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site party carried the day, and the seceders were sus- cion
tained in the course they had taken. A very warm
controversy was kept up for the next fourteen years, till 1671.
increasing dangers from abroad brought the two churches
Aug. 9, 10, 11.
chapter. There was no moderator, and no one was allowed to inxi.
terfere. The debate was tumultuous, and at the end of the first day the challenger was heartily sick of it. He carried it through, however, for three days, and then adjourned for a fourth day at Providence. We have an account of this disputation in “George Fox digged out of his Burroughs,” the only one of Williams's writings permitted to be published in New England. It did not make its appearance, however, till four years after the dispute. Fox published, in reply, “A New England Firebrand quenched.” Neither of these treatises was at all remarkable for tenderness of speech or chariness of epithet. In spite of Williams's arguments, the Quaker sect increased so much in Rhode Island, that Coddington, now a Quaker, was presently elected governor. Meanwhile the growing commerce of Boston began to attract the notice and envy of the jealous English merchants. Though the houses were generally wooden, and the streets narrow and crooked, “with little decency and no uniformity,” that town, by far the largest and most commercial in the colonies, already had a population of seven or eight thousand; among them, some merchants of considerable capital and active enterprise. New England trading vessels frequented the Southern colonies, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina, Antigua, and Barbadoes, which they supplied to a great extent with European goods, taking in return tobacco, sugar, rum, and other tropical products, which they sold in Spain, Italy, and Holland, along with their own staples of fish and staves, thus evading the navigation acts, and interfering with that monopoly of colonial trade which the English merchants aimed to secure. Hence a new act of Parliament, imposing on the transit of “enumerated articles” from colony to colony the same duties payable on the introduction of those articles into England. For the chAPTER
collection of these duties, the same act authorized the
latitude. According to the calculations of the surveyors,
it crossed the Sagadahoc near where Bath now stands, stretching as far eastward as the southwest point of Pe. nobscot Bay, including the Plymouth settlement at Sagadahoc, the ancient colony of Pemaquid, and other villages on the eastern coasts and islands. A Dutch fleet having recaptured the ancient New Netherland, the authorities of Massachusetts were induced to take advantage of this temporary overthrow of the Duke of York's government to stretch their authority over the eastern villages included in the re-survey. High-sounding reasons in behalf of this annexation were not wanting.
“That the ways of godliness may be encouraged and 1673.
chapTER the new county of Devonshire. All that now remained
to the Duke of York of his late extensive province were
1673. some little hamlets on the west shore of the Penobscot
Bay. But this arrangement was destined to be very
hegan chief, was now an old man. The Pawtucket or chAPTER Penacook confederacy continued to occupy the falls of the Merrimac and the heads of the Piscataqua. Their 1673. old sachem, Passaconaway, regarded the colonists with awe and veneration. In the interior of Massachusetts and along the Connecticut were several other less noted tribes. The Indians of Maine and the region eastward possessed their ancient haunts undisturbed ; but their intercourse was principally with the French, to whom, since the late peace with France, Acadie had been again yielded up. The New England Indians were occasion. ally annoyed by war parties of Mohawks; but, by the intervention of Massachusetts, a peace had recently been concluded. - * * Efforts for the conversion and civilization of the Indians were still continued by Eliot and his coadjutors, supported by the funds of the English society. In Massachusetts there were fourteen feeble villages of these praying Indians, and a few more in Plymouth colony. The whole number in New England was about thirtysix hundred, but of these near one half inhabited the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. We have seen, in former chapters, the strict hand held by Massachusetts over the Narragansets and other subject tribes, as well as the contraction of their limits by repeated cessions, not always entirely voluntary. The Wampanoags, within the jurisdiction of Plymouth, experienced similar treatment. By successive sales of parts of their territory, they were now shut up, as it were, in the necks or peninsulas formed by the northern and eastern branches of Narraganset Bay, the same territory now constituting the continental eastern portion of Rhode Island. Though always at peace with the colonists, the Wampanoags had not always escaped suspicion. The