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chapTER was killed. “This being so remarkable,” says Winthrop, “and nothing falling out but by divine Providence, 1648. it is out of doubt the Lord discovered somewhat of his mind in it. The serpent is the devil, the synod the representative of the churches of Christ in New England. The devil had formerly and lately attempted their disturbance and dissolution, but their faith in the seed of the woman overcame him, and crushed his head.” Introduced with this favorable omen, the synod “went on comfortably,” and proceeded to frame a confession of faith, almost identical, except as to the matter of church government, with that of the famous Westmin

ster Assembly, which closed its sessions about this time.
That assembly declared for Presbyterianism, claiming for
the church under “King Jesus” a divine authority in-
dependent of the state. The New England Platform
recognized, on the other hand, the intimate union of
state and church, giving, indeed, a full and formal sanc-
tion to that theocratic system, of which the origin and
organization have been already pointed out. The West-
minster Assembly would probably have had no objection
to the same system, could they have limited political
power, as in New England, to church members only.
By neither system was any individual freedom of opin-
ion allowed. The churches and their members were
alike subjected in both to the iron will of a majority, as-
suming to itself all the pretended infallibility of a pope
or a General Council, the only difference being that
Presbyterianism established a regular gradation of church
courts, in which the clergy predominated, while the oc-
casional councils and synods of the Congregational sys-
tem, as it was called, gave a nominal equality to the lay
church members.
Winthrop did but just live to see thus solemnly sanc-

tioned that theocratic system, the establishment of which chapter: he had so much at heart. He died poor, in his tenth term of office as governor, leaving a fourth wife, whom 1649. he had recently married, and an infant son, to whom the March. General Court voted unanimously £200, near $1000– a generous gift, considering the poverty of the colony. He left, also, a journal, commencing with his departure. from home—an invaluable document, our chief authority thus far for the history of New England. Endicott, chosen to the vacant office of governor, sig- May. nalized his entrance upon it by joining with several of the magistrates in an association against wearing long hair. Winthrop, during his life, had displayed not less zeal against the profane custom of drinking healths. Gibbons was chosen major general in Endicott's place. ” Dudley, now very old, was once more chosen governor. 1650. He died two years after, leaving, by a second wife, a family of young children, one of whom subsequently played a conspicuous part in the history of Massachusetts. Hard and stern, with none of Winthrop's plausible suavity, some verses found in his pocket after his death express, however, Winthrop's opinions and princi

ples no less than his own:

“Let men of God, in courts and churches watch
O'er such as do a toleration hatch,
Lest that ill egg bring forth a cocatrice,
To poison all with heresy and vice.
If men be left, and otherwise combine,
My epitaph's—'I died no libertine !’”

The same horror of toleration, an inherent and essential characteristic of every theocracy, is very energetically displayed in the enthusiastic pages of Captain Edward Johnson’s “Wonder-working Providence of Zion's Savior in New England,” finished about this time, and pres

chagen ently printed in London—the first published history of the

planting of Massachusetts. Adorned with rhymed apos1650. trophes to the principal personages mentioned in it, this

history is composed in a very rhapsodical style, and in a tone of confident and self-complacent laudation, a little too much imitated by some subsequent New England historians. It throws, however, a good deal of light on the material as well as the spiritual condition of the colony. “The Lord had been pleased,” the captain tells us, “to turn all the wigwams, huts, and hovels the English dwelt in at their first coming, into orderly, fair, and well-built houses, well furnished, many of them, with orchards filled with goodly fruit trees and garden flowers.” There were estimated to be, in gardens and orchards, about one thousand acres, and fifteen thousand acres in tillage. The cattle were reckoned at twelve thousand, and the sheep at three thousand. Many laboring men, who had not enough to bring them over, were now “worth scores, and some, hundreds of pounds.” Many had feared that Massachusetts “would be no place of continued habitation for want of a staple commodity; but in a very short time every thing in the country proved a staple commodity, wheat, rye, oats, pease, barley, beef, pork, fish, butter, cheese, timber, masts, tar, soap, plank, boards, frames of houses, clapboards, and pipe-staves; and those who were formerly forced to fetch most of the bread they ate and the beer they drank a thousand leagues by sea, are, through the blessing of the Lord, so increased, that they have not only fed their elder sisters, Virginia, Barbadoes, and the Summer Islands, that were preferred before her for fruitfulness, but also the grandmother of us all, even the fertile isle of Great Britain, besides Portugal, that hath had many a mouthful of bread and fish from us in exchange for their Madeira liquors, and also Spain.”

“Good white and wheaten bread is no dainty, but ev- chores ery ordinary man hath his choice, if gay clothing and a liquorish tooth after sack, sugar, and plums lick not away 1650. his bread too fast, all which are but ordinary among those that were not able to bring their own persons over at their first coming. There are not many towns in the country but the poorest person in them hath a house and land of his own, and bread of his own growing, if not some cattle. Flesh is now no rare food, beef, pork, and mutton being frequent in many houses, so that this poor wilderness hath not only equalized England in food, but goes beyond it in some places for the great plenty of wine and sugar which is ordinarily used, and apples, pears, and quince tarts instead of their former pumpkin pies. Poultry they have plenty.” The use of wine, freely imported from Madeira, seems, indeed, to have gradually superseded that habit of beer-drinking which the colonists had brought with them from England. Johnson enumerates not less than thirty-two trades carried on in the colony—among the most successful, those of coopers, tanners, and shoemakers; “it being naturalized” to these two latter occupations “to have a higher reach in managing their manufactures than other men in New England.” Already shoes were manufactured for exportation.

“Many a fair ship had her framing and finishing here, besides lesser vessels, barques and ketches; many a master, besides common seamen, had their first learning in this colony. Our maritime towns, Ipswich, Salem, and Boston, begin to increase roundly, especially Boston; the which, of a poor country village, in twice seven years is become like unto a small city.” “The form of this town is like a heart, naturally situated for fortifications, having two hills on the frontice part next the sea, the one well fortified on the superficies with store of great artil

chapter lery, the other having on its descent a very strong bat

tery, built of whole timber and filled with earth, betwixt

1650. which two strong arms lies a large cove or bay, on which

the chiefest part of the town is built, overtopped with a
third hill, furnished with a beacon and loud babbling
guns, to give notice, by their redoubled echo, to all their
sister towns. The chief edifice of this city-like town is
crowded on the sea banks, and wharfed out with great
industry and cost; the buildings, beautiful and large,
some fairly set out with brick, tile, stone, and slate, and
orderly placed, with comely streets, whose continual en-
largement presageth some sumptuous city.”
Besides the fort and battery in Boston, and another in
Charlestown commanding the inner harbor, was the Cas-
tle, on an island of eight acres, three miles below the
town, in the track of vessels approaching from the sea,
very advantageously situated “to make many shots at
such ships as shall offer to enter the harbor without their
good leave and liking.” As there was no lime in the
colony except that made of sea-shells, this fortress, built
at first of earth, had fallen to decay, but had lately been
rebuilt by a contribution of the six neighboring towns,
and was now held by a small garrison in the colony pay.
“The forts are well contrived,” says Johnson, “and bat-
teries strong and in good repair, the great artillery well
mounted and cleanly kept, half cannon, culverins, and
sackers,” twenty-four, eighteen, and six pounders, “and
also field-pieces of brass, very ready for service.”
“Good store of shipping is here yearly built, and some
very fair ones. This town is the very mart of the land;
French, Portugals, and Dutch come hither for traffic.”
The “popularity” of the town had become so great that
the inhabitants were too many to meet in one assembly,
and the northeast part being separated from the other

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