,

it crossed the Sagadahoc near where Bath now stands, stretching as far eastward as the southwest point of Pe. nobscot Bay, including the Plymouth settlement at Sagadahoc, the ancient colony of Pemaquid, and other villages on the eastern coasts and islands. A Dutch fleet having recaptured the ancient New Netherland, the authorities of Massachusetts were induced to take advantage of this temporary overthrow of the Duke of York's government to stretch their authority over the eastern villages included in the re-survey. High-sounding reasons in behalf of this annexation were not wanting.

“That the ways of godliness may be encouraged and 1673.

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chapTER the new county of Devonshire. All that now remained

to the Duke of York of his late extensive province were

1673. some little hamlets on the west shore of the Penobscot

May.

Bay. But this arrangement was destined to be very
short-lived. -
Governor Bellingham, who died in office at a patri-
archal age, had been succeeded by Leverett. Bradstreet,
though a magistrate since the foundation of the colony,
was still in disgrace from his attachment to a moderate
course of policy. Denison, however, Bradstreet's brother-
in-law, and, like him, an adherent of the moderate par-
ty, regained the office of major general, to which he had
been elected ten years before, but had then laid down to
make room for Leverett. The plantations were grad-
ually extending. The future progress of New England
in wealth and numbers was already foreseen. As yet,
however, the entire white population did not exceed sixty
thousand, distributed along the sea-coast and the banks
of the Lower Connecticut. Lancaster, about forty miles
from Boston, was the frontier town of the Bay settle-
ments; Brookfield, some thirty miles from the river, was
the most eastern town of those in the Connecticut Val-
ley. There intervened between these townships a great
space of rugged country, wholly unsettled, and occupied
by a few straggling Indians.
Except in the destruction of the Pequods, the native
tribes of New England had as yet undergone no very
material diminution. The Pocanokets or Wampanoags,
though somewhat curtailed in their limits, still occu-
pied the eastern shore of Narraganset Bay. The Nar-
ragansets still possessed the western shore. There were
several scattered tribes in various parts of Connecticut;
though, with the exception of some small reservations,
they had already ceded all their lands. Uncas, the Mo-

hegan chief, was now an old man. The Pawtucket or chAPTER Penacook confederacy continued to occupy the falls of the Merrimac and the heads of the Piscataqua. Their 1673. old sachem, Passaconaway, regarded the colonists with awe and veneration. In the interior of Massachusetts and along the Connecticut were several other less noted tribes. The Indians of Maine and the region eastward possessed their ancient haunts undisturbed ; but their intercourse was principally with the French, to whom, since the late peace with France, Acadie had been again yielded up. The New England Indians were occasion. ally annoyed by war parties of Mohawks; but, by the intervention of Massachusetts, a peace had recently been concluded. - * * Efforts for the conversion and civilization of the Indians were still continued by Eliot and his coadjutors, supported by the funds of the English society. In Massachusetts there were fourteen feeble villages of these praying Indians, and a few more in Plymouth colony. The whole number in New England was about thirtysix hundred, but of these near one half inhabited the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. We have seen, in former chapters, the strict hand held by Massachusetts over the Narragansets and other subject tribes, as well as the contraction of their limits by repeated cessions, not always entirely voluntary. The Wampanoags, within the jurisdiction of Plymouth, experienced similar treatment. By successive sales of parts of their territory, they were now shut up, as it were, in the necks or peninsulas formed by the northern and eastern branches of Narraganset Bay, the same territory now constituting the continental eastern portion of Rhode Island. Though always at peace with the colonists, the Wampanoags had not always escaped suspicion. The

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