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dian trade at the Kennebec, had established a trading- c=ories house on the Penobscot, and another still further east, at Machias, almost at the entrance of the Bay of Fundy. 1632. The trading-house at the Penobscot was soon visited and rifled by a French pinnace; that at Machias shared, the next year, the same fate; and notice was given by the 1633. French commanders that they would not allow English trade or settlement any where eastward of Pemaquid Point, a promontory about half way from the Penobscot to the Kennebec. The French were not only rivals in trade, but, what was worse, they were papists, and the people of Massachusetts feared they might prove but “ill neighbors.”

Their commerce thus curtailed toward the eastward, the people of Plymouth, notwithstanding the refusal of Massachusetts to co-operate with them, and disregarding the protests and threats of the Dutch, established a trading post on Connecticut River, as mentioned in a previ- Sept. ous chapter. Since the settlement of Massachusetts Bay, the ancient and enterprising colony of New Plymouth had received considerable accessions, though it still remained, as it always did, far inferior to its younger neighbor.

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corn IT was not Puritan nonconformists alone who were

exposed to persecution in England. The Catholics, at the other end of the religious scale, in numbers and means a formidable body, including many of the ancient mobility, were watched with even greater jealousy; and subjected to far severer penalties. The Catholics constituted from the beginning what the Puritans came to do only by degrees, not a religious sect merely, but a political party, an inevitable consequence of the supposed necessity, in those times, of maintaining a unity of religious faith. It was not toleration, but supremacy, for which Catholics and Puritans alike sought; while the Church of England, for the maintenance of her own supremacy, struggled equally against both. As against the Catholics, she was sustained, and, indeed, constantly instigated to new severities by the Puritans, who looked upon the ancient faith and its professors with mingled feelings of hatred and terror, of which it is not easy, at this time, to form any very adequate idea. In those feelings the great mass of the English people strongly sympathized. The terrible times of “Bloody Mary,” yet fresh in the public recollection; the famous Spanish Armada, fitted out for the express purpose of carrying into effect the pope's sentence of excommunication and deposition against Elizabeth; the repeated outbreaks of the Catholic nobles during her time, and, still more recently, the foolish and fanatical gunpowder plot; the

Catholic reaction which had been going on for many
years on the Continent under the influence of the Jesu-
its, resulting at last in a war which threatened the Prot-
estant princes of Germany with extinction; the proba-
bility that the English Catholics might receive aid from
the Continent to re-establish their religion by force;
more than all, the evident inclination of James and
Charles, in common with most of the Protestant sover-
eigns of that age, to moderate the severity of the penal
laws against the Catholics, as one step toward some sort
of arrangement or understanding with the pope—all these
causes combined to inflame the minds of the Puritans, and
while they cried out against the exacting tyranny of the
bishops, they cried out not less loudly for the strict enforce-
ment of the penal laws against the Catholics. So far
as persecution was concerned, the Catholics had even
stronger inducements to emigrate than the Puritans.
About the beginning of James's reign, George Calvert,
a gentleman of Yorkshire, a graduate of Oxford, had been
appointed, by the favor of Sir Robert Cecil, to a subordi-
nate office in the state department. After years of serv-
ice, he was knighted, and made clerk of the Privy Coun-
cil; and, finally, he rose to the office of Secretary of State.
Calvert was originally a secret Catholic, or he gradually
became one; but, so long as he remained in office, it was
necessary to conceal his opinions. A member, from the
beginning, of the Virginia Company, he was early inter-
ested in American colonization. Presently he resolved to
try an experiment of his own, and for that purpose ob-
tained the grant of Avalon, on the southeast coast of the
island of Newfoundland, where, a year or two after the
settlement of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, he began a lit-
tle colony called Ferryland.
With the rapid growth of the Puritan party, the cry





coffen against the Catholics became louder and louder. Cal



vert presently resigned his office, and, with a frankness
which must be taken as proof of his sincerity, he avowed
his adherence to the Catholic faith. But this avowal did
not destroy his favor at court; for, soon after, in reward
of his past services, he was created an Irish peer, with
the title of Lord Baltimore. Calvert twice visited his
colony in Newfoundland; but that region, cold and ster-
ile, was not only liable to the opposing claims of the
French and Spanish, whose fishing vessels, for a century,
had frequented that coast, but there was even danger of
collision with the English fishermen, who insisted on the
free use of all the shores and harbors, and regarded with
hostile eyes all pretensions to exclusive possession.
Having found out, by inspection and residence, the dis-
advantages of his Newfoundland province, Lord Balti-
more, about the time of Endicott's settlement at Salem,
paid a visit to Virginia, where, however, he was not very
hospitably received. Under a standing law of the colo-
ny, the Oath of Supremacy was tendered to him—an oath
purposely so contrived that no conscientious Catholic could
take it. Nor did he even escape personal insult. The
Protestant feeling was evidently too strong in Virginia
to make it a desirable residence for Catholic immigrants.
But there was a large, unoccupied region north of the
Potomac, and Baltimore easily obtained from Charles I.
the grant of a province, to which, in honor of the queen,
Henrietta Maria, he gave the name of MARYLAND.
The Potomac, with a line due east from its mouth,
across Chesapeake Bay and the peninsula called the east-
ern shore, formed the southern boundary of this new prov-
ince; on the east it had the ocean and Delaware Bay;
on the north, the fortieth degree of latitude, the southern
boundary of the great New England patent; and, on

the west, a line due north from the westernmost head of con the Potomac. Before the patent had passed all the necessary formalities, Lord Baltimore died; but the charter 1632. was issued, in the terms previously agreed upon, to his son and heir Cecilius, who zealously devoted himself to July 20. carry out his father's plans. This charter, carefully drawn under the inspection of the first Lord Baltimore, became a model, in most respects, for all American charters subsequently granted. It created the grantee and his heirs “true and absolute lords and proprietors” of the province, with all the rights of a separate, though subordinate jurisdiction, appertaining, under the English law, to a County Palatine. The proprietary had “free, full, and absolute power” to enact all necessary laws, not, however, without “the advice, consent, and approbation of the freemen of the province,” or their representatives convoked in general assembly—the first provision in any American patent for securing to the colonists a share in legislation. No similar clause was found in either the Virginia, the New England, or the Massachusetts charters. All laws thus to be made must, however, be “consonant to reason, and not repugnant or contrary, but, so far as conveniently might be, consonant to the laws of England” —an important restriction upon local legislation, imposed alike upon all the colonies. Of his own mere authority the proprietary might establish “fit and wholesome ordinances,” provided they conformed to English law, and did not extend to life or member, nor affect any interest in freehold, goods, or chattels—a limitation which restricted this power within very narrow limits. He was authorized, also, to establish necessary tribunals, civil and criminal, and had the patronage and advowson of all churches, the right of erecting places of worship, to be consecrated according to the “ecclesiastical law of En

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