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chapTER lish a trading-house, and to found a settlement up the


Delaware Bay. In the prosecution of this undertaking

1641. some fifty families sailed from New Haven. They touch* ed at New Amsterdam, and informed Kieft of their in


tention, against which he protested on the spot; but, not heeding this protest, they proceeded to establish them. selves, some on Delaware Bay, at Hog or Salem Creek, about twelve miles from the mouth of the river, and others on the Schuylkill. To this interference with their trade the Dutch would not submit. Two sloops were dispatched from New Netherland to break up this settlement, an enterprise in which the commander of the Swedish fort readily joined. This Swedish commander, “a very furious and passionate man, demeaned

himself,” if we may credit the New England account,

“as if he had neither Christian nor moral conscience.” Under false pretenses, he got Lamberton, the leader of the settlement, into his power, and obliged him to pay a ransom. S. The rest he compelled to swear allegiance

to Sweden. As Lamberton persisted in trading to the

South River, he was stopped presently after at New Am-
sterdam, and compelled to give an account of his fur
trade in the Delaware, and to pay duties on the whole.
This proceeding gave very great offense at New Haven.
Meanwhile, the quarrel with Connecticut had gone so
far that Kieft proclaimed a non-intercourse with that
colony. * :
While thus in controversy with their English neigh-

bors, the people of New Amsterdam became involved also in hostilities with the Indians. Fire-arms were freely sold to the Mohawks by the colonists of Rensselaerswyk, who thus became more than ever the terror of

their enemies; but Kieft would allow none to be sold to the Indians about New Amsterdam, upon whom, much

to their disgust, he even undertook to levy a tribute.
The Raritans, a tribe on the west shore of the Hudson,
were accused of having attacked a Dutch bark with de-
sign to rob it. They were also suspected, falsely it
would seem, of stealing hogs from Staten Island. On
these grounds, an expedition was sent against them, their
crops were ravaged, and, in spite of the orders of Van
Tienhoven, the leader, several warriors were barbarously
killed. The Raritans amused the director with pro-
posals of peace, but took the opportunity to attack
Staten Island, where they killed four of De Vries's serv-
ants, and burned his buildings. Kieft persuaded some
of the neighboring tribes to assist him, by offering ten
fathoms of wampum for the head of every Raritan.
That tribe was soon induced to make peace; but, mean-
while, a new quarrel had broken out.
Twenty years before, the servants of Director Minuets
had murdered an Indian warrior, upon whose infant neph-
ew, according to the notions of the Indians, the duty de-
volved of revenging his uncle's death. The nephew,
now grown up, had performed that duty by killing an
inoffensive old Dutchman. The murderer was demanded,
but his tribe, who dwelt up the Hudson about Tappan,
refused to give him up, on the ground that, in revenging
his uncle's death, he had only done what he ought.
The director presently summoned a meeting of mas-
ters of boweries and heads of families to consult what
should be done. As the harvest was not yet gathered,
they advised to protract matters by again demanding
the murderer, but, meanwhile, to prepare for an ex-
pedition. To assist in these preparations, a board of
“Twelve Men” was appointed by the commonalty. This
popular board presently turned their attention to civil af.
fairs. Kieft's council consisted only of himself and La


1640. July.

1641. July.

Aug. 28.


Jan. 21

corn Montaigne, a Huguenot gentleman, Kieft having two " votes. The Twelve Men desired that the number of


Feb. 18.


1643. Feb.

counselors might be increased to five; they asked local
magistrates for the villages; and offered several other
suggestions, to which the director at first seemed to
lend a favorable ear, but he soon issued a proclamation,
forbidding the board, “on pain of corporeal punishment,”
to meet again without his express permission, such
meetings “tending to the serious injury both of the
country and our authority.” Eighty men were sent
against the hostile Indians under Van Dyck, ensign in
the company's service; but the guide missed his way,
the commander lost his temper, and the men returned
without meeting the enemy. The Indians, however,
were so alarmed that they asked for peace, promising to
give up the murderer; but this promise they never ful-
filled. -
A new difficulty presently arose. One of the Hack-
ensacks, a tribe on the Hudson opposite Manhattan, had
been made drunk by some colonists, and then robbed.
In revenge, he killed two Dutchmen. The chiefs offered
wampum by way of atonement, remonstrating, at the
same time, against the practice of selling brandy to their
people, as having been the cause of the present difficulty.
Kieft, like Massachusetts in the case of the Pequods,
would be content with nothing but blood. While this
dispute was still pending, the Mohawks attacked the
late hostile tribe about Tappan. They fled for refuge to
the Dutch, who took pity on them, and gave them food;
and they soon scattered in various directions, the greater
part joining the Hackensacks. There had been all along
at New Amsterdam a peace party, headed by De Vries,
who counseled patience and forbearance, and insisted on

the necessity of keeping on good terms with the Indians; and a war party, led by Secretary Van Tienhoven, corn restless, passionate, and eager for blood. At a Shrovetide feast, warm with wine, Kieft was persuaded by 1643. some leaders of the more violent party to improve, the present opportunity to punish the Indians so lately entertained, at New Amsterdam for not having fulfilled their former promise to give up the murderer. In spite of the remonstrances of Bogardus, La Montaigne, and De Vries, two companies were fitted out, one of soldiers, under Sergeant Rodolf, the other of volunteers, headed by a chief instigator of the expedition, one of the late Twelve Men, Maryn Adriaensen, once a freebooter in the West Indies. There were two encampments of the Indians, against which these two companies proceeded, Feb. 25. “in full confidence,” so their commission says, “that God would crown their resolution with success.” The Indians, taken utterly by surprise, and supposing themselves attacked by the formidable Mohawks, hardly made any resistance. De Vries tells us, in his Voyages, that, being that night at the director's house, he distinctly heard the shrieks of the victims sounding across the icy river. Warriors, old men, women, and children were slain without mercy, to the number of eighty or more. Babes, fastened to the pieces of bark which the Indian women use as cradles, were thrown into the water, and the miserable mothers, who plunged in after them, prevented by the Dutch party from relanding, perished with their infants. The wounded who remained alive the next morning were killed in cold blood, or thrown into the river. Thirty, however, were taken prisoners and carried the next day to New Amsterdam, along with the heads of several others. Some inhabitants of Long Island, with a like mad appetite for blood, asked permission to attack their Indian



March 1.

March 4.

March 21.

neighbors. These Indians had always been good friends of the Dutch, and Kieft refused permission; but advantage was taken of some ambiguity in his answer, and an expedition was soon sent to plunder their corn, in the course of which two Indians were slain.

Roused by these injuries, eleven petty tribes, some on the main land, and the others on Long Island, united to make war on the Dutch, whose scattered boweries now extended thirty miles to the east, twenty miles north, and as far south from New Amsterdam. The houses were burned, the cattle killed, the men slain, and several women and children made prisoners. The Indians, partially supplied with fire-arms, and wrought up to the highest pitch of rage and fury, were truly formidable. The ter. rified and ruined colonists fled on all sides into New Amsterdam. Roger Williams was there on his first voyage to England.” “Mine eyes saw the flames of their towns,” he writes, “the frights and hurries of men, women, and children, and the present removal of all that could to Holland.” A fast was proclaimed. The director, assailed with reproaches and in danger of being deposed, was obliged to take all the settlers into the company's service for two months. Adriaensen the freebooter, leader of the volunteers in the first attack on the Indians, attempted an unsuccessful expedition, during which he had the mortification to see his own bowery ruined. Finding himself, on his return, stigmatized as a murderer for having instigated the massacre at Hackensack, in a violent fit of passion he attacked Kieft, pistol and cutlass in hand. But he was disarmed, and, in spite of the ef. forts of his partisans to release him, was presently sent prisoner to Holland.

The Indians, satiated with revenge, soon made advances toward a reconciliation, which the Dutch eager

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