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chapter turn, had recovered twenty pounds in a suit for slander


1642. May.

1643. May.

against her and Story. But Story was not so easily to be put down; he “searcheth town and country to find matter against Captain Kean about this stray sow;” and, having got one of Kean's witnesses to confess that he had sworn falsely, he petitioned the General Court for a rehearing. Kean was of “ill report” in the country on account of his “hard dealings” in the way of trade, for which he had been fined at a previous court, and cen. sured by the church. In this state of public sentiment against him, the petition for a re-hearing was favorably entertained. After a seven days' trial, two of the magistrates and fifteen of the deputies pronounced an opinion in favor of reversing the former decision, while seven magistrates and eight deputies went for sustaining it. This result, as it prevented any decision, raised a fresh outcry against the negative voice of the assistants, to appease which the governor and magistrates published a “True State of the Case,” to which, however, Story put out a “Counter Statement.” An “Answer” to this counter statement was presently drawn up, and the whole matter was discussed at a meeting of elders, magistrates, and deputies, at which a reconciliation was attempted. The two dissentient magistrates were Bellingham and Saltonstall, the latter of whom had not yet forgotten the affair of his treatise against the Standing Council. By the ef. forts of the elders he was now reconciled to Winthrop, but Bellingham stood out. At the next court Story presented a new petition for a re-hearing, and the whole quarrel threatened to revive. The suit was finally compromised by Kean's releasing the damages he had recovered; but the discussion about the assistants' negative continued, and the deputies generally were very earnest against it. Winthrop wrote a tract in its favor, and when that tract was replied to, he put out a rejoinder chAPTER to the reply. One of the elders, in a small treatise, ". “handled the question scholastically and religiously, lay- 1644. ing down the several forms of government, both simple and mixed, and the true form of our government, and the unavoidable change into a democracy if the negative voice were taken away.” The magistrates, with much ado, so far carried their point as to succeed in retaining their negative, and they sat thenceforward as a separate house; March. but it was agreed that when the two houses differed in the decision of suits, the majority of the whole court should decide.

Razzillai, late governor of Acadie for the Company of New France, had been succeeded in that office by D’Aulney de Charnisé, known in New England as M. D’Aulney. Besides La Háve and Port Royal, D'Aulney occupied the trading post on the Penobscot, formerly captured from the Plymouth people, where he established, also, a Franciscan mission for the conversion of the Indians. But he had a rival and an enemy in La Tour, whose father, a Huguenot, had been one of the earliest French adventurers in Acadie. Taken prisoner by Kirk, whose invasion of Acadie has been formerly mentioned, the elder La Tour had agreed to assist in reducing Nova Scotia, and had been made a baronet of that province by Sir William Alexander, receiving at the same time a large grant of territory. La Tour, the son, who professed to be a Catholic, had declined to enter into his father's schemes; but, besides the posts, which he held under French grants, he inherited, also, his father's Nova Scotia claims—invalid, indeed, under the cession of Nova Scotia to France, but sufficient groundwork for a claim on the part of La Tour to good will and assistance from the English colonists. The quarrel between La Tour

chores and D'Aulney was chiefly occasioned, no doubt, by ri



1643. May 4.

valry in trade, though La Tour, who claimed the rank of a nobleman, complained that a man of D'Aulney's inferior birth, a mere former clerk of Razzillai, should have been made governor over his head. The dispute between these rival traders was presently carried to the French court, where La Tour obtained a royal letter confirming to him the possession of his fort and trading house at the mouth of the St. John's, together with the whole Acadien peninsula except Port Royal and La Häve. D’Aulney procured, however, some three years after, a royal letter to arrest his rival and send him to France. La Tour had formerly had some sharp encounters with the New England traders; it was he who had broken up the Plymouth trading house at Machias. But, finding himself in a precarious position, and his intercourse with France in danger of being cut off, he presently sent a messenger to Massachusetts, asking assistance against D’Aulney, and proposing free trade and a supply of goods from London through the Boston merchants, and the shipment of furs thither by the same conveyance. A Boston ship commenced a trade with St. John's, and La Tour's wife obtained passage at Boston for France; whereupon D’Aulney sent word that La Tour was a rebel, and that he should seize all vessels trading with him. La Tour himself entered Boston harbor the next spring in a large armed ship full of men, and sent a boat ashore at an island where Governor Winthrop and his family were residing. The sudden appearance of this vessel caused a great alarm. The townspeople ran to arms, and three shallops were fitted out to escort the

governor home. La Tour, however, came as a suppliant.

This vessel, sent from Rochelle by La Tour's wife, an active assistant in his affairs, had not been able to enter the harbor of St. John's, which D’Aulney was blockading choren with two ships, three pinnaces, a galliot, and five hundred men. So La Tour had stolen out in his shallop, got on 1643. board, and steered for Boston. He exhibited a commission and letters, which seemed to show that he still had interest in France. He also asked and obtained leave to land and refresh his men, but with the restriction of landing them in small companies, “that our women, &c., might not be affrighted.” A “training day soon falling out,” and La Tour having asked permission to exercise his soldiers on shore, by leave of the magistrates he landed forty men in full equipments. “They were brought into the field by our train-band, consisting of one hundred and fifty, and in the forenoon they only beheld our men exercise. When they had dined—La Tour and his officers with our officers, and his soldiers invited home by the private soldiers—in the afternoon they were permitted to exercise, our governor and other of the magistrates coming then into the field, and all ours stood and beheld them. They were very expert in


chapter been on this occasion. Winthrop, however, did not act


without consulting the magistrates and elders; but they were by no means unanimous in their advice. Some of them opposed any “popish leagues,” quoting, along with other texts, the speech of Jehu, the seer, to Jehoshaphat:

“Shouldst thou help the ungodly, and love them that

1644. May.

hate the Lord 7” And also from Proverbs: “He that
passeth by, and meddleth with strife belonging not to
him, is like one that taketh a dog by the ears.” It was
answered, however, that Joshua aided the Gibeonites
against the rest of the Canaanites, and that Jehoshaphat
assisted the ungodly Jehoram against the Moabites, with-
out any reproach from the prophet Elisha, who was him-
self present in the expedition. Nor were more worldly
reasons wanting. Winthrop thought it would be good
policy to uphold La Tour against D’Aulney, and so to
prevent the whole eastern coast from falling under the
sole control of a zealous Catholic and active fur trader,
who rigidly excluded New England ships from any trade
to the eastward, which La Tour promised to allow.
This view of the case found favor, also, with the Boston
merchants. These arguments prevailed; La Tour was
allowed to hire at Boston four ships and a pinnace, with
eighty men; and, thus re-enforced, he raised the block-
ade of St. John's, and pursued D'Aulney to Port Royal,
where the Boston men landed and committed some dep-
redations. Against all these proceedings D'Aulney earn-
estly protested.
Winthrop's conduct in this affair had not given entire
satisfaction; several of the ministers and magistrates had
remonstrated against it, and, at the next election, En-
dicott, who looked with very suspicious eyes on the “idol-
atrous French,” was chosen governor, Winthrop being
elected deputy. With the help of some adventurers from

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