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color These soldiers were billeted on the inhabitants, and the

1644. Aug. 4.

Oct. 28.

Nov. 16.

1645. April.

Aug. 30.

Oct. 16.

excise duties were continued to provide them with cloth-
ing. The Eight Men denied the right to levy these
taxes, and the brewers resisted; but Kieft insisted on
payment. Presently the Eight Men appealed to Hol-
land in a protest complaining in emphatic terms of
Kieft's conduct in the origin and progress of the war.
The inhabitants also expressed their opinions with much
freedom, and the shout-fiscal at New Amsterdam soon
had his hands full of prosecutions for defamation of the
director's character.
A part of the English settlers at Stamford sought
safety from the Indians by crossing to Long Island, where
they commenced a settlement at Hempstead, under a
Dutch patent, on the lands of the lately-exterminated
tribe. The next spring some friendly Indians were taken
into the Dutch service, and Kieft, having paid a visit to
Fort Orange, entered into a treaty with the Mohawks,
by the terror of whose name the other hostile tribes were
induced to agree to a firm peace. In case of future dif-
ficulties, application was to be made for redress by the
Indians to the Dutch director, and by the colonists to the
Indian sachems. No Indian was to approach Manhattan
armed, nor were armed colonists to visit the Indian vil-
lages, unless conducted thither by some Indian. Mrs.
Hutchinson's captive daughter was to be given up on
ransom. The treaty was approved by the assembled
citizens of New Amsterdam, and a day of general thanks-
giving was ordered. Advantage was taken of this peace
to obtain some additional cessions on Long Island, and
Vlissengen, now Flushing, was granted to a company
of Anabaptist refugees from Massachusetts.
Rensselaerswyk, the only portion of the province which
had escaped the ravages of this war, had received, two or

three years before, an accession of settlers, among them corn John Megalapolensis, a “pious and well-learned minister,” to whom we are indebted for the earliest extant ac- 1642. count of the Mohawks. Under the guns of the Fort Aurania, but within the jurisdiction of the patroon, a little village had sprung up near the bend of the river, and hence familiarly known among the inhabitants as the Fuyk, or Beversfuyk, but officially as Beverswyk, the present Albany. Here a church had been built, and here resided Van Cuyler, the president-commissary; also Van der Donck, graduate of the University of Leyden, shout-fiscal of the colony, and author of a Description of New Netherland. - Very jealous of his feudal jurisdiction, aspiring, in fact, to a substantial independence, the patroon would grant no lands unless the settlers would agree to renounce their right of appeal to the authorities at New Amsterdam. He was equally jealous of his monopoly of importation; but Van der Donck, unwilling to be esteemed “the worst man in the colony,” especially “as his term of office was short,” was rather backward in enforcing the severe laws against irregular trade. This lukewarmness produced a violent quarrel between him and the zealous Van Cuyler. Van der Donck was even accused of secretly fomenting among the inhabitants a spirit of discontent against these regulations, represented “as an attempt to steal the bread out of their mouths” —a discontent which showed itself not only in a protest against Van Cuyler, signed “in a circle,” but even in violent threats against that faithful officer's life. In the midst of these contentions, Van Cuyler was informed that a party of Mohawk warriors, returning successful from an inroad into Canada, had brought with them several French prisoners. France and Holland were

casion allies, and Van Cuyler, in hopes to ransom these prison



1643. July,


ers, made a journey into the Mohawk country, the beauty
of which he greatly admired. He was received with
much kindness, and feasted on wild turkey; but the Mo-
hawks could not be persuaded to part with their prison-
ers, the principal of whom was Father Jogues, a zeal-
ous Jesuit missionary. They promised, however, to
spare their lives, and twelve Indians escorted Van Cuy-
ler back to Beverswyk.
The next year, on one of their trading expeditions to
Fort Orange, the Indians brought their prisoner with
them. While there, news was received of a repulse
which the Mohawks had suffered in Canada. It was
believed -that, on his return to the Mohawk country,
Jogues would certainly be burned, and the Dutch com-
mandant advised his escape, and offered to assist in it.
After many contrivances to evade the vigilance of the
Indians, he was concealed in the hold of a sloop, but was
almost stifled with bad air. The Mohawks, greatly en-
raged, threatened vengeance, but were induced at last to
accept a ransom. Sent to New Amsterdam, where he
was kindly received by Kieft, the rescued missionary was
presently furnished with a passage to Holland. The next
year similar good offices were performed toward Father
Bressani, another Jesuit missionary captured by the Mo-
As security against interloping traders, a fort and trad-
ing house were built on a precipitous little islet in the
Hudson, eight or ten acres in extent, called Bear's, now
Rensselaer's Island, near the southern boundary of the
colony. Watch-master Coorn, to whom the command of .
the fort was intrusted, was directed to demand of all ves-
sels passing a toll of five gilders, and the lowering of
their flags, in acknowledgment of the staple right of

Rensselaerswyk. Skipper Lookermans, of the yacht chapTER Good Hope, on a voyage to Fort Orange, being hailed and ordered to lower his colors, replied scornfully, with 1644. an oath, that he would strike his flag for nobody “save * * the Prince of Orange and the high and mighty lords his masters.” Thereupon Coorn let fly at him divers shots, one of which perforated the “princely flag” of their high mightinesses the States-General, which the intrepid skipper held in his hands the while, raised just above his head. Van der Huygens, shout-fiscal of New Netherland, avenged this insult by a prosecution against Coorn, who was condemned in damages. A protest was also entered against the fort on Bear's Island. But the patroon was not inclined to relinquish any of his claims, and Coorn's zeal was presently rewarded by promotion to the office of shout-fiscal, in Van der Donck's place. The settlements about New Amsterdam, almost ruined by the late war, could hardly muster a hundred men. Of thirty flourishing boweries, but five or six remained. The complaints against Kieft, and the disastrous condition of the colony, caused much discussion among the directors of the West India Company. It appeared, indeed, from a statement of accounts, that New Netherland, up to this time, had cost the company more than 1638. half a million of gilders, $200,000, over and above all receipts. Kieft had flattered himself that the little Swedish colony on the Delaware would be broken up for want of supplies, and during the first three or four years it was in some danger. But soon Queen Christina appropriated 1642. a liberal sum for its benefit, and John Printz, lieutenant * colonel of cavalry, was sent out as governor, with a com- 1643. pany of soldiers and a number of settlers. Toward the Dutch at Fort Nassau, unless molested by them, he was

corn to observe friendly conduct. He was to treat the na

tives with “great kindness and humanity,” and not to

1643. allow any violence or injustice; to instruct them in the

Christian religion, and to secure their good will and at-
tachment by underselling the Dutch and English traders.
But the trade in furs was to be strictly confined to the
Swedish Company's agents. He was to pay particular
attention to the cultivation of tobacco and the propaga-
tion of sheep and cattle; to find out if silk and wine
could be produced; to attempt the manufacture of salt
from sea water; and to explore the mineralogy of the
country. Oak wood and walnuts were to be sent home
as ballast, the nuts to see if they would not produce oil.
The colony was to be governed according to “the laws,
customs, and usages of Sweden.” Punishments were
not to be inflicted except according to “ordinances and
legal forms,” and by the advice of the “most prudent
assessors of justice” to be found among the inhabitants.
Especially was he enjoined “to render to Almighty God
the true worship which is his due, according to the Con-
fession of Augsburg, the Council of Upsal, and the cere-
monies of the Swedish Church;” looking well after the
religious instruction of the young, and taking care that
“a good ecclesiastical discipline” be maintained. Some
Dutch farmers had established a little settlement under
the Swedish jurisdiction, some twenty miles below Chris.
tina. Printz was authorized, if he deemed it expedient,
to remove them to a somewhat greater distance, but was
specially instructed to respect their rights, and to allow
them the free exercise of their religion.
The new governor established his residence in a fort
of hemlock logs, at Tinicum, or New Gottenburg, an isl-
and eight or ten miles below the mouth of the Schuyl-
kill. He built at the mouth of Salem Creek, the site

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