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corren upon an examination of which, they concluded that the
legislative authority rested not with the magistrates, but
derived to them the full voice and power of all the said chores freemen.” o This political revolution was naturally followed by a 1634. change in the head of the government, though some ef. fort was made to prevent it. Previous to the election a sermon was preached to the assembled freemen, a usage still perpetuated in the annual sermon before the General Court of Massachusetts. Cotton, the new minister of Boston, delivered on that occasion this doctrine, that a magistrate ought not to be turned into the condition of a private man without just cause, and a public trial on specific charges, “no more than the magistrates may not turn a private man out of his freehold without like public trial.” This sermon, however, did not prevent the freemen from electing Deputy-governor Dudley into Winthrop's place. . A jealousy between these two rival chiefs, which had already displayed itself on several occasions, recommended Dudley as the successor of Winthrop, though he was not a whit more moderate in his notions of magisterial authority, and was naturally of a much harsher and more exacting disposition. Dudley's place as deputy was filled by Ludlow. Yet Cotton's sermon was not entirely thrown away. Winthrop was still retained as an assistant, as were all his colleagues. Some of them “were questioned for some errors in their government,” and some fines were imposed; but these were remitted before the court broke up. The ex-governor was a good deal mortified at being called upon for a statement of his accounts, which he seemed to regard, very unnecessarily, as a reflection on his integrity. This statement, promptly rendered and placed upon record at the ex-governor's request, showed Winthrop to have been a considerable loser by his office. During the continuance of the first charter, the station
corn of governor was rather one of honor than of profit, the
compensation voted from time to time never exceeding
gland were presently issued. The company for the upper chartER plantation, or Dover, was composed of west-of-England merchants; that for the lower plantation, or Portsmouth, 1630. of London merchants, with whom Mason and Gorges were partners. The same summer with the great emigration to Massachusetts Bay, Walter Neal was sent out as governor of the lower plantation. In search of the great lakes of Canada, of which some rumor had been heard from the Indians, he penetrated inland almost to Lake Winnipiseogee, but failed to open that lucrative fur trade which his employers had hoped. Mason and Gorges soon bought out the other partners, and became the sole proprietors of Portsmouth. The adventurers for the upper settlement, or most of them, sold out not long after to the Lords Say and Brooke, two Puritan noblemen much engaged in plantation projects. The coast from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec was 1629– covered by six other patents, issued in the course of three 1631. years by the Council for New England, with the consent, doubtless, of Gorges, who was anxious to interest as many persons as possible in the projects of colonization, to which he was himself so much devoted. Several of these grants were for small tracts; the most important embraced an extent of forty miles square, bordering on Casco Bay, and named Ligonia. The establishments hitherto attempted on the eastern coast had been principally for fishing and fur trading; this was to be an agricultural colony, and became familiarly known as the “Plow patent.” A company was formed, and some settlers were sent out; 1631. but they did not like the situation, and removed to Massachusetts. Another of these grants was the Pemaquid patent, a narrow tract on both sides of Pemaquid Point, where already were some settlers. PEMAQUID remained an independent community for the next forty years.
The region granted to Sir William Alexander, by the name of Nova Scotia, but which the French claimed also by the name of Acadie, had passed, along with Canada, into the hands of a joint-stock association of French merchants—The Hundred Associates, or Company of New France. The foolish vanity of the favorite Buckingham having brought about a war between France and England, Sir William Alexander availed himself of the opportunity to take forcible possession of the province. He joined for that purpose with Sir David Kirk, or Kertz, an adventurous refugee Huguenot, who took command of a fleet of nine vessels, fitted out at their joint expense. Having intercepted the supplies sent out by the Company of New France, and gained possession of Port Royal, Kirk proceeded toward Quebec, where Champlain was still governor. Informed, however, of the approach of some other French vessels, sent by the company with supplies, he turned about to meet them. The squadrons encountered off the Bay of Gaspé, and all the French vessels were taken. The next year, having first received the submission of some French settlers on the Island of Cape Breton, Kirk ascended the St. Lawrence a second time. Cut off from all communication with France, and in distress for provisions, Quebec, with its starving inhabitants, about a hundred in number, gladly surrendered But peace was already made in Europe; and under the treaty and the negotiations that followed it, not Canada only, but Cape Breton and Acadie, passed again to the French.
The limits of Acadie toward the west were wholly unsettled. Razzillai, appointed governor for the Company of New France, had a grant of the river and bay of St. Croix; but he preferred to establish himself at La Háve, on the exterior coast of the Acadien peninsula. The people of Plymouth, encouraged by their successful In