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chapTER setts as to the true interpretation of the articles of union.
At the regular annual meeting of the commissioners this
... major general of Massachusetts, were authorized to un
dertake an expedition against New Netherland, toward which Cromwell, now Lord Protector, furnished two or three ships, with a small body of troops, authority being given to the commissioners to raise more in New En
gland. Roger Williams entertained grateful feelings to- chores
ward the Dutch of New Netherland, and by his inter
ference the sailing of this expedition was a little delayed. 1654.
When the armament arrived in New England the Dutch war was already over; and before the New England contingents could be raised, news of the peace reached Boston.
Instead of proceeding against New Netherland, Acadie became the object of attack. It was a time of peace between France and England; but Cromwell alleged that a sum of money, promised by France in consideration of the cession of Acadie, had never been paid, and that the cession, in consequence, was not binding. D'Aulney was dead, and La Tour, lately returned from Hudson's Bay, having married the widow of his old enemy
and rival, had thus recovered possession of Port Royal,
St. John's, Penobscot, and the other Acadien trading posts. But D’Aulney's principal creditor in France had renewed the old complaints against La Tour, had obtained an order to take possession of all D'Aulney's American property, and for that purpose had just arrived, when both he and La Tour found themselves obliged to surrender to Leverett and Sedgwick. The dexterous La Tour now revived his claims under the old grant to his father from Sir William Alexander; and, two years after, Cromwell made a new grant of Nova Scotia to La Tour, Crowne, and Thomas Temple, brother of the celebrated Sir William Temple, and soon sole proprietor. Some three years previous to the present time, the bankrupt. Gibbons had removed to Maryland, being appointed by the proprietary admiral of that colony and one of the council. He built a wind-mill at St. Mary's; but, dying there this year, his widow transferred the mill to Lord Baltimore in payment of a debt of £100 due by her late husband to his lordship. Previous to the
charter surrender of Acadie he had twice sent to La Tour to
demand payment of his old debt, now swelled by inter
1654, est and charges to more than £4000, but it does not
appear that he met with any success.
army was raised to ten thousand men, the first of those corn great armaments, so many of which were subsequently sent from Europe to perish in the West Indies from the 1654. effects of the climate. St. Domingo was the object aimed at ; but from that island the expedition was repulsed with disgrace. The fleet then proceeded to Jamaica, of which possession was taken. At the date of its conquest that island contained but a few thousand inhabitants, partly enervated descendants of the old Spanish colonists, partly negro slaves, who took that opportunity to escape into the interior, and to establish there an independent community, conspicuous afterward in the history of the island. Sedgwick, appointed by Cromwell to succeed Winslow, who had died shortly after the repulse from St. Domingo, found things, on his arrival at Jamaica, “in a sad, de- Oct. plorable, and distracted condition;” the soldiers, a large part of them from the English West India settlements, “so lazy and idle as it can not enter into the heart of any Englishman that such blood should run in the veins of any born in England.” As the other commissioners were dead, in conjunction with the principal military of. ficers, Sedgwick framed an instrument of government, constituting a Supreme Executive Council, with himself at the head. Cromwell was very anxious to people the island, possession of which he was determined to retain. A thousand girls and young men were ordered to be listed in Ireland and sent over. The administrators of the Scottish government were directed to apprehend all “known idle, masterless robbers and vagabonds, male and female,” for transportation thither; and that there might be a due admixture of religion and energy, agents were dispatched to New England for emigrants. The people of New Haven, disappointed and unsuccessful in their mercantile undertakings, were impoverished, uneasy, and
chors disposed to remove. They had entertained thoughts of
transferring themselves to Ireland, where Cromwell had made extensive confiscations. The Protector was anxious they should remove to Jamaica; and, with his usual art, employed for that purpose arguments addressed to their peculiar religious ideas. But the magistrates opposed this
migration, and very few went. Sedgwick was raised by
Cromwell to the rank of major general, with the supreme