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proprietors—proceedings by which the Dutch were threat-
William Kieft, appointed to succeed him, found the chore.
company's property in a neglected and ruinous condition,
their buildings in decay, their five boweries or farms on 163S.
Manhattan Island untenanted and stripped of their stock, and the purchase of furs almost engrossed by private traders, whose conduct, in many respects, was loose and licentious. Kieft, who is described by Winthrop as “a sober and discreet man,” did what he could, by the issue of orders and proclamations, to remedy these evils. Some additional settlers arrived, and further purchases were made of lands on Long Island. An ordinance was also issued to regulate the cultivation of tobacco, which promised to become a valuable resource. Contrasted, however, with the rapid progress of the rival settlements in New England, the condition of New Netherland was by no means encouraging.
The colony of Rensselaerswyk equaled, perhaps in
population, the rest of the province. The government was vested in two commissaries, one of whom acted as president, and two counselors, assisted by a secretary, Shout-Fiscal, and marshal. The commissaries and counselors composed a court for the trial of all cases civil and criminal, from which, however, an appeal lay to the director and council at Fort Amsterdam. The code of Rensselaerswyk, as of the rest of the province, was the Roman-Dutch law as administered in Holland. Fort Orange was not included in the patroonship, but remained under the exclusive control of the West India Company and their director at Fort Amsterdam. The population consisted of farmers who had emigrated at their own expense; other farmers, sent out by the patroon, to establish and cultivate boweries on shares or rent; and farm servants indented for a term of years. Squabbles between the patroon and his tenants commenced with the very foundation of the colony.
chosen THE first charter of Virginia, it will be recollected, contemplated the plantation of two colonies. The per1606. sons mentioned in it, as members of the Company for planting the second, or northern colony, were Thomas Hanham, Raleigh Gilbert, younger son of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham. Sir John Gilbert, elder brother of Raleigh Gilbert, Sir John Popham, brother of George Popham, and lord chief justice of England, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, governor of Plymouth, though not mentioned in the charter, were
active and zealous members of the company.
- at once to commence a settlement.
1607. Two ships were got ready, with forty-five colonists, accompanied by two of the Indians whom Weymouth had carried to England. With George Popham as president of the council, and Raleigh Gilbert as admiral, these colAugust, onists established 'themselves on a small island at the mouth of the Sagadahoc, or Kennebee, where they built a fort called St. George. The winter proved unexpect- chosen edly long and severe, and, in the depth of it, their storehouse was unfortunately burned. The president died; 1607. and a ship, which arrived in the spring with supplies, brought news of the death of Sir John Popham and Sir John Gilbert, the two chief patrons of the enterprise. It was necessary for Raleigh Gilbert to go home to look after the inheritance which his brother had left him. The discouraged colonists embarked also, and all returned to England. No better success attended a company of adventurers 1610. for Newfoundland, got up by John Guy, a Bristol merchant, in which the celebrated Lord Bacon, and other persons of consequence, were interested as partners. A patent was obtained, and a colony was sent to Conception Bay; but the enterprise was soon abandoned. Nothing further was attempted for several years, except a few fishing voyages to the coast of North Virginia, undertaken, it would seem, by the private enterprise of individual members of the company, among whom Sir Ferdinando Gorges was most zealous. Monhiggon, a small island some distance off the coast, between the Penobscot and the Kennebec, became the chief rendezvous of the fishermen. - Captain Smith, so conspicuous during the first years 1614. of the colony at Jamestown, not finding his services appreciated by the London Company, embarked on one of these voyages. While the ships lay at Monhiggon, employed in fishing, in a boat with eight men he explored the coast from Penobscot Bay to the extremity of Cape Cod. He gave to this coast the name of New ENGLAND, a name confirmed by the Prince of Wales, afterward Charles I., to whom Smith presented a map he had drawn, soon afterward published, with a description of
chapter the country. Hunt, master of one of these ships, kid
1620. Nov. 3.
mapped twenty-seven of the natives from the coast of