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Chapter v

1635.

1634.

June 21.

1636.

1637.

proprietors—proceedings by which the Dutch were threat-
ened with total exclusion from the Fresh River. Nor
were they secure in the rest of their territory. A party
from Plymouth attempted to surprise Fort Nassau, on
the Delaware; but they were taken prisoners and sent
to Fort Amsterdam, where they became permanent set-
tlers—the commencement of an English population which
from time to time continued to increase.
A patent, under the great seal of Ireland, issued by
the famous Strafford, then lord lieutenant, had granted to
Edward Plowden a province by the name of New Albion,
including the peninsula now the State of New Jersey,
with all the adjacent islands. This charter recites that
a colony of five hundred persons had already been plant-
ed. If so, the enterprise must soon have been abandoned,
as no other trace of its existence appears. Some slight
efforts were subsequently made to occupy this grant, but
nothing finally came of it. It serves, however, as one
among many proofs that the Dutch title to New Nether-
land was not recognized by the English. .
Van Twiller, though accused of extravagance and neg-
ligence in managing the affairs of the company, did not
neglect his own interests. He procured, with several
other officials, without asking leave of the directors in
Holland, a grant from the Indians of a fertile tract on
Long Island, on which the grantees established farms
and plantations of their own. Such was the beginning
of the village of Flatlands, originally called New Amers.
foordt. Van Twiller also procured for himself a grant
from the Indians of Governor's Island, south of New
Amsterdam, and of two other islands in the Hellgate.
But, in consequence of complaints and representations of
the fiscal, whom the director had condemned to lose his
pay, and had sent to Holland to give an account of his
conduct, Van Twiller himself was presently recalled.

William Kieft, appointed to succeed him, found the chore.

company's property in a neglected and ruinous condition,

their buildings in decay, their five boweries or farms on 163S.

Manhattan Island untenanted and stripped of their stock, and the purchase of furs almost engrossed by private traders, whose conduct, in many respects, was loose and licentious. Kieft, who is described by Winthrop as “a sober and discreet man,” did what he could, by the issue of orders and proclamations, to remedy these evils. Some additional settlers arrived, and further purchases were made of lands on Long Island. An ordinance was also issued to regulate the cultivation of tobacco, which promised to become a valuable resource. Contrasted, however, with the rapid progress of the rival settlements in New England, the condition of New Netherland was by no means encouraging.

The colony of Rensselaerswyk equaled, perhaps in

population, the rest of the province. The government was vested in two commissaries, one of whom acted as president, and two counselors, assisted by a secretary, Shout-Fiscal, and marshal. The commissaries and counselors composed a court for the trial of all cases civil and criminal, from which, however, an appeal lay to the director and council at Fort Amsterdam. The code of Rensselaerswyk, as of the rest of the province, was the Roman-Dutch law as administered in Holland. Fort Orange was not included in the patroonship, but remained under the exclusive control of the West India Company and their director at Fort Amsterdam. The population consisted of farmers who had emigrated at their own expense; other farmers, sent out by the patroon, to establish and cultivate boweries on shares or rent; and farm servants indented for a term of years. Squabbles between the patroon and his tenants commenced with the very foundation of the colony.

March.

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chosen THE first charter of Virginia, it will be recollected, contemplated the plantation of two colonies. The per1606. sons mentioned in it, as members of the Company for planting the second, or northern colony, were Thomas Hanham, Raleigh Gilbert, younger son of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham. Sir John Gilbert, elder brother of Raleigh Gilbert, Sir John Popham, brother of George Popham, and lord chief justice of England, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, governor of Plymouth, though not mentioned in the charter, were

active and zealous members of the company.
A small vessel, with two captive Indians on board as
guides and pilots, sent to explore the coasts of North Vir-
ginia, was unfortunately driven by a storm to the West
Indies, where she was seized by the Spaniards. But
another ship, fitted out at the sole expense of Sir John
Popham, and under command of Martin Pring, whom we
have seen already a successful navigator on those coasts,
brought back such favorable reports that it was resolved

- at once to commence a settlement.

1607. Two ships were got ready, with forty-five colonists, accompanied by two of the Indians whom Weymouth had carried to England. With George Popham as president of the council, and Raleigh Gilbert as admiral, these colAugust, onists established 'themselves on a small island at the mouth of the Sagadahoc, or Kennebee, where they built a fort called St. George. The winter proved unexpect- chosen edly long and severe, and, in the depth of it, their storehouse was unfortunately burned. The president died; 1607. and a ship, which arrived in the spring with supplies, brought news of the death of Sir John Popham and Sir John Gilbert, the two chief patrons of the enterprise. It was necessary for Raleigh Gilbert to go home to look after the inheritance which his brother had left him. The discouraged colonists embarked also, and all returned to England. No better success attended a company of adventurers 1610. for Newfoundland, got up by John Guy, a Bristol merchant, in which the celebrated Lord Bacon, and other persons of consequence, were interested as partners. A patent was obtained, and a colony was sent to Conception Bay; but the enterprise was soon abandoned. Nothing further was attempted for several years, except a few fishing voyages to the coast of North Virginia, undertaken, it would seem, by the private enterprise of individual members of the company, among whom Sir Ferdinando Gorges was most zealous. Monhiggon, a small island some distance off the coast, between the Penobscot and the Kennebec, became the chief rendezvous of the fishermen. - Captain Smith, so conspicuous during the first years 1614. of the colony at Jamestown, not finding his services appreciated by the London Company, embarked on one of these voyages. While the ships lay at Monhiggon, employed in fishing, in a boat with eight men he explored the coast from Penobscot Bay to the extremity of Cape Cod. He gave to this coast the name of New ENGLAND, a name confirmed by the Prince of Wales, afterward Charles I., to whom Smith presented a map he had drawn, soon afterward published, with a description of

chapter the country. Hunt, master of one of these ships, kid

1614.

1616.

1618.

1620. Nov. 3.

mapped twenty-seven of the natives from the coast of
Cape Cod, and carried them to Malaga with his cargo
of fish, where, he attempted to sell them as slaves; but
some benevolent friars, learning the facts, took from him
such as were left, to be instructed as missionaries. This
exploration by Smith was cotemporaneous with that of
the five Dutch vessels under Corstiaensen, Block, and
Mey; the names New England and New Netherland
both date from the same year.
In the employ of several members of the Plymouth
Company, Smith made an unsuccessful attempt at plant-
ing a little colony in New England. He was once driv-
en back by a storm, and afterward left by his crew in
the hands of pirates, from whom he escaped in an open
boat. Not discouraged by these mishaps, he spent sev-
eral months in visiting the gentry and merchants of the
west of England, to stir them to new enterprises.
The Virginia Company, by their second charter, had
already obtained a distinct and separate grant of terri-
tory, and the Plymouth Company now applied for a sim-
ilar grant. They were warmly opposed by the Virginia
Company and the private traders, who maintained the
policy of leaving the New England fishery free; but,
after a two years' solicitation, they succeeded in obtain-
ing a charter from the king, known among New En-
gland historians as the “Great Patent.” By this char.
ter, the whole of North America, from the fortieth to the
forty-eighth degree of north latitude, excepting, however,
all places “actually possessed by any other Christian
prince or people,” was granted in full property, with ex-
clusive rights of jurisdiction, settlement, and traffic, to
forty noble, wealthy, and influential persons, incorporated
as “The Council established at Plymouth, in the County

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