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Vane, formerly governor of Massachusetts, and always corn a firm friend of New England, presently suffered a similar fate. Others were concealed or in exile. The In- 1662. dependents were far before their time. Their short reign was over. The press, which Cromwell had left free, was now again subjected to a strict censorship. These changes in the mother country occasioned some emigration to New England, but not to any great extent. The Massachusetts agents presently returned, bearers. Sept. of a royal letter, in which the king recognized the charter, and promised oblivion of all past offenses. But he demanded the repeal of all laws inconsistent with his due authority; an oath of allegiance to the royal person, as formerly in use, but dropped since the commencement of the late civil war; the administration of justice in his name; complete toleration for the Church of England; the repeal of the law which restricted the privilege of voting and tenure of office to church members, and the substitution of a property qualification instead; finally, the admission of all persons of honest lives to the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper. Little favor was shown for the Quakers; indeed, liberty was expressly given to make a “sharp law” against them— a permission eagerly availed of to revive the act by which vagabond Quakers were ordered to be whipped from town to town out of the jurisdiction; those resident in the colony being subject to fines and other heavy penalties, and liable, if they returned after being once expelled, to be treated as vagabonds. The claimants for toleration, formerly suppressed with such prompt severity, were now encouraged, by the king's demands in their favor, again to raise their heads. For the next thirty years the people of Massa

chapTER chusetts were divided into three parties. A very de

cided, though gradually diminishing majority, sustain

1662. ed with ardor the theocratic system, and, as essential to

it, entire independence of external control. At the opposite extreme, a party, small in numbers and feeble in influence, advocated religious toleration, at least to a limited extent, and equal civil rights for all inhabitants. They advocated, also, the supremacy of the crown, sole means in that day of curbing the theocracy, and compelling it to yield its monopoly of power. To this party belonged the Episcopalians, or those inclined to become such, the Baptists, Quakers, and other sectaries, who

feared less the authority of a distant monarch than the

present rule of watchful and bitter spiritual rivals. In-
termediate was a third party, weak at first, but daily
growing stronger, and drawing to its ranks, one after
another, some former zealous advocates of the exclusive
system, convinced that theocracy, in its stricter form,
was no longer tenable, and some of them, perhaps, begin-
ning to be satisfied that it was not desirable. Among
the earliest of these converts were Norton and Brad-
street, the agents, who came back from England im-
pressed with the necessity of yielding. . But the avowal
of such sentiments was fatal to their popularity; and
Norton, accustomed to nothing but reverence and ap-
plause, finding himself now looked at with distrust, soon
died of melancholy and mortification.
The vigor of the theocratic system, by the operation
of internal causes, was already somewhat relaxed. In
spite of the doctrines of total depravity, special grace,
and personal regeneration, the influence of parental ten-

derness had induced the founders of the New England

churches to extend from themselves to their “infant seed” the privileges of baptism and a partial church membership. Among these baptized children, now grown onsors up, were many men of property, reputable lives, and so- cial influence, who conformed strictly to all the observ- 1662. ances of the established religion, which they had been educated to regard with profound veneration, but who did not feel, and who were too sincere and too honest to counterfeit those spiritual ecstasies, that change of heart, and inward assurance, in which, by the creed of the New England churches, saving faith was supposed to consist. Lacking this essential qualification, they hesitated to complete what their fathers had begun, by asking admittance, as full church members to the Lord's Supper; but they insisted, at the same time, on securing for their children, also, the spiritual benefits of baptism, and the civil privileges of church membership. This demand, for some years past, had been an anxious subject 1657. of consideration, especially in Connecticut, where the churches were much torn in pieces by it, so that a Massachusetts council had to be called in to promote a 1659. reconciliation. About the time of the return of the agents, a synod met to take this subject into consideration. The majority of the ministers, alarmed at the aspect of things in England, and always better informed and more liberal than the majority of the church members, were willing to enlarge somewhat the basis of their polity. Under the influence of Mitchell, minister of Cambridge, successor of the “holy, heavenly, sweet-affecting, and soul-ravishing” Shepherd, the synod came to a result the same with that agreed upon by a select council of Massachusetts ministers five years before, authorizing what was called the “half-way covenant;” the admission to baptism, that is, of the children of persons of acceptable character, who approved the confession of faith, and had themselves been baptized in infancy,

chapTER xiv.

1662.

1660.

1662. April 23.

though not church members in full communion. This result was approved by the Massachusetts General Court. But a large party, narrow, and stiff, and resolute in the monopoly of spiritual and civil privileges, still stickled with great pertinacity for the old-fashioned exclusiveness, so that several of the ministers did not dare carry out in their own parishes that result of the synod which they had been active in procuring. Davenport and Chauncey protested against the halfway covenant. Increase Mather, the young and able minister of the second Church of Boston, opposed at first the result of the synod; but he afterward changed his mind and gave it his support. This question, which continued for several years a subject of dispute and inquietude, gave occasion to several pamphlets. The press at Cambridge was kept, however, under a strict censorship, Mitchell being one of the censors; nor was any other press allowed to be established. Connecticut and Rhode Island, having favors to ask, had been more prompt than Massachusetts to acknowledge the authority of Charles II. Winthrop for Connecticut, of which colony he was governor, and Clarke for Rhode Island, presented themselves at Charles's court in quest of charters. The season was propitious. The Restoration, at least for the moment, was a sort of era of good feeling. Winthrop might be subject to sus. picion as the son-in-law of Hugh Peters; but his talents, his scientific acquirements—he was one of the founders of the Royal Society—and his suavity of address, secured him many friends. The aged Lord Say introduced him to some influential courtiers, and he seems to have encountered little difficulty in obtaining the charter which he sought. That instrument, following the terms of the old alleged grant to the Earl of Warwick, established for the boundaries of Connecticut the Narragan- corn

set River, the south line of Massachusetts, the shore of

the Sound, and the Pacific Ocean. It thus not only 1662.

embraced a large part of the continental portion of Rhode
Island, but the whole of New Haven, also-an absorp-
tion about which the inhabitants of that colony had not
been consulted, and with which, at first, they were not
very well satisfied.
Clarke, the Rhode Island agent, found a friend in Clar-
endon, the prime minister; but, in the course of his so-
licitations, he was obliged to expend a considerable sum
of money, for which he mortgaged his own house in New-
port, and which the colony was a long time in paying
back. He encountered, also, obstruction in the fact
that the greater part of Providence Plantation had just
been included in the charter of Connecticut. An agree-
ment, presently entered into between Clarke and Win-
throp, fixed for the limit between the two colonies the
Pawcatuck, declared to be the Narraganset River men-
tioned in the Connecticut charter; and this agreement
was specially set forth in the charter of Rhode Island
AND PRovidence PLANTATIONs.
The charters thus granted vested in the proprietary
freemen of Connecticut and Rhode Island the right of
admitting new associates, and of choosing annually from
among themselves a governor, magistrates, and repre-
sentatives, with powers of legislation and judicial au-
thority. No appellate jurisdiction and no negative on the
laws were reserved to the crown any more than in the
charters of Massachusetts and Maryland; but all enact-
ments, as in the other English plantations, were to con-
form, as near as might be, to the laws of England. Ex-

cept this authority of English law, allegiance to the crown,

1663.

July 8.

and the superintending power of Parliament, whatever

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