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its of Massachusetts, the ground being taken that the corn late arrangement of boundaries related only to Connecticut. Some adventurous citizens of Massachusetts, hav- 1659. ing obtained from the Commissioners for the United Colonies a letter to that effect, applied to Stuyvesant for leave to ascend the Hudson for the purpose of establishing a settlement on its upper waters. No sooner had Connecticut obtained a royal charter, 1662. embracing, also, the territory of New Haven, as will be related in a subsequent chapter, than claims began to be put forth under it to Long Island, Westchester, and 1663. all the main land east of the Hudson. Several of the Dutch towns on Long Island, inhabited principally by English settlers, petitioned Connecticut to take them under her jurisdiction. Stuyvesant, greatly alarmed, went in person to Boston to inquire of the Commissioners for the United Colonies if they considered the former treaty binding. Agents were sent on the same errand to Hartford. The New England Commissioners and the magistrates of Connecticut promised fairly, but their conduct still continued to excite suspicion; and, notwithstanding the contempt he had formerly expressed for popular assemblies, Stuyvesant followed the example of his predecessor in calling together, for advice and consultation, a body of deputies from the several villages and settlements. They recommended an appeal for protection to the West India Company and the States-General. Another similar assembly, called the next year, did but repeat the 1664. same bootless advice. The time had come, at length, when the English claim to New Netherland, so often insisted on, was now, at last, to be enforced. Shortly after the restoration of Charles II., the Duke of York, the king's brother, had purchased up the various claims of Lord Sterling under the grants from the

chosen extinct Council for New England, already so often men

tioned. This purchase was presently confirmed by a

1664. royal charter conveying a great American territory to ** the duke, called New York, in honor of the proprietary

Aug.

—not Lord Sterling's provinces only, but the larger
part of New Netherland also. This territory included, on
the east, the tract between the St. Croix and the Pema-
quid, one of Sterling's provinces; and on the west the
region between the Connecticut and the Delaware, with
all the islands south and west of Cape Cod. Swallow-
ing up New Netherland, encroaching also on the char-
tered limits of Massachusetts and Connecticut, this new
province completely embosomed within its wide circuit
the old Puritan colonies of New England.
Before any intimation had been given to the Dutch
of impending hostilities, three ships were dispatched with
six hundred soldiers, and Sir Robert Nichols, Sir George
Cartwright, and Sir Robert Carr as commissioners, to
take possession of New Netherland for the Duke of York.
They touched at Boston, and asked there for additional
soldiers; but, as the same commissioners were also au-
thorized to investigate certain complaints against the
government of Massachusetts, of which an account will
presently be given, their reception in that colony was
sufficiently cold. Without waiting for the action of the
General Court, without whose sanction, as Endicott and
the magistrates alleged, no soldiers could be raised, the
commissioners, after a short delay, proceeded toward New
Netherland. The newly-chartered colony of Connecticut
was more zealous, and Winthrop, the governor, went per-
sonally on board the squadron, which presently came to
anchor within Sandy Hook.
Rumors of an intended invasion had reached Manhat-
tan; but the West India Company, suffering as it was

under pecuniary embarrassments, had refused to fur- chapTER xiii.

nish means of defense even against Connecticut. Stuy-
vesant, a stout old soldier, zealous for his employers,
would willingly have stood a siege; but the Dutch in-
habitants were lukewarm, while the English, no incon-
siderable portion of the colonists, were secretly, indeed,
some of them openly, favorable to the invaders.
After a few days' negotiation with the commissioners,
and much warm dispute between the director, who strug-
gled hard to maintain his authority, and the burgomas-
ters and principal inhabitants of New Amsterdam, who
were resolved not to run the risk of an attack, through

the mediation of Winthrop a liberal capitulation was ar

ranged. The Dutch colonists, besides the privileges of
free denizens of the new province, were to be allowed
free trade with Holland. The Dutch law of inheritance
was to continue in force, assuring an equal distribution
to all the children. The Dutch Reformed Church was
to enjoy its privileges, and the colonists their freedom
of worship. - -
With this change of masters New Amsterdam changed
its name to NEw York, a designation bestowed alike on
the new province and its capital city. Though much
improved under the administration of Stuyvesant, this
embryo mercantile metropolis of the western world
consisted as yet of but a few narrow streets, near
the southern extremity of the Island of Manhattan.
There were a few buildings of handsome appearance,
covered with tiles brought from Holland; but most of
the houses were small thatched cottages, and Nichols
complained that it was impossible to find bedding in the
town for his soldiers.
While Nichols remained at New York as governor of
the new province, Cartwright, another of the commission-

1664.

chapTER ers, with one of the ships and a detachment of troops,

XIII.

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ascended the Hudson; and the colony of Rensselaers-
wyk, with Fort Orange and the town of Beverswyk,
quietly surrendered. That town, from one of the Duke
of York's titles, was presently called Albany. Carr, the
third commissioner, entered the Delaware with another
vessel, and the surrender of the posts and settlements on
that river completed the conquest.
At the treaty of peace between Holland and England
some three years afterward, as a compensation for the
loss of New Netherland, the Dutch were allowed to re-
tain the colony of Surinam, in Guiana, then lately plant-
ed by some English adventurers, but captured by the
Dutch during the war.
The policy of this exchange was long doubted by many,
who thought colonies within the tropics more profitable
than plantations in North America. For the first hun-
dred years Surinam kept pretty equal pace with the col-
ony of New York. Considerable annoyance was experi-
enced by the new possessors from a body of refugee ne-
groes, descendants of some who fled to the woods at the
period of the conquest; but a treaty was at length ef-
fected, by which, in consideration of a certain annual
tribute, they agreed to restore all future runaway slaves
to the colonists. Surinam, by the aid of Dutch capital
and an active slave trade, presently advanced with rapid
strides. It was one of the first American plantations
into which the cultivation of coffee was successfully in-
troduced. But, about the time of the American Revo-
lution, it received a terrible check in a servile insur-
rection, resulting, after a destructive war, in the estab-
lishment of a second independent negro community in
the rear of the colony. The cessation of the slave trade
having put a stop to increase by importations, the popu-

lation of Surinam, under the joint influence of slavery cion and bad government, has ever since been wasting away. With a vast unsettled territory, it now numbers scarce 1667. fifty thousand inhabitants—a striking contrast to the growth of New York. By the simultaneous treaty with France, the province

of Acadie, much to the disgust of the people of New England, was restored to its ancient possessors, without any precise specification of limits, but including by name La Häve, Cape Sable, Port Royal, St. John's, and Pentagoet, French name for Penobscot. As Temple objected to surrender the province till his interests were

provided for, the king agreed to repay his expenditures to the amount of £16,200. Upon the strength of this promise, peremptory orders were sent out to give up the 1669. province to the French. But Temple never received his money. One effect of this surrender was a great curtailment of the eastern portion of the Duke of York's province.

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