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setts. It was only the heretics of Providence who pro- chapter hibited perpetual servitude by placing “black mankind” on the same level with regard to limitation of service as 1652. white servants. Unfortunately for the honor of Rhode Island, this regulation, enacted during a temporary disruption of the province, never extended to the other towns, and never obtained the force of a general law. It was not without much reluctance and hard pressing that the Narragansets discharged the heavy tribute imposed upon them. One installment was paid in old cop- 1647. per kettles collected from the wigwams. In vain did Ninigret, the Niantic sachem, summoned to Boston to explain his deficiencies, inquire “for what the Narragansets should pay so much wanpum.” The arrears were demanded with penurious rigor. Ninigret, a second time 1649. summoned to Boston, pleaded poverty, and insisted that the amount was nearly paid. But the commissioners still claimed a considerable balance. . They resolved to have it to the last penny. Captain Atherton, sent into 1650. the Narraganset country at the head of an armed party, seized Pessacus by the hair, in the midst of his warriors, and by threats and terror extorted the final payment. The tribute of the subject Pequods having fallen into arrear, a collector was appointed to look after it. Uncas, to 1651. whom many of these tributaries had been assigned, made his appearance before the commissioners, and demanded to know why this tribute was required; how long it was to last; and if children thereafter born were to pay it. The origin of the tribute was explained, and ten years were fixed as the limit of its continuance. Eliot still continued his missionary labors among the Indians in the vicinity of Massachusetts Bay; and a settlement was now formed at Natick, about sixteen miles west of Boston, where the converted Indians were

corn assembled, and instructed in agriculture and the rearing of cattle. On the Island of Martha's Vineyard, of which 1651. the jurisdiction had been assigned to Massachusetts by

the Commissioners for the United Colonies, there was
quite a body of Indians, and some converts began to be
made there also by Thomas Mayhew, a son of the grantee
and first settler, who had followed the example of Eliot
in turning missionary preacher. Eliot himself appears
to have visited, with great labor and fatigue, most of the
tribes in eastern Massachusetts and Plymouth colony.
He was accustomed to make an annual visit to the falls
of the Merrimac, now Lowell, to preach to the Indians
assembled there to fish; and Passaconaway, the aged sa-
chem, was urgent for him to settle in that neighborhood.
It had at length been ascertained, by repeated explo-
rations, that the Merrimac River came so far from the
north, that an east and west line, in the terms of the
Massachusetts charter, “three miles north of any and
every part of it,” if extended toward the sea-coast, would
strike the ocean as far east as the mouth of the Kennebec.
That line was accordingly claimed by Massachusetts as
her northern boundary, and the present seemed a favora-
ble opportunity to enforce the claim.
About the time of the commencement of the civil war
in England, in which Sir Ferdinando Gorges took sides
with the king, Rigby, a Republican member of the Long
Parliament, had purchased up the old patent of Ligonia,
known as the “Plow Patent,” and had sent out as his
deputy, to claim possession, George Cleves, already men-
tioned as a former agent in America of Gorges and Lord
Sterling. This claim being resisted by Gorges's agents,
Cleves had attempted to engage the United Colonies in
his quarrel, proposing that Ligonia should become a mem-
ber of that alliance. Presently it was agreed between

Cleves and those claiming authority under Gorges, to re- corn fer the matter to the Court of Assistants at Boston, and the case was regularly tried there before a jury. Rig- 1646. by's agent could only show a purchase by his principal of the rights of two out of six or eight patentees of Ligonia. On the other hand, the deputy of Gorges could not produce the original patent of Maine, but only a copy, “which was not pleadable in law.” The jury could not agree on a verdict, but the magistrates persuaded the litigants to live in peace till the matter could be referred to England. Rigby easily obtained there, from the Parliamentary Commissioners for Plantations, a confirmation of his claim; and the coast from the Kennebee to the Saco was erected into the province of Ligonia, Maine being restricted to the tract from the Saco to the Piscataqua. About this time Gorges died, and his son and heir 1647. having been repeatedly written to without answer, the inhabitants of the diminished province of Maine combined for the purpose of self-government, and chose Edmund Godfrey as their chief magistrate. It was against this province that the annexation projects of Massachusetts were first directed. Godfrey made a strenuous opposition, and got up a petition to the English Council of 1651. State ; but Massachusetts meanwhile sent four commissioners to take possession. Kittery and Georgiana first submitted, an example presently followed by Wells, 1652. Cape Porpoise, and Saco. The newly-acquired towns were erected into a county called Yorkshire; the name of Georgiana was changed to York; and the municipal

government exercised for ten years under the city charter now came to an end. To the inhabitants of this new county were granted the same privileges possessed by those of Norfolk, formed out of the New Hamp

chapTER shire towns. Church membership was not required

1652.

1654.

1660.

1648.

either, as a qualification for voting or for representing
the towns in the General Court—a politic concession,
which served to reconcile the inhabitants to the new gov-
ernment. -
The adjoining province of Ligonia was also in a state
of confusion. Cleves, the deputy governor, having quar-
reled with his council, had gone to England with com-
plaints. Rigby was dead; his heir sent a letter to the
council forbidding them to act in his name, but he does
not appear to have appointed any substitutes. This
territory, too, was claimed as within the limits of the
Massachusetts patent. The Episcopalian settlers made
some opposition, but the above-mentioned concessions
helped to disarm them. Black Point and Casco pres-
ently submitted, and in the course of five or six years
the authority of Massachusetts was acknowledged as far
as the Kennebec. . *
A few settlers were established at the mouth of that
river, on the tract belonging to Plymouth colony, for
whom an Assembly, presently held there under a com-
mission from Plymouth, enacted a concise body of laws.
The Indian trade, which grew gradually less and less,
was farmed out to a company, to which, some years after,
was sold also the patent for the lands.
East of the Kennebec, the little colony of Pemaquid,
the oldest settlement on all that coast, still retained its
separate existence. All east of Pemaquid was claimed
by D'Aulney for the Company of New France, his trad-
ing house nearest the English being that on the east
shore of the Penobscot, at or near the present site of
Castine. -
In consequence of D'Aulney's jealous exclusion of the
English colonists from the French territories, a message

had been sent to the governor of Quebec, proposing free chapTER trade—the first communication on record between New * England and Canada. After a long delay, an answer 1651. was returned by two Canadian priests, whose principal object, however, was to obtain assistance in a bloody and disastrous war with the Five Nations in which Canada was then involved. This assistance was sought either by direct alliance, leave to enlist volunteers, or at least permission for war parties of the converted French Indians on the Penobscot to pass through the territories of the United Colonies on their way against the Five Nations. The French envoys described in moving terms the distress of their converts and the danger of their missions. They appealed to their neighbors by the endearing name of fellow-Christians; but what sympathy could there be between papists and Puritans? The application had no result; the commissioners for the United Colonies, calling to mind the recent case of D'Aulney and La Tour, declined to interfere, and the French messengers were dismissed with a civil refusal. While extending her dominion toward the north by the annexation of Maine and Ligonia, Massachusetts was still eager for the dismemberment and partition of Williams's Narraganset Commonwealth. This scheme was favored by the conduct of Coddington, who had obtained from the English Council of State a commission for the separate government of Aquiday, by which he was constituted governor for life—a proceeding, however, not satisfactory to a part of the inhabitants. Massachusetts still claimed the territory of Warwick by virtue of the submission of the two sachems to whom it had originally belonged, backed by an alleged grant from Plymouth of any claim she might have under her patent. But the Plymouth commissioners, disgusted at

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